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 for Thailand
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a country of southeastern Asia that extends southward along
           the Isthmus of Kra to the Malay Peninsula; "Thailand is the
           official name of the former Siam" [syn: Thailand,
           Kingdom of Thailand, Siam]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Thailand
                              Background: A unified Thai kingdom was
                                          established in the mid-14th century.
                                          Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand
                                          is the only Southeast Asian country
                                          never to have been taken over by a
                                          European power. A bloodless
                                          revolution in 1932 led to a
                                          constitutional monarchy. In alliance
                                          with Japan during World War II,
                                          Thailand became a US ally following
                                          the conflict.
     Geography Thailand
                                Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the
                                          Andaman Sea and the Gulf of
                                          Thailand, southeast of Burma
                  Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 100 00 E
                          Map references: Southeast Asia
                                    Area: total: 514,000 sq km
                                          water: 2,230 sq km
                                          land: 511,770 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of
                         Land boundaries: total: 4,863 km
                                          border countries: Burma 1,800 km,
                                          Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km,
                                          Malaysia 506 km
                               Coastline: 3,219 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy
                                          southwest monsoon (mid-May to
                                          September); dry, cool northeast
                                          monsoon (November to mid-March);
                                          southern isthmus always hot and
                                 Terrain: central plain; Khorat Plateau in the
                                          east; mountains elsewhere
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
                                          highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m
                       Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten,
                                          tantalum, timber, lead, fish,
                                          gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable
                                Land use: arable land: 32.88%
                                          permanent crops: 7%
                                          other: 60.12% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 47,490 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: land subsidence in Bangkok area
                                          resulting from the depletion of the
                                          water table; droughts
            Environment - current issues: air pollution from vehicle
                                          emissions; water pollution from
                                          organic and factory wastes;
                                          deforestation; soil erosion;
                                          wildlife populations threatened by
                                          illegal hunting
              Environment - international party to: Climate Change,
                              agreements: Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
                                          Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
                                          Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
                                          signed, but not ratified:
                                          Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol, Law of the Sea
                        Geography - note: controls only land route from Asia
                                          to Malaysia and Singapore
     People Thailand
                              Population: 62,354,402
                                          note: estimates for this country
                                          explicitly take into account the
                                          effects of excess mortality due to
                                          AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                          expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                          and death rates, lower population
                                          and growth rates, and changes in the
                                          distribution of population by age
                                          and sex than would otherwise be
                                          expected (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.3% (male 7,404,227;
                                          female 7,121,083)
                                          15-64 years: 69.9% (male 21,469,186;
                                          female 22,090,520)
                                          65 years and over: 6.8% (male
                                          1,868,632; female 2,400,754) (2002
                  Population growth rate: 0.88% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 16.39 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 7.55 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.97 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 29.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.18 years
                                          female: 72.51 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 66 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.86 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.15% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 755,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 66,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Thai (singular and plural)
                                          adjective: Thai
                           Ethnic groups: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%
                               Religions: Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%,
                                          Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%,
                                          other 0.6% (1991)
                               Languages: Thai, English (secondary language of
                                          the elite), ethnic and regional
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 93.8%
                                          male: 96%
                                          female: 91.6% (1995 est.)
     Government Thailand
                            Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of
                                          conventional short form: Thailand
                                          former: Siam
                         Government type: constitutional monarchy
                                 Capital: Bangkok
                Administrative divisions: 76 provinces (changwat, singular and
                                          plural); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong,
                                          Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat,
                                          Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai,
                                          Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon,
                                          Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet,
                                          Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi,
                                          Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok),
                                          Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri,
                                          Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham,
                                          Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon
                                          Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon
                                          Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si
                                          Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua
                                          Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi,
                                          Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga,
                                          Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun,
                                          Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok,
                                          Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae,
                                          Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri
                                          Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong,
                                          Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut
                                          Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut
                                          Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing
                                          Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai,
                                          Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin,
                                          Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani,
                                          Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit,
                                          Yala, Yasothon
                            Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date;
                                          never colonized)
                        National holiday: Birthday of King PHUMIPHON, 5
                                          December (1927)
                            Constitution: new constitution signed by King
                                          PHUMIPHON on 11 October 1997
                            Legal system: based on civil law system, with
                                          influences of common law; has not
                                          accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and
