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2 definitions found
 for Yugoslavia
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a mountainous republic in southeastern Europe bordering on
           the Adriatic Sea; formed from two of the six republics that
           made up Yugoslavia until 1992; Serbia and Montenegro were
           known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 2003 when
           they adopted the name of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro
           [syn: Serbia and Montenegro, Union of Serbia and
           Montenegro, Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of
           Yugoslavia, Jugoslavija]
      2: a former country of southeastern Europe bordering the
         Adriatic Sea; formed in 1918 and named Yugoslavia in 1929;
         controlled by Marshal Tito as a communist state until his
         death in 1980; "Tito's Yugoslavia included Slovenia, Croatia,
         Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, and Montenegro"

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Yugoslavia
                              Background: The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and
                                          Slovenes was formed in 1918; its
                                          name was changed to Yugoslavia in
                                          1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in
                                          1941 was resisted by various
                                          paramilitary bands that fought
                                          themselves as well as the invaders.
                                          The group headed by Marshal TITO
                                          took full control upon German
                                          expulsion in 1945. Although
                                          Communist, his new government
                                          successfully steered its own path
                                          between the Warsaw Pact nations and
                                          the West for the next four and a
                                          half decades. In the early 1990s,
                                          post-TITO Yugoslavia began to
                                          unravel along ethnic lines:
                                          Slovenia, Croatia, and The Former
                                          Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia all
                                          declared their independence in 1991;
                                          Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992. The
                                          remaining republics of Serbia and
                                          Montenegro declared a new "Federal
                                          Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY)in 1992
                                          and, under President Slobodan
                                          MILOSEVIC, Serbia led various
                                          military intervention efforts to
                                          unite Serbs in neighboring republics
                                          into a "Greater Serbia." All of
                                          these efforts were ultimately
                                          unsuccessful. In 1999, massive
                                          expulsions by FRY forces and Serb
                                          paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians
                                          living in Kosovo provoked an
                                          international response, including
                                          the NATO bombing of Serbia and the
                                          stationing of NATO and Russian
                                          peacekeepers in Kosovo. There are
                                          Democratic Opposition of Serbia
                                          (DOS)-led coalitions governing at
                                          the federal and Serbian Republic
                                          levels, implementing a wide-ranging
                                          political and economic reform
                                          program. The governing coalition in
                                          Montenegro is seeking independence
                                          from the Federation. Kosovo has been
                                          governed by the UN Interim
                                          Administration Mission in Kosovo
                                          (UNMIK) since June 1999, under the
                                          authority of UN Security Council
                                          Resolution 1244.
     Geography Yugoslavia
                                Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the
                                          Adriatic Sea, between Albania and
                                          Bosnia and Herzegovina
                  Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 102,350 sq km
                                          water: 214 sq km
                                          land: 102,136 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,246 km
                                          border countries: Albania 287 km,
                                          Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km,
                                          Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241
                                          km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary
                                          151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic
                                          of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
                               Coastline: 199 km
                         Maritime claims: NA
                                 Climate: in the north, continental climate
                                          (cold winters and hot, humid summers
                                          with well distributed rainfall);
                                          central portion, continental and
                                          Mediterranean climate; to the south,
                                          Adriatic climate along the coast,
                                          hot, dry summers and autumns and
                                          relatively cold winters with heavy
                                          snowfall inland
                                 Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich
                                          fertile plains; to the east,
                                          limestone ranges and basins; to the
                                          southeast, ancient mountains and
                                          hills; to the southwest, extremely
                                          high shoreline with no islands off
                                          the coast
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
                       Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper,
                                          lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite,
                                          chrome, hydropower, arable land
                                Land use: arable land: 36.34%
                                          permanent crops: 3.44%
                                          other: 60.22% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 570 sq km
                         Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
            Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from
                                          sewage outlets, especially in
                                          tourist-related areas such as Kotor;
                                          air pollution around Belgrade and
                                          other industrial cities; water
                                          pollution from industrial wastes
                                          dumped into the Sava which flows
                                          into the Danube
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
                                          Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
                                          Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified:
