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2 definitions found
 for Zimbabwe
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a landlocked republic in south central Africa formerly
           called Rhodesia; achieved independence from the United
           Kingdom in 1980 [syn: Zimbabwe, Republic of Zimbabwe,
           Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Zimbabwe
                              Background: The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia
                                          from the South Africa Company in
                                          1923. A 1961 constitution was
                                          formulated that favored whites in
                                          power. In 1965 the government
                                          unilaterally declared its
                                          independence, but the UK did not
                                          recognize the act and demanded more
                                          complete voting rights for the black
                                          African majority in the country
                                          (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions
                                          and a guerrilla uprising finally led
                                          to free elections in 1979 and
                                          independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980.
                                          Robert MUGABE, the nation's first
                                          prime minister, has been the
                                          country's only ruler (as president
                                          since 1987) and has dominated the
                                          country's political system since
     Geography Zimbabwe
                                Location: Southern Africa, between South
                                          Africa and Zambia
                  Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 30 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 390,580 sq km
                                          water: 3,910 sq km
                                          land: 386,670 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Montana
                         Land boundaries: total: 3,066 km
                                          border countries: Botswana 813 km,
                                          Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa
                                          225 km, Zambia 797 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude;
                                          rainy season (November to March)
                                 Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher
                                          central plateau (high veld);
                                          mountains in east
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Runde
                                          and Save rivers 162 m
                                          highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
                       Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold,
                                          nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium,
                                          lithium, tin, platinum group metals
                                Land use: arable land: 8.4%
                                          permanent crops: 0.34%
                                          other: 91.26% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 1,170 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and
                                          severe storms are rare
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land
                                          degradation; air and water
                                          pollution; the black rhinoceros herd
                                          - once the largest concentration of
                                          the species in the world - has been
                                          significantly reduced by poaching;
                                          poor mining practices have led to
                                          toxic waste and heavy metal
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: landlocked; the Zambezi forms a
                                          natural riverine boundary with
                                          Zambia; in full flood (February-
                                          April) the massive Victoria Falls on
                                          the river forms the world's largest
                                          curtain of falling water
     People Zimbabwe
                              Population: 11,376,676
                                          note: estimates for this country
                                          explicitly take into account the
                                          effects of excess mortality due to
                                          AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                          expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                          and death rates, lower population
                                          and growth rates, and changes in the
                                          distribution of population by age
                                          and sex than would otherwise be
                                          expected (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 37.9% (male 2,178,073;
                                          female 2,128,287)
                                          15-64 years: 58.4% (male 3,376,850;
                                          female 3,268,315)
                                          65 years and over: 3.7% (male
                                          213,286; female 211,865) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.05% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 24.59 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 24.06 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          note: there is a small but steady
                                          flow of Zimbabweans into South
                                          Africa in search of better paid
                                          employment (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1.03 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 62.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 36.5 years
                                          female: 35.1 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 37.87 years
                    Total fertility rate: 3.21 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 25.06% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 1.5 million (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 160,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Zimbabwean(s)
                                          adjective: Zimbabwean
                           Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%,
                                          other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white
                                          less than 1%
                               Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part
                                          indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian
                                          25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim
                                          and other 1%
                               Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele
                                          (the language of the Ndebele,
                                          sometimes called Ndebele), numerous
                                          but minor tribal dialects
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write English
                                          total population: 85%
                                          male: 90%
                                          female: 80% (1995 est.)
     Government Zimbabwe
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Zimbabwe
                                          former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
                         Government type: parliamentary democracy
                                 Capital: Harare
                Administrative divisions: 8 provinces and 2 cities* with
                                          provincial status; Bulawayo*,
                                          Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland
                                          Central, Mashonaland East,
                                          Mashonaland West, Masvingo,
                                          Matabeleland North, Matabeleland
                                          South, Midlands
                            Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
                            Constitution: 21 December 1979
                            Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English
                                          common law
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: Executive President
                                          Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31
                                          December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents
                                          Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31
                                          December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA
                                          (since 23 December 1999); note - the
                                          president is both the chief of state
                                          and head of government
                                          head of government: Executive
                                          President Robert Gabriel MUGABE
                                          (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice
                                          Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA
                                          (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph
                                          MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note
                                          - the president is both the chief of
                                          state and head of government
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          president; responsible to the House
                                          of Assembly
                                          elections: presidential candidates
                                          nominated with a nomination paper
                                          signed by at least 10 registered
                                          voters (at least one from each
                                          province) and elected by popular
                                          vote; election last held 9-11 March
                                          2002 (next to be held NA March
                                          2006); co-vice presidents appointed
                                          by the president
                                          election results: Robert Gabriel
                                          MUGABE reelected president; percent
                                          of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE
                                          56.2%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 41.9%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral parliament, called House
                                          of Assembly (150 seats - 120 elected
                                          by popular vote for five-year terms,
                                          12 nominated by the president, 10
                                          occupied by traditional chiefs
                                          chosen by their peers, and 8
                                          occupied by provincial governors
                                          appointed by the president)
                                          elections: last held 24-25 June 2000
                                          (next to be held NA 2005)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - ZANU-PF 47.2%, MDC 45.6%,
