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 for base 64
From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018) :

  base 64
      A file format using 64 ASCII
     characters to encode the six bit binary data values 0-63.
     To convert data to base 64, the first byte is placed in the
     most significant eight bits of a 24-bit buffer, the next in
     the middle eight, and the third in the least significant eight
     bits.  If there a fewer than three bytes to encode, the
     corresponding buffer bits will be zero.  The buffer is then
     used, six bits at a time, most significant first, as indices
     into the string
     and the indicated character output.  If there were only one or
     two input bytes, the output is padded with two or one "="
     characters respectively.  This prevents extra bits being added
     to the reconstructed data.  The process then repeats on the
     remaining input data.
     Base 64 is used when transmitting binary data through
     text-only media such as electronic mail, and has largely
     replaced the older uuencode encoding.

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