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 for Tanzania
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in eastern Africa [syn: Tanzania, United
           Republic of Tanzania]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Tanzania
                              Background: Shortly after independence,
                                          Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to
                                          form the nation of Tanzania in 1964.
                                          One-party rule came to an end in
                                          1995 with the first democratic
                                          elections held in the country since
                                          the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-
                                          autonomous status and popular
                                          opposition have led to two
                                          contentious elections since 1995,
                                          which the ruling party won despite
                                          international observers' claims of
                                          voting irregularities.
     Geography Tanzania
                                Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian
                                          Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
                  Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 35 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 945,087 sq km
                                          note: includes the islands of Mafia,
                                          Pemba, and Zanzibar
                                          water: 59,050 sq km
                                          land: 886,037 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than twice the size
                                          of California
                         Land boundaries: total: 3,402 km
                                          border countries: Burundi 451 km,
                                          Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km,
                                          Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km,
                                          Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
                               Coastline: 1,424 km
                         Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: varies from tropical along coast to
                                          temperate in highlands
                                 Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau;
                                          highlands in north, south
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
                       Natural resources: hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron
                                          ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones,
                                          gold, natural gas, nickel
                                Land use: arable land: 4.24%
                                          permanent crops: 1.02%
                                          other: 94.74% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 1,550 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: flooding on the central plateau
                                          during the rainy season; drought
            Environment - current issues: soil degradation; deforestation;
                                          desertification; destruction of
                                          coral reefs threatens marine
                                          habitats; recent droughts affected
                                          marginal agriculture; wildlife
                                          threatened by illegal hunting and
                                          trade, especially for ivory
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
                                          the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          signed, but not ratified: Nuclear
                                          Test Ban
                        Geography - note: Kilimanjaro is highest point in
                                          Africa; bordered by three of the
                                          largest lakes on the continent: Lake
                                          Victoria (the world's second-largest
                                          freshwater lake) in the north, Lake
                                          Tanganyika (the world's second
                                          deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa
                                          in the southwest
     People Tanzania
                              Population: 37,187,939
                                          note: estimates for this country
                                          explicitly take into account the
                                          effects of excess mortality due to
                                          AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                          expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                          and death rates, lower population
                                          and growth rates, and changes in the
                                          distribution of population by age
                                          and sex than would otherwise be
                                          expected (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.6% (male 8,338,764;
                                          female 8,247,789)
                                          15-64 years: 52.5% (male 9,674,951;
                                          female 9,847,084)
                                          65 years and over: 2.9% (male
                                          483,760; female 595,591) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.6% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 39.12 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 13.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.99 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 77.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.7 years
                                          female: 52.67 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 50.76 years
                    Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 8.09% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 1.3 million (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 140,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Tanzanian(s)
                                          adjective: Tanzanian
                           Ethnic groups: mainland - native African 99% (of
                                          which 95% are Bantu consisting of
                                          more than 130 tribes), other 1%
                                          (consisting of Asian, European, and
                                          Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native
                                          African, mixed Arab and native
                               Religions: mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim
                                          35%, indigenous beliefs 35%;
                                          Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
                               Languages: Kiswahili or Swahili (official),
                                          Kiunguju (name for Swahili in
                                          Zanzibar), English (official,
                                          primary language of commerce,
                                          administration, and higher
                                          education), Arabic (widely spoken in
                                          Zanzibar), many local languages
                                          note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the
                                          mother tongue of the Bantu people
                                          living in Zanzibar and nearby
                                          coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili
                                          is Bantu in structure and origin,
                                          its vocabulary draws on a variety of
                                          sources, including Arabic and
                                          English, and it has become the
                                          lingua franca of central and eastern
                                          Africa; the first language of most
                                          people is one of the local languages
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write Kiswahili (Swahili),
                                          English, or Arabic
                                          total population: 67.8%
                                          male: 79.4%
                                          female: 56.8% (1995 est.)
     Government Tanzania
                            Country name: conventional long form: United
                                          Republic of Tanzania
                                          conventional short form: Tanzania
                                          former: United Republic of
                                          Tanganyika and Zanzibar
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Dar es Salaam; note - legislative
                                          offices have been transferred to
                                          Dodoma, which is planned as the new
                                          national capital; the National
                                          Assembly now meets there on regular
                Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam,
                                          Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma,
                                          Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya,
                                          Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba
                                          North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa,
                                          Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora,
                                          Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South,
                                          Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
                            Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became
                                          independent 9 December 1961 (from
                                          UK-administered UN trusteeship);
                                          Zanzibar became independent 19
                                          December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika
                                          united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964
                                          to form the United Republic of
                                          Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed
                                          United Republic of Tanzania 29
                                          October 1964
                        National holiday: Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar),
                                          26 April (1964)
                            Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions
                                          October 1984
                            Legal system: based on English common law;
                                          judicial review of legislative acts
                                          limited to matters of
                                          interpretation; has not accepted
                                          compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Benjamin
                                          William MKAPA (since 23 November
                                          1995); Vice President Dr. Ali
                                          Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001);
                                          note - the president is both chief
                                          of state and head of government;
                                          Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE
                                          (since NA) does not function as the
                                          head of government
                                          head of government: President
                                          Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23
                                          November 1995); Vice President Dr.