                        Geography - note: controls one of the major land
                                          routes from Western Europe to Turkey
                                          and the Near East; strategic
                                          location along the Adriatic coast
     People Yugoslavia
                              Population: 10,656,929
                                          note: all data dealing with
                                          population is subject to
                                          considerable error because of the
                                          dislocations caused by military
                                          action and ethnic cleansing (July
                                          2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.6% (male 1,077,581;
                                          female 1,005,379)
                                          15-64 years: 65.3% (male 3,415,929;
                                          female 3,546,410)
                                          65 years and over: 15.1% (male
                                          690,014; female 921,616) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: -0.12% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 12.8 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 10.59 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.95 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 17.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.72 years
                                          female: 76.89 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 70.78 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)
                                          adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin
                           Ethnic groups: Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%,
                                          Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%,
                                          other 12.6% (1991)
                               Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman
                                          Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other
                               Languages: Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 93%
                                          male: 97.2%
                                          female: 88.9% (1991)
     Government Yugoslavia
                            Country name: conventional long form: Federal
                                          Republic of Yugoslavia
                                          conventional short form: Yugoslavia
                                          local short form: Jugoslavija
                                          local long form: Savezna Republika
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Belgrade
                Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republike, singular -
                                          republika); and 2 nominally
                                          autonomous provinces* (autonomn
                                          pokrajine, singular - autonomna
                                          pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro,
                                          Serbia, Vojvodina*
                            Independence: 27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of
                                          Yugoslavia or FRY formed as self-
                                          proclaimed successor to the
                                          Socialist Federal Republic of
                                          Yugoslavia or SFRY)
                        National holiday: Republic Day, 29 November
                            Constitution: 27 April 1992
                            Legal system: based on civil law system
                                Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18
                                          years of age, universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Vojislav
                                          KOSTUNICA (since 7 October 2000)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Dragisa PESIC (since 24 July 2001);
                                          Deputy Prime Minister Miroljub LABUS
                                          (since 25 January 2001)
                                          cabinet: Federal Executive Council
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          direct, popular vote for up to two,
                                          four-year terms; election last held
                                          24 September 2000 (next to be held
                                          NA 2004); prime minister appointed
                                          by the president
                                          election results: Vojislav KOSTUNICA
                                          elected president; percent of vote -
                                          Vojislav KOSTUNICA 50.2%, Slobodan
                                          MILOSEVIC 37%
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or
                                          Savezna Skupstina consists of the
                                          Chamber of Republics or Vece
                                          Republika (40 seats - 20 Serbian, 20
                                          Montenegrin; members distributed on
                                          the basis of party representation in
                                          the republican assemblies to serve
                                          four-year terms; note - the Assembly
                                          passed a new constitutional
                                          amendment calling for direct
                                          elections for the deputies to the
                                          upper chamber) and the Chamber of
                                          Citizens or Vece Gradjana (138 seats
                                          - 108 Serbian with half elected by
                                          constituency majorities and half by
                                          proportional representation, 30
                                          Montenegrin with six elected by
                                          constituency and 24 proportionally;
                                          members serve four-year terms)
                                          elections: Chamber of Republics -
                                          last held 24 September 2000 (next to
                                          be held NA 2004); Chamber of
                                          Citizens - last held 24 September
                                          2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
                                          election results: Chamber of
                                          Republics - percent of vote by party
                                          - NA%; seats by party - SNP 19, DOS
                                          10, SPS/JUL 7, SRS 2, SPO 1, SNS 1;
                                          note - seats are filled on a
                                          proportional basis to reflect the
                                          composition of the legislatures of
                                          the republics of Montenegro and
                                          Serbia; since 1998 Serbia has
                                          effectively barred Montenegro from
                                          its constitutional right to delegate
                                          deputies to the Chamber of
                                          Republics; Chamber of Citizens -
                                          percent of vote by party - NA%;
                                          seats by party - DOS 58, SPS/JUL 44,
                                          SNP 28, SRS 5, SNS 2, other 1
                         Judicial branch: Federal Court or Savezni Sud;
                                          Constitutional Court; judges for
                                          both courts are elected by the
                                          Federal Assembly for nine-year terms
           Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or
                                          SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Civic Alliance
                                          of Serbia or GSS [Goran SVILANOVIC];
                                          Coalition Sandzak [Rasim LJAJIC];
