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1 definition found
From Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :
CHARACTER, evidence. The opinion generally entertained of a person derived
from the common re 'port of the people who are acquainted with him. 3 Serg.
& R. 336; 3 Mass. 192; 3 Esp. C. 236.
2. There are three classes of cases on which the moral character and
conduct of a person in society may be used in proof before a jury, each
resting upon particular and distinct grounds. Such evidence is admissible,
1st. To afford a presumption that a particular party has not been guilty of
a criminal act. 2d. To affect the damages in particular cases, where their
amount depends on the character and conduct of any individual; and, 3d. To
impeach or confirm the veracity of a witness.
3.-1. Where the guilt of an accused party is doubtful, and the
character of the supposed agent is involved in the question, a presumption
of innocence arises from his former conduct in society, as evidenced by his
general character, since it is not probable that a person of known probity
and humanity, would commit a dishonest or outrageous act in the particular
instance. Such presumptions, however, are so remote from fact, and it is
frequently so difficult to estimate a person's real character, that
they are entitled to little weight, except in doubtful cases. Since the law
considers a presumption of this nature to be admissible, it is in principle
admissible 'Whenever a reasonable presumption arises from it, as to the fact
in question; in practice it is admitted whenever the character of the party
is involved in the issue. See 2 St. Tr. 1038 1 Coxes Rep. 424; 5 Serg. & R.
352 3 Bibb, R. 195; 2 Bibb, R. 286; 5 Day, R. 260; 5 Esp. C. 13; 3 Camp. C.
519; 1 Camp. C. 460; Str. R. 925. Tha. Cr. Cas. 230; 5 Port. 382.
4.-2. In some instances evidence in disparagement of character is
admissible, not in order to prove or disprove the commission of a particular
fact, but with a view to damages. In actions for criminal conversation with
the plaintiff's wife, evidence may be given of the wife's general bad
character, for want of chastity, and even of particular acts of adultery
committed by her, previous to her intercourse with the defendant. B. N. P.
27, 296; 12 Mod. 232; 3 Esp. C. 236. See 5 Munf. 10. In actions for slander
and libel, when the defendant has not justified, evidence of the plaintiff's
bad character has also been admitted. 3 Camp. C. 251; 1 M. & S. 284; 2 Esp.
C. 720; 2 Nott & M'Cord, 511; 1 Nott & M'Cord, 268; and see 11 Johns. R. 38;
1 Root, R. 449; 1 Johns. R. 46; 6 Penna. St. Rep. 170. The ground of
admitting such evidence is, that a person of disparaged fame is not entitled
to the same measure of damages with one whose character is unblemished.
When, however, the defendant justifies the slander, it seems to be doubtful
whether the evidence of reports as to the conduct and character of the
plaintiff can be received. See 1 M. & S. 286, n (a) 3 Mass. R. 553 1 Pick.
R. 19. When evidence is admitted touching the general character of a party,
it is manifest that it is to be confined to matters in reference to the
nature of the, charge against him. 2 Wend. 352.
5.-3. The party against whom a witness is called, may disprove the
fact& stated by him, or may examine other witnesses as to his general
character; but they will not be allowed to speak of particular facts or
parts of his conduct. B. N. P. 296. For example, evidence of the general
character of a prosecutrix for a rape, may be given, as that she was a
street walker; but evidence of specific acts of criminality cannot be
admitted. 3 Carr. & P. 589. The regular mode is to inquire whether the
witness under examination has the means of knowing the former witness
general character, and whether from such knowledge he would believe, him on
his oath. 4 St. Tr. 693; 4 Esp. C. 102. In answer to such evidence against
character, the other party may cross-examine the witness as to his means of
knowledge, and the grounds of his opinion; or he may attack such witness
general character, and by fresh evidence support the character of his own. 2
Stark. C. 151; Id. 241; St. Ev. pt. 4, 1753 to 1758; 1 Phil. Ev. 229. A
party cannot give evidence to confirm the good character of a witness,
unless his general character has been impugned by his antagonist. 9 Watts,
R. 124. See, in general, as to character, Phil. Ev. Index, tit. Character;
Stark. Ev. pl. 4, 364 Swift's Ev. 140 to 144 5 Ohio R. 227; Greenl. Ev. Sec.
54; 3 Hill, R. 178 Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.
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