                        Executive branch: chief of state: King PHUMIPHON
                                          Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946)
                                          note: there is also a Privy Council
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          THAKSIN Chinnawat (since NA January
                                          2001) and Deputy Prime Ministers
                                          Gen. (Ret.) CHAWALIT Yongchaiyut
                                          (since NA), DET Bunlong (since NA),
                                          PHITHAK Intharawithayanan (since
                                          NA), PONGPHON Adireksan (since NA),
                                          and SOMKHIT Chatusiphithak (since
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          elections: none; the monarch is
                                          hereditary; prime minister
                                          designated from among the members of
                                          the House of Representatives;
                                          following a national election for
                                          the House of Representatives, the
                                          leader of the party that can
                                          organize a majority coalition
                                          usually becomes prime minister
                      Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or
                                          Rathasapha consists of the Senate or
                                          Wuthisapha (200 seats; members
                                          elected by popular vote to serve
                                          four-year terms) and the House of
                                          Representatives or Sapha Phuthaen
                                          Ratsadon (500 seats; members elected
                                          by popular vote to serve four-year
                                          elections: Senate - last held 4
                                          March, 29 April, 4 June, 9 July, and
                                          22 July 2000 (next to be held NA
                                          March 2004); House of
                                          Representatives - last held 6
                                          January 2001 (next to be held NA
                                          January 2005)
                                          election results: Senate - percent
                                          of vote by party - NA%; seats by
                                          party - NA; House of Representatives
                                          - percent of vote by party - NA%;
                                          seats by party - TRT 248, DP 128,
                                          TNP 41, NAP 36, NDP 29, other 18
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Sandika (judges
                                          appointed by the monarch)
           Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP (Prachathipat
                                          Party) [CHUAN Likphai]; Mass Party
                                          or MP [CHALERM Yoobamrung, SOPHON
                                          Petchsavang]; National Development
                                          Party or NDP (Chat Phattana) [KORN
                                          Dabbaransi]; Phalang Dharma Party or
                                          PDP (Phalang Tham) [CHAIWAT
                                          Sinsuwong]; Solidarity Party or SP
                                          (Ekkaphap Party) [CHAIYOT Sasomsap];
                                          Thai Citizen's Party or TCP
                                          (Prachakon Thai) [SAMAK Sunthonwet];
                                          Thai Nation Party or TNP (Chat Thai
                                          Party) [BANHAN Sinlapa-acha]; Thai
                                          Rak Thai Party or TRT [THAKSIN
                                          note: the Liberal Democratic Party
                                          or LDP (Seri Tham) and the New
                                          Aspiration Party or NAP (Khwamwang
                                          Mai) no longer exist as separate
                                          parties; elements of the two parties
                                          joined the Thai Rak Thai Party or
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, CCC,
                           participation: CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
                                          IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM,
                                          OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW
                                          (signatory), OSCE (partner), PCA,
                                          UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
                                          UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH,
                                          UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
                                          WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador SAKTHIP
                                          chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20007
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
                                          consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los
                                          Angeles, and New York
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Darryl
                                      US: N. JOHNSON
                                          embassy: 120/22 Wireless Road,
                                          mailing address: APO AP 96546
                                          telephone: [66] (2) 205-4000
                                          FAX: [66] (2) 254-1171
                                          consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai
                        Flag description: five horizontal bands of red (top),
                                          white, blue (double width), white,
                                          and red
     Economy Thailand
                      Economy - overview: After enjoying the world's highest
                                          growth rate from 1985 to 1995 -
                                          averaging almost 9% annually -
                                          increased speculative pressure on
                                          Thailand's currency in 1997 led to a
                                          crisis that uncovered financial
                                          sector weaknesses and forced the
                                          government to float the baht. Long
                                          pegged at 25 to the dollar, the baht
                                          reached its lowest point of 56 to
                                          the dollar in January 1998 and the
                                          economy contracted by 10.2% that
                                          same year. Thailand entered a
                                          recovery stage in 1999, expanding
                                          4.2% and grew 4.4% in 2000, largely
                                          due to strong exports - which
                                          increased about 20% in 2000. An
                                          ailing financial sector and the slow
                                          pace of corporate debt
                                          restructuring, combined with a
                                          softening of global demand, however,
                                          slowed growth in 2001 to 1.4%.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $410
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,600
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11%
                                          industry: 40%
                                          services: 49% (2001)
           Population below poverty line: 12.5% (1998 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.8%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 41.4 (1998)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2001)
                             Labor force: 33.4 million (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 54%, industry 15%,
                                          services 31% (1996 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 3.9% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $19 billion
                                          expenditures: $21 billion, including
                                          capital expenditures of $NA (2000
                              Industries: tourism; textiles and garments,
                                          agricultural processing, beverages,
                                          tobacco, cement, light
                                          manufacturing, such as jewelry;
                                          electric appliances and components,
                                          computers and parts, integrated
                                          circuits, furniture, plastics;
                                          world's second-largest tungsten
                                          producer and third-largest tin
       Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 94.314 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 92.26%
                                          hydro: 6.33%
                                          other: 1.41% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 90.261 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 151 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 2.7 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), rubber,
                                          corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans
                                 Exports: $65.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: computers, transistors, seafood,
                                          clothing, rice
                      Exports - partners: US 23%, Japan 14%, Singapore 8%,
                                          China 6%, Hong Kong 5%, Malaysia 4%
                                 Imports: $62.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: capital goods, intermediate goods
                                          and raw materials, consumer goods,
                      Imports - partners: Japan 24%, US 11%, Singapore 10%,
                                          Malaysia 6%, China 4%, Taiwan 4%
                         Debt - external: $69.4 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $131.5 million (1998 est.)