                                          Coalition Sumadija [Branislav
                                          KOVACEVIC]; Democratic Alternative
                                          of DA [Nebojsa COVIC]; Democratic
                                          Center or DC [Dragoljub MICUNOVIC];
                                          Democratic Christian Party of Serbia
                                          of DHSS [Vladan BATIC]; Democratic
                                          League of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim
                                          RUGOVA, president]; Democratic
                                          Opposition of Serbia or DOS [leader
                                          NA]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran
                                          DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party of
                                          Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA];
                                          Democratic Party of Socialists of
                                          Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC];
                                          Movement for a Democratic Serbia or
                                          PDS [Momcilo PERISIC]; New Democracy
                                          or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; New Serbia
                                          [Velimir ILIC]; People's Party of
                                          Montenegro or NS [Dragan SOC]; Serb
                                          People's Party or SNS [Bozidar
                                          BOJOVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or
                                          SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian
                                          Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk
                                          DRASKOVIC, president]; Serbian
                                          Socialist Party or SPS (former
                                          Communist Party) [Slobodan
                                          MILOSEVIC]; Social Democracy or SD
                                          [Vuk OBRADOVIC]; Social Democratic
                                          Union or SDU [Zarko KORAC];
                                          Socialist People's Party of
                                          Montenegro or SNP [Momir BULATOVIC];
                                          Yugoslav United Left or JUL [Ljubisa
            Political pressure groups and Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or
                                 leaders: AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Democratic
                                          League of Kosovo or LDK [Ibrahim
                                          RUGOVA]; Democratic Party of Kosovo
                                          or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Group of 17
                                          Independent Economists or G-17
                                          [leader NA]; National Movement for
                                          the Liberation of Kosovo or LKCK
                                          [Sabit GASHI]; Otpor Student
                                          Resistance Movement [leader NA];
                                          Political Council for Presevo,
                                          Meveda and Bujanovac or PCPMB
                                          [leader NA]; The People's Movement
                                          for Kosovo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]
               International organization ABEDA, BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI,
                           participation: EBRD, FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
                                          IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM,
                                          OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
                                          WTrO (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ivan
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 462-6566
                                          chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador William
                                      US: D. MONTGOMERY
                                          embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000
                                          telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
                                          FAX: [381] (11) 646-031
                                          branch office: Pristina
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue
                                          (top), white, and red
     Economy Yugoslavia
                      Economy - overview: MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the
                                          economy, an extended period of
                                          economic sanctions, and the damage
                                          to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and
                                          industry during the war in Kosovo
                                          has left the economy only half the
                                          size it was in 1990. Since the
                                          ousting of former Federal Yugoslav
                                          President MILOSEVIC in October 2000,
                                          the Democratic Opposition of Serbia
                                          (DOS) coalition government has
                                          implemented stabilization measures
                                          and embarked on an aggressive market
                                          reform program. After renewing its
                                          membership in the IMF in December
                                          2000, Yugoslavia continued to
                                          reintegrate into the international
                                          community by rejoining the World
                                          Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank
                                          for Reconstruction and Development
                                          (EBRD). A World Bank-European
                                          Commission sponsored Donors'
                                          Conference held in June 2001 raised
                                          $1.3 billion for economic
                                          restructuring. An agreement
                                          rescheduling the country's $4.5
                                          billion Paris Club government debts
                                          was concluded in November 2001; it
                                          will write off 66% of the debt and
                                          provide a basis for Belgrade to seek
                                          similar debt relief on its $2.8
                                          billion London Club commercial debt.
                                          The smaller republic of Montenegro
                                          severed its economy from federal
                                          control and from Serbia during the
                                          MILOSEVIC era and continues to
                                          maintain it's own central bank, uses
                                          the euro instead of the Yugoslav
                                          dinar as official currency, collects
                                          customs tariffs, and manages its own
                                          budget. Kosovo, while technically
                                          still part of the Federal Republic
                                          of Yugoslavia according to United
                                          Nations Security Council Resolution
                                          1244, is moving toward local
                                          autonomy under United Nations
                                          Interim Administration Mission in
                                          Kosovo (UNMIK) and is dependent on
                                          the international community for
                                          financial and technical assistance.