                                          Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July
                                          2001); note - the president is both
                                          chief of state and head of
                                          government; Prime Minister Frederick
                                          SUMAYE (since NA) does not function
                                          as the head of government
                                          note: Zanzibar elects a president
                                          who is head of government for
                                          matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani
                                          Abeid KARUME was elected to that
                                          office on 29 October 2000
                                          cabinet: Cabinet ministers,
                                          including the prime minister, are
                                          appointed by the president from
                                          among the members of the National
                                          election results: Benjamin William
                                          MKAPA reelected president; percent
                                          of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA
                                          71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%,
                                          Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John
                                          Momose CHEYO 4.2%
                                          elections: president and vice
                                          president elected on the same ballot
                                          by popular vote for five-year terms;
                                          election last held 29 October 2000
                                          (next to be held NA October 2005);
                                          prime minister appointed by the
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by
                                          popular vote, 37 allocated to women
                                          nominated by the president, five to
                                          members of the Zanzibar House of
                                          Representatives; members serve five-
                                          year terms); note - in addition to
                                          enacting laws that apply to the
                                          entire United Republic of Tanzania,
                                          the Assembly enacts laws that apply
                                          only to the mainland; Zanzibar has
                                          its own House of Representatives to
                                          make laws especially for Zanzibar
                                          (the Zanzibar House of
                                          Representatives has 50 seats,
                                          directly elected by universal
                                          suffrage to serve five-year terms)
                                          election results: National Assembly
                                          - percent of vote by party - NA%;
                                          seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16,
                                          CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar
                                          representatives 5; Zanzibar House of
                                          Representatives - percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - CCM
                                          34, CUF 16
                                          elections: last held 29 October 2000
                                          (next to be held NA October 2005)
                         Judicial branch: Permanent Commission of Enquiry
                                          (official ombudsman); Court of
                                          Appeal (consists of a chief justice
                                          and four judges); High Court
                                          (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29
                                          judges appointed by the president;
                                          holds regular sessions in all
                                          regions); District Courts; Primary
                                          Courts (limited jurisdiction and
                                          appeals can be made to the higher
           Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo or
                                          CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI, chairman];
                                          Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM
                                          (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin
                                          William MKAPA, chairman]; Civic
                                          United Front or CUF [Seif Sharif
                                          HAMAD, secretary-general];
                                          Democratic Party (unregistered)
                                          [Reverend Christopher MTIKLA];
                                          National Convention for Construction
                                          and Reform or NCCR [James MBATIA,
                                          secretary general]; Tanzania Labor
                                          Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga
                                          MREMA, chairman]; Union for
                                          Multiparty Democracy or UMD [leader
                                          NA]; United Democratic Party or UDP
                                          [John CHEYO]
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO,
                           participation: G- 6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
                                          ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
                                          ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN,
                                          UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
                                          UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mustafa
                                          Salim NYANG'ANYI
                                          chancery: 2139 R Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Robert
                                      US: V. ROYALL
                                          embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni
                                          District, Dar es Salaam
                                          mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar
                                          es Salaam
                                          telephone: [255] (22) 666010 through
                                          FAX: [255] (22) 666701
                        Flag description: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged
                                          black band from the lower hoist-side
                                          corner; the upper triangle (hoist
                                          side) is green and the lower
                                          triangle is blue
     Economy Tanzania
                      Economy - overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest
                                          countries in the world. The economy
                                          is heavily dependent on agriculture,
                                          which accounts for half of GDP,
                                          provides 85% of exports, and employs
                                          80% of the work force. Topography
                                          and climatic conditions, however,
                                          limit cultivated crops to only 4% of
                                          the land area. Industry is mainly
                                          limited to processing agricultural
                                          products and light consumer goods.
                                          The World Bank, the International
                                          Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors
                                          have provided funds to rehabilitate
                                          Tanzania's deteriorated economic
                                          infrastructure. Growth in 1991-2001
                                          featured a pickup in industrial
                                          production and a substantial
                                          increase in output of minerals, led
                                          by gold. Natural gas exploration in
                                          the Rufiji Delta looks promising and
                                          production could start by 2002.
