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2 definitions found
 for Togo
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic on the western coast of Africa on the Gulf of
           Guinea; formerly under French control [syn: Togo,
           Togolese Republic]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Togo
                              Background: French Togoland became Togo in 1960.
                                          General Gnassingbe EYADEMA,
                                          installed as military ruler in 1967,
                                          is Africa's longest-serving head of
                                          state. Despite the facade of
                                          multiparty elections instituted in
                                          the early 1990s, the government
                                          continues to be dominated by
                                          President EYADEMA, whose Rally of
                                          the Togolese People (RPT) party has
                                          maintained power almost continually
                                          since 1967. In addition, Togo has
                                          come under fire from international
                                          organizations for human rights
                                          abuses and is plagued by political
                                          unrest. Most bilateral and
                                          multilateral aid to Togo remains
     Geography Togo
                                Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight
                                          of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
                  Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 1 10 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 56,785 sq km
                                          water: 2,400 sq km
                                          land: 54,385 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,647 km
                                          border countries: Benin 644 km,
                                          Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
                               Coastline: 56 km
                         Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 30 NM
                                 Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south;
                                          semiarid in north
                                 Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north;
                                          central hills; southern plateau; low
                                          coastal plain with extensive lagoons
                                          and marshes
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
                       Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble,
                                          arable land
                                Land use: arable land: 41.37%
                                          permanent crops: 1.84%
                                          other: 56.79% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 70 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce
                                          visibility in north during winter;
                                          periodic droughts
            Environment - current issues: deforestation attributable to slash-
                                          and-burn agriculture and the use of
                                          wood for fuel; water pollution
                                          presents health hazards and hinders
                                          the fishing industry; air pollution
                                          increasing in urban areas
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
                                          Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: the country's length allows it to
                                          stretch through six distinct
                                          geographic regions; climate varies
                                          from tropical to savanna
     People Togo
                              Population: 5,285,501
                                          note: estimates for this country
                                          explicitly take into account the
                                          effects of excess mortality due to
                                          AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                          expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                          and death rates, lower population
                                          and growth rates, and changes in the
                                          distribution of population by age
                                          and sex than would otherwise be
                                          expected (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.1% (male 1,195,052;
                                          female 1,187,014)
                                          15-64 years: 52.4% (male 1,351,345;
                                          female 1,420,617)
                                          65 years and over: 2.5% (male
                                          56,270; female 75,203) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.48% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 36.11 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 11.3 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.97 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 69.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.02 years
                                          female: 56.07 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 52.03 years
                    Total fertility rate: 5.14 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5.98% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 130,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 14,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
                                          adjective: Togolese
                           Ethnic groups: native African (37 tribes; largest
                                          and most important are Ewe, Mina,
                                          and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-
                                          Lebanese less than 1%
                               Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian
                                          29%, Muslim 20%
                               Languages: French (official and the language of
                                          commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two
                                          major African languages in the
                                          south), Kabye (sometimes spelled
                                          Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major
                                          African languages in the north)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 51.7%
                                          male: 67%
                                          female: 37% (1995 est.)
     Government Togo
                            Country name: conventional long form: Togolese
                                          conventional short form: Togo
                                          local short form: none
                                          former: French Togoland
                                          local long form: Republique
                         Government type: republic under transition to
                                          multiparty democratic rule
                                 Capital: Lome
                Administrative divisions: 5 regions (regions, singular -
                                          region); De La Kara, Des Plateaux,
                                          Des Savanes, Centrale, Maritime
                            Independence: 27 April 1960 (from French-
                                          administered UN trusteeship)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
                            Constitution: multiparty draft constitution
                                          approved by High Council of the
                                          Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by
                                          public referendum 27 September 1992
                            Legal system: French-based court system
                                Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Gen.
                                          Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Agbeyome KODJO (since 29 August
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president and the
                                          prime minister
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 21 June 1998
                                          (next to be held NA 2003); prime
                                          minister appointed by the president
                                          election results: Gnassingbe EYADEMA
                                          reelected president; percent of vote
                                          - Gnassingbe EYADEMA 52.13%,
                                          Gilchrist OLYMPIO 34.12%, other
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (81
                                          seats; members are elected by
                                          popular vote to serve five-year
                                          elections: last held 21 March 1999
                                          (next was tentatively scheduled for
                                          March 2002, however, it was
                                          postponed with no new date given)
                                          note: Togo's main opposition parties
                                          boycotted the election because of
                                          EYADEMA's alleged manipulation of
                                          1998 presidential polling; in March
                                          of 1999, opposition parties entered
                                          into negotiations with the president
                                          over the establishment of an
                                          independent electoral commission and
                                          a new round of legislative elections
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - RPT
                                          79, independents 2
                         Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel;
                                          Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
           Political parties and leaders: Action Committee for Renewal or CAR
                                          [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Coordination des
                                          Forces Nouvelles or CFN [Joseph
                                          KOFFIGOH]; Democratic Convention of
                                          African Peoples or CDPA [Leopold
                                          GNININVI]; Party for Democracy and
                                          Renewal or PDR [Zarifou AYEVA];
                                          Patriotic Pan-African Convergence or
                                          CPP [Edem KODJO]; Rally of the
                                          Togolese People or RPT [President
                                          Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA]; Union of
                                          Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist
                                          OLYMPIO (in exile), Jean Pierre
                                          FABRE, general secretary in Togo];
                                          Union of Independent Liberals or ULI
                                          [Jacques AMOUZOU]
                                          note: Rally of the Togolese People
                                          or RPT, led by President EYADEMA,
                                          was the only party until the
                                          formation of multiple parties was
                                          legalized 12 April 1991
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS,