                                          The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are
                                          official currencies, and UNMIK
                                          collects taxes and manages the
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $24
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,250
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 26%
                                          industry: 36%
                                          services: 38% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 30%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 3 million (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%,
                                          services NA%
                       Unemployment rate: 30% (2001)
                                  Budget: revenues: $3.9 billion
                                          expenditures: $4.3 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks,
                                          and automobiles; tanks and weapons;
                                          electrical equipment; agricultural
                                          machinery); metallurgy (steel,
                                          aluminum, copper, lead, zinc,
                                          chromium, antimony, bismuth,
                                          cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite,
                                          nonferrous ore, iron ore,
                                          limestone); consumer goods
                                          (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs,
                                          appliances); electronics, petroleum
                                          products, chemicals, and
       Industrial production growth rate: 11% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 32.984 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 58.75%
                                          hydro: 41.25%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 31.546 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 43 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 914 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cereals, fruits, vegetables,
                                          tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep,
                                 Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, food and live
                                          animals, raw materials
                      Exports - partners: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, The
                                          Former Yugoslav Republic of
                                          Macedonia, Germany (2001)
                                 Imports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment,
                                          fuels and lubricants, manufactured
                                          goods, chemicals, food and live
                                          animals, raw materials
                      Imports - partners: Germany, Italy, Russia, Bosnia and
                                          Herzegovina, The Former Yugoslav
                                          Republic of Macedonia (2001)
                         Debt - external: $9.2 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $2 billion pledged in 2001
                                          (disbursements to follow for several
                                Currency: new Yugoslav dinar (YUM); note - in
                                          Montenegro the euro is legal tender;
                                          in Kosovo both the euro and the
                                          Yugoslav dinar are legal (2002)
                           Currency code: YUM
                          Exchange rates: new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar -
                                          official rate: 65 (January 2002),
                                          10.0 (December 1998), 5.85 (December
                                          1997), 5.02 (September 1996); black
                                          market rate: 14.5 (December 1998),
                                          8.9 (December 1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Yugoslavia
          Telephones - main lines in use: 2.017 million (1995)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 87,000 (1997)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: NA
                                          domestic: NA
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)
                                  Radios: 3.15 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: more than 771 (including 86 strong
                                          stations and 685 low-power stations,
                                          plus 20 repeaters in the principal
                                          networks; also numerous local or
                                          private stations in Serbia and
                                          Vojvodina) (1997)
                             Televisions: 2.75 million (1997)
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 9 (2000)
                          Internet users: 400,000 (2001)
     Transportation Yugoslavia
                                Railways: total: 4,059 km
                                          standard gauge: 4,059 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge (1,377 km electrified)
                                          note: during the 1999 Kosovo
                                          conflict, the Serbian rail system
                                          suffered significant damage due to
                                          bridge destruction; many rail
                                          bridges have been rebuilt;
                                          Montenegrin rail lines remain intact
                                Highways: total: 48,603 km
                                          paved: 28,822 km (including 560 km
                                          of expressways)
                                          note: because of the 1999 Kosovo
                                          conflict, many road bridges were
                                          destroyed; since the end of the
                                          conflict in June 1999, there has
                                          been an intensive program to either
                                          rebuild bridges or build by-pass
                                          routes (1999)
                                          unpaved: 19,781 km
                               Waterways: 587 km
                                          note: the Danube River, central
                                          Europe's connection with the Black
                                          Sea, runs through Serbia; since
                                          early 2000, a pontoon bridge,
                                          replacing a destroyed conventional
                                          bridge, has obstructed river traffic
                                          at Novi Sad; the obstruction is
                                          bypassed by a canal system, the
                                          inadequate lock size of which limits
                                          the size of vessels which may pass;
                                          the pontoon bridge can be opened for
                                          large ships but has slowed river
                                          traffic (2001)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products
                                          130 km; natural gas 2,110 km
                       Ports and harbors: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad,
                                          Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika
                         Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 2,437 GRT/400 DWT
                                          ships by type: short-sea passenger 1
                                          (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 46 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 19
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 2
                                          under 914 m: 4 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 27 27
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 12
                                          under 914 m: 2 13 (2001)
                               Heliports: 2 (2001)
     Military Yugoslavia
                        Military branches: Army (VJ) (including ground forces
                                           with border troops, naval forces,
                                           air and air defense forces)
         Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,589,437 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 2,082,322 (2002
                                  service: est.)
              Military manpower - reaching males: 82,542 (2002 est.)
                    military age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $654 million (2002)
        Military expenditures - percent of NA%
     Transnational Issues Yugoslavia
                Disputes - international: Yugoslavia and Bosnia and
                                          Herzegovina have delimited about
                                          half of their boundary, but several
                                          segments, particularly along the
                                          meandering Drina River, remain in
                                          dispute; FYROM-Yugoslavia signed and
                                          ratified a boundary agreement, which
                                          adjusts the former republic
                                          boundaries, with demarcation to
                                          commence in 2002; ethnic Albanians
                                          in Kosovo dispute authority of
                                          agreement which cedes small tracts
                                          of Kosovo to FYROM; Croatia and
                                          Yugoslavia continue to discuss
                                          disputed Prevlaka Peninsula and
                                          control over the Gulf of Kotor
                                          despite imminent UN intention to
                                          withdraw observer mission (UNMOP)
                           Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest
                                          Asian heroin moving to Western
                                          Europe on the Balkan route

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