                                          Recent banking reforms have helped
                                          increase private sector growth and
                                          investment. Continued donor support
                                          and solid macroeconomic policies
                                          should support steady real GDP
                                          growth of 5% in 2002 and 2003.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $22.1
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $610 (2001
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 48.4%
                                          industry: 16.7%
                                          services: 34.9% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 51.1% (1991 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.8%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 30.1% (1993)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 38.2 (1993)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 13.495 million
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and
                                          services 20% (2000 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $1.01 billion
                                          expenditures: $1.38 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (FY00/01 est.)
                              Industries: primarily agricultural processing
                                          (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal
                                          twine), diamond and gold mining, oil
                                          refining, shoes, cement, textiles,
                                          wood products, fertilizer, salt
       Industrial production growth rate: 8.4% (1999 est.)
                Electricity - production: 2.765 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 18.08%
                                          hydro: 81.92%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 2.616 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 45 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton,
                                          pyrethrum (insecticide made from
                                          chrysanthemums), cashew nuts,
                                          tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar), corn,
                                          wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas,
                                          fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep,
                                 Exports: $827 million (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: gold, coffee, cashew nuts,
                                          manufactures, cotton (2000)
                      Exports - partners: UK 22.0%, India 14.8%, Germany 9.9%,
                                          Netherlands 6.9% (2000)
                                 Imports: $1.55 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery and
                                          transportation equipment, industrial
                                          raw materials, crude oil
                      Imports - partners: South Africa 11.5%, Japan 9.3%, UK
                                          7.0%, Australia 6.2% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $6.8 billion (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $963 million (1997)
                                Currency: Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
                           Currency code: TZS
                          Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings per US dollar -
                                          924.70 (January 2002), 876.41
                                          (2001), 800.41 (2000), 744.76
                                          (1999), 664.67 (1998), 612.12 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
     Communications Tanzania
          Telephones - main lines in use: 127,000 (1998)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 30,000 (1999)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: fair system
                                          operating below capacity and being
                                          modernized for better service; VSAT
                                          (very small aperture terminal)
                                          system under construction
                                          domestic: trunk service provided by
                                          open wire, microwave radio relay,
                                          tropospheric scatter, and fiber-
                                          optic cable; some links being made
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian
                                          Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
                                  Radios: 8.8 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 3 (1999)
                             Televisions: 103,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .tz
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
                          Internet users: 115,000 (2001)
     Transportation Tanzania
                                Railways: total: 3,569 km
                                          narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-
                                          m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge
                                          note: the Tanzania-Zambia Railway
                                          Authority (TAZARA), which operates
                                          1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge
                                          track between Dar es Salaam and
                                          Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which
                                          969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km
                                          are in Zambia) is not a part of
                                          Tanzania Railways Corporation;
                                          because of the difference in gauge,
                                          this system does not connect to
                                          Tanzania Railways (2001)
                                Highways: total: 85,000 km
                                          paved: 4,250 km
                                          unpaved: 80,750 km (2001)
                               Waterways: note: Lake Tanganyika, Lake
                                          Victoria, and Lake Nyasa are
                                          principal avenues of commerce
                                          between Tanzania and its neighbors
                                          on those lakes
                               Pipelines: crude oil 982 km
                       Ports and harbors: Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa
                                          Masoko, Lindi, Mtwara, Mwanza,
                                          Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar
                         Merchant marine: total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 21,987 GRT/27,121 DWT
                                          ships by type: cargo 2, passenger/
                                          cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll
                                          on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1
                                          (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 125 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 11
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 114
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 61
                                          under 914 m: 35 (2001)
     Military Tanzania
                        Military branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force
                                           (including Army, Navy, and Air
                                           Force), paramilitary Police Field
                                           Force Unit (including Police Marine
                                           Unit and Police Air Wing),
                                           territorial militia
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,636,817 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 4,997,257 (2002
                                  service: est.)
            Military expenditures - dollar $19 million (FY01)
        Military expenditures - percent of 0.2% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Tanzania
                Disputes - international: Tanzania and Malawi maintain a
                                          largely dormant dispute over the
                                          boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)
                                          and current location of historical
                                          boundary in the meandering Songwe
                           Illicit drugs: growing role in transshipment of
                                          Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin
                                          and South American cocaine destined
                                          for South African, European, and US
                                          markets and of South Asian
                                          methaqualone bound for Southern

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