                                Currency: baht (THB)
                           Currency code: THB
                          Exchange rates: baht per US dollar - 43.982 (January
                                          2002), 43.432 (2001), 40.112 (2000),
                                          37.814 (1999), 41.359 (1998), 31.364
                             Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
     Communications Thailand
          Telephones - main lines in use: 5.6 million (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 3.1 million (2002)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: service to
                                          general public adequate, but
                                          investment in technological upgrades
                                          reduced by recession; bulk of
                                          service to government activities
                                          provided by multichannel cable and
                                          microwave radio relay network
                                          domestic: microwave radio relay and
                                          multichannel cable; domestic
                                          satellite system being developed
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian
                                          Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 204, FM 334, shortwave 6 (1999)
                                  Radios: 13.96 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 5 (all in Bangkok; plus 131
                                          repeaters) (1997)
                             Televisions: 15.19 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .th
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 15 (2000)
                          Internet users: 2.3 million (2000)
     Transportation Thailand
                                Railways: total: 4,071 km
                                          narrow gauge: 4,071 km 1.000-m gauge
                                Highways: total: 64,600 km
                                          paved: 62,985 km
                                          unpaved: 1,615 km (1996)
                               Waterways: 4,000 km
                                          note: 3,701 km are navigable
                                          throughout the year by boats with
                                          drafts up to 0.9 meters; numerous
                                          minor waterways serve shallow-draft
                                          native craft
                               Pipelines: petroleum products 67 km; natural
                                          gas 350 km
                       Ports and harbors: Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Pattani,
                                          Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha, Songkhla
                         Merchant marine: total: 297 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 1,661,314 GRT/2,564,820 DWT
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Germany 1, Greece 1,
                                          Indonesia 1, Japan 1, Norway 24,
                                          Panama 1, Singapore 1 (2002 est.)
                                          ships by type: bulk 34, cargo 133,
                                          chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
                                          1, container 14, liquefied gas 20,
                                          multi-functional large-load carrier
                                          2, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 65,
                                          refrigerated cargo 16, roll on/roll
                                          off 2, short-sea passenger 2,
                                          specialized tanker 4
                                Airports: 110 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 59
                                          over 3,047 m: 7
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 16
                                          under 914 m: 4 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 51
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 19
                                          under 914 m: 31 (2001)
                               Heliports: 2 (2001)
     Military Thailand
                        Military branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy
                                           (includes Royal Thai Marine Corps),
                                           Royal Thai Air Force, paramilitary
                                           forces (includes the Border Patrol
                                           Police [including Police Aerial
                                           Reinforcement Unit], Thahan Phran,
                                           Special Action Forces, Police
                                           Aviation Division, Thai Marine
                                           Police, and the Volunteer Defense
         Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 17,766,501 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 10,660,530 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 567,659 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $1.775 billion (FY00)
        Military expenditures - percent of 1.4% (FY00)
     Transnational Issues Thailand
                Disputes - international: a one km stretch of Malaysia-
                                          Thailand territory at the mouth of
                                          the Kolok river remains in dispute,
                                          despite overall success in boundary
                                          redemarcation; Cambodia accuses
                                          Thailand of moving or destroying
                                          boundary markers and encroachment,
                                          of not respecting its claims, and of
                                          sealing off access to the Preah
                                          Vihear temple ruin awarded to
                                          Cambodia by the ICJ in 1962;
                                          demarcation of boundary with Laos is
                                          nearing completion, but Mekong River
                                          islets remain in dispute; Laos also
                                          protests Thai squatters; despite
                                          renewed border committee talks,
                                          significant differences remain with
                                          Burma over boundary alignment and
                                          the handling of ethnic guerrilla
                                          rebels, refugees, smuggling, and
                                          drug trafficking in cross-border
                           Illicit drugs: a minor producer of opium, heroin,
                                          and marijuana; illicit transit point
                                          for heroin en route to the
                                          international drug market from Burma
                                          and Laos; eradication efforts have
                                          reduced the area of cannabis
                                          cultivation and shifted some
                                          production to neighboring countries;
                                          opium poppy cultivation has been
                                          reduced by eradication efforts; also
                                          a drug money-laundering center;
                                          minor role in amphetamine production
                                          for regional consumption; increasing
                                          indigenous abuse of methamphetamine

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