                           participation: Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
                                          ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
                                          IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
                                          IOC, ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC,
                                          OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
                                          UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL,
                                          WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          Akoussoulelou BODJONA
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
                                          chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Karl
                                      US: HOFMANN
                                          embassy: Angle Rue Kouenou and Rue
                                          15 Beniglato, Lome
                                          mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
                                          telephone: [228] 221 29 91 through
                                          221 29 94
                                          FAX: [228] 221 79 52
                        Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of green
                                          (top and bottom) alternating with
                                          yellow; there is a white five-
                                          pointed star on a red square in the
                                          upper hoist-side corner; uses the
                                          popular pan-African colors of
     Economy Togo
                      Economy - overview: This small sub-Saharan economy is
                                          heavily dependent on both commercial
                                          and subsistence agriculture, which
                                          provides employment for 65% of the
                                          labor force. Some basic foodstuffs
                                          must still be imported. Cocoa,
                                          coffee, and cotton generate about
                                          40% of export earnings, with cotton
                                          being the most significant cash crop
                                          despite falling prices on the world
                                          market. Political unrest, including
                                          private and public sector strikes
                                          throughout 1992 and 1993,
                                          jeopardized the reform program,
                                          shrunk the tax base, and disrupted
                                          vital economic activity. The 12
                                          January 1994 devaluation of the XOF
                                          currency by 50% provided an
                                          important impetus to renewed
                                          structural adjustment. In the
                                          industrial sector, phosphate mining
                                          is by far the most important
                                          activity. Togo is the world's fourth
                                          largest producer, and geological
                                          advantages keep production costs
                                          low. The recently privatized mining
                                          operation, Office Togolais des
                                          Phosphates (OTP), is slowly
                                          recovering from a steep fall in
                                          prices in the early 1990's, but
                                          continues to face the challenge of
                                          tough foreign competition,
                                          exacerbated by weakening demand.
                                          Togo serves as a regional commercial
                                          and trade center. It continues to
                                          expand its duty-free export-
                                          processing zone (EPZ), launched in
                                          1989, which has attracted
                                          enterprises from France, Italy,
                                          Scandinavia, the US, India, and
                                          China and created jobs for Togolese
                                          nationals. The government's decade-
                                          long effort, supported by the World
                                          Bank and the IMF, to implement
                                          economic reform measures, encourage
                                          foreign investment, and bring
                                          revenues in line with expenditures
                                          has stalled. Progress depends on
                                          following through on privatization,
                                          increased openness in government
                                          financial operations, progress
                                          towards legislative elections, and
                                          possible downsizing of the military,
                                          on which the regime has depended to
                                          stay in place. Lack of large-scale
                                          foreign aid, deterioration of the
                                          financial sector, energy shortages,
                                          and depressed commodity prices
                                          continue to constrain economic
                                          growth. The takeover of the national
                                          power company by a Franco-Canadian
                                          consortium in 2000 should ease the
                                          energy crisis.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.6
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 2.2% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,500
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 42%
                                          industry: 21%
                                          services: 37% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 32% (1989 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 1.74 million (1996)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 5%,
                                          services 30% (1998 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $232 million
                                          expenditures: $252 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1997 est.)
                              Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural
                                          processing, cement; handicrafts,
                                          textiles, beverages
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 97 million kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 97.94%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          hydro: 2.06%
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 525.21 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 435 million kWh
                                          note: electricity supplied by Ghana
                  Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava
                                          (tapioca), corn, beans, rice,
                                          millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
                                 Exports: $306 million (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
                      Exports - partners: Benin 12%, Nigeria 9%, Belgium 5%,
                                          Ghana 4% (2000)
                                 Imports: $420 million (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs,
                                          petroleum products
                      Imports - partners: Ghana 26%, France 11%, China 7%,
                                          Cote d'Ivoire 7% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $1.5 billion (1999)
                Economic aid - recipient: $201.1 million (1995)
                                Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          franc (XOF); note - responsible
                                          authority is the Central Bank of the
                                          West African States
                           Currency code: XOF
                          Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          francs (XOF) per US dollar - 741.79
                                          (January 2002), 733.04 (2001),
                                          711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
                                          (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1
                                          January 1999, the XOF is pegged to
                                          the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF
                                          per euro
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Togo
          Telephones - main lines in use: 25,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,995 (1997)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: fair system
                                          based on a network of microwave
                                          radio relay routes supplemented by
                                          open-wire lines and a mobile
                                          cellular system
                                          domestic: microwave radio relay and
                                          open-wire lines for conventional
                                          system; cellular system has capacity
                                          of 10,000 telephones
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
                                          Ocean) and 1 Symphonie
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
                                  Radios: 940,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
                             Televisions: 73,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .tg
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2001)
                          Internet users: 20,000 (2001)
     Transportation Togo
                                Railways: total: 525 km
                                          narrow gauge: 525 km 1.000-m gauge
                                Highways: total: 7,520 km
                                          paved: 2,376 km
                                          unpaved: 5,144 km (1996)
                               Waterways: 50 km (Mono river)
                       Ports and harbors: Kpeme, Lome
                         Merchant marine: total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 2,603 GRT/2,800 DWT
                                          ships by type: specialized tanker 1
                                          note: includes a foreign-owned ship
                                          registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Greece 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 9 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 7
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 5
                                          under 914 m: 2 (2001)
     Military Togo
                       Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,220,758 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 640,280 (2002 est.)
           Military expenditures - dollar $21.9 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 1.8% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Togo
                Disputes - international: Benin accuses Togo of moving
                                          boundary markers and stationing
                                          troops in its territory
                           Illicit drugs: transit hub for Nigerian heroin and
                                          cocaine traffickers

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