                                          ZANU-Ndonga 0.7%, United Parties
                                          0.7%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 63,
                                          MDC 56, ZANU-Ndonga 1
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court
           Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democratic Change or
                                          MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]; United
                                          Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; Zimbabwe
                                          African National Union-Ndonga or
                                          ZANU-Ndonga [leader NA]; Zimbabwe
                                          African National Union-Patriotic
                                          Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel
                                          MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples
                                          Union or ZAPU [Paul SIWELA]
            Political pressure groups and National Constitutional Assembly or
                                 leaders: NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]
               International organization ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15,
                           participation: G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
                                          IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
                                          ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU,
                                          WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Simbi
                                          Veke MUBAKO
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
                                          chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20009
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph
                                      US: G. SULLIVAN
                                          embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue,
                                          mailing address: P. O. Box 3340,
                                          telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 and
                                          FAX: [263] (4) 796488
                        Flag description: seven equal horizontal bands of
                                          green, yellow, red, black, red,
                                          yellow, and green with a white
                                          isosceles triangle edged in black
                                          with its base on the hoist side; a
                                          yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed
                                          on a red five-pointed star in the
                                          center of the triangle
     Economy Zimbabwe
                      Economy - overview: The government of Zimbabwe faces a
                                          wide variety of difficult economic
                                          problems as it struggles to
                                          consolidate earlier moves to develop
                                          a market-oriented economy. Its
                                          involvement in the war in the
                                          Democratic Republic of the Congo,
                                          for example, has already drained
                                          hundreds of millions of dollars from
                                          the economy. Badly needed support
                                          from the IMF has been suspended
                                          because of the country's failure to
                                          meet budgetary goals. Inflation rose
                                          from an annual rate of 32% in 1998
                                          to 59% in 1999, to 60% in 2000, and
                                          to 100% by yearend 2001. The economy
                                          is being steadily weakened by
                                          excessive government deficits, AIDS,
                                          and rampant inflation. The
                                          government's land reform program,
                                          characterized by chaos and violence,
                                          has derailed the commercial sector,
                                          the traditional source of exports
                                          and foreign exchange and the
                                          provider of 400,000 jobs.
                                          Distribution of income is extremely
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $28
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: -6.5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,450
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11%
                                          industry: 14%
                                          services: 75% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1.8%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 46.9% (1990)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 56.8 (1990-91)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 100% (2001)
                             Labor force: 5.5 million (2000 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 24%,
                                          industry 10% (1996 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 60% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion
                                          expenditures: $2.6 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2000 est.)
                              Industries: mining (coal, gold, copper, nickel,
                                          tin, clay, numerous metallic and
                                          nonmetallic ores), steel, wood
                                          products, cement, chemicals,
                                          fertilizer, clothing and footwear,
                                          foodstuffs, beverages
       Industrial production growth rate: -10% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 6.425 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 53.31%
                                          hydro: 46.69%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 10.475 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 4.5 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat,
                                          coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; cattle,
                                          sheep, goats, pigs
                                 Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: tobacco 30%, gold 11%, ferroalloys
                                          9%, textile/clothing 3% (2000)
                      Exports - partners: South Africa 12.1%, UK 8.5%, Japan
                                          7.7%, Germany 6.1%, China 5.4%
                                 Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment
                                          34%, other manufactures 18%,
                                          chemicals 17%, fuels 11% (1999)
                      Imports - partners: South Africa 46.3%, UK 7.2%, Germany
                                          2.5%, US 2.8%, Japan 2.5% (2000
                         Debt - external: $5 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $200 million (2000 est.)
                                Currency: Zimbabwean dollar (ZWD)
                           Currency code: ZWD
                          Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar -
                                          54.9451 (December 2001), 54.9451
                                          (2001), 43.2900 (2000), 38.3142
                                          (1999), 21.4133 (1998), 11.8906
                             Fiscal year: 1 January - 31 December
     Communications Zimbabwe
          Telephones - main lines in use: 212,000 (in addition, there are
                                          about 20,000 fixed telephones in
                                          wireless local loop connections)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 111,000 (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: system was once
                                          one of the best in Africa, but now
                                          suffers from poor maintenance; more
                                          than 100,000 outstanding requests
                                          for connection despite an equally
                                          large number of installed but unused
                                          main lines
                                          domestic: consists of microwave
                                          radio relay links, open-wire lines,
                                          radiotelephone communication
                                          stations, fixed wireless local loop
                                          installations, and a substantial
                                          mobile cellular network; Internet
                                          connection is available in Harare
                                          and planned for all major towns and
                                          for some of the smaller ones
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat; two
                                          international digital gateway
                                          exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater
                                          stations), shortwave 1 (1998)
                                  Radios: 1.14 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 16 (1997)
                             Televisions: 370,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .zw
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
                          Internet users: 30,000 (1999)
     Transportation Zimbabwe
                                Railways: total: 3,077 km
                                          narrow gauge: 3,077 km 1.067-m gauge
                                          (313 km electrified; 42 km double-
                                          note: includes the 318 km Bulawaya-
                                          Beitbridge Railway Company line
                                Highways: total: 18,338 km
                                          paved: 8,692 km
                                          unpaved: 9,646 km (2002)
                               Waterways: chrome ore is transported from
                                          Harare - by way of the Mazoe River -
                                          to the Zambezi River in Mozambique
                               Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km
                       Ports and harbors: Binga, Kariba
                                Airports: 454 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 17
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 437
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 209
                                          under 914 m: 224 (2001)
     Military Zimbabwe
                       Military branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of
                                          Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police
                                          (includes Police Support Unit,
                                          Paramilitary Police)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,057,381 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,898,383 (2002
                                 service: est.)
           Military expenditures - dollar $350.6 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 3.8% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Zimbabwe
                Disputes - international: none
                           Illicit drugs: transit point for African cannabis
                                          and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and
                                          methamphetamines destined for the
                                          South African and European markets

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