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2 definitions found
 for Tajikistan
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a landlocked mountainous republic in southeast central Asia
           to the north of Afghanistan; formerly an Asian soviet [syn:
           Tajikistan, Republic of Tajikistan, Tadzhikistan,
           Tadzhik, Tadjik, Tajik]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Tajikistan
                              Background: Tajikistan has experienced three
                                          changes in government and a five-
                                          year civil war since it gained
                                          independence in 1991 from the USSR.
                                          A peace agreement among rival
                                          factions was signed in 1997, and
                                          implemented in 2000. The central
                                          government's less than total control
                                          over some areas of the country has
                                          forced it to compromise and forge
                                          alliances among factions. Open
                                          skirmishes in the streets are less
                                          of a problem than they were during
                                          the war five years ago. Attention by
                                          the international community in the
                                          wake of the war in Afghanistan may
                                          bring increased economic development
                                          assistance, which would create jobs
                                          and increase stability in the long
                                          term. Tajikistan is in the beginning
                                          stages of seeking World Trade
                                          Organization membership and has been
                                          approved to join NATO's Partnership
                                          for Peace.
     Geography Tajikistan
                                Location: Central Asia, west of China
                  Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 143,100 sq km
                                          water: 400 sq km
                                          land: 142,700 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin
                         Land boundaries: total: 3,651 km
                                          border countries: Afghanistan 1,206
                                          km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km,
                                          Uzbekistan 1,161 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: midlatitude continental, hot
                                          summers, mild winters; semiarid to
                                          polar in Pamir Mountains
                                 Terrain: Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate
                                          landscape; western Fergana Valley in
                                          north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys
                                          in southwest
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo)
                                          300 m
                                          highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni
                                          7,495 m
                       Natural resources: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium,
                                          mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc,
                                          antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
                                Land use: arable land: 5.41%
                                          permanent crops: 0.92%
                                          other: 93.67% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: earthquakes and floods
            Environment - current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities;
                                          increasing levels of soil salinity;
                                          industrial pollution; excessive
                                          pesticides; part of the basin of the
                                          shrinking Aral Sea suffers from
                                          severe overutilization of available
                                          water for irrigation and associated
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification,
                                          Environmental Modification, Ozone
                                          Layer Protection, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: landlocked; mountainous region
                                          dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in
                                          the north and the Pamirs in the
                                          southeast; highest point, Qullai
                                          Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism
                                          Peak), was the tallest mountain in
                                          the former USSR
     People Tajikistan
                              Population: 6,719,567 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.4% (male 1,370,314;
                                          female 1,346,465)
                                          15-64 years: 54.9% (male 1,835,573;
                                          female 1,854,677)
                                          65 years and over: 4.7% (male
                                          136,033; female 176,505) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.12% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 32.99 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -3.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.99 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 114.77 deaths/1,000 live births
                                          (2002 est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.28 years
                                          female: 67.46 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 61.24 years
                    Total fertility rate: 4.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Tajikistani(s)
                                          adjective: Tajikistani
                           Ethnic groups: Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5%
                                          (declining because of emigration),
                                          other 6.6%
                               Religions: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%
                               Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely
                                          used in government and business
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 98%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 97% (1989 est.)
     Government Tajikistan
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Tajikistan
                                          local short form: none
                                          former: Tajik Soviet Socialist
                                          local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Dushanbe
                Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular -
                                          viloyat) and 1 autonomous province*
                                          (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati
                                          Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon*
                                          (Khorugh), Viloyati Khatlon
                                          (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Sughd
                                          note: the administrative center name
                                          follows in parentheses
                            Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day (or National Day),
                                          9 September (1991)
                            Constitution: 6 November 1994
                            Legal system: based on civil law system; no
                                          judicial review of legislative acts
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Emomali
                                          RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994;
                                          head of state and Supreme Assembly
                                          chairman since 19 November 1992)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president, approved
                                          by the Supreme Assembly
                                          election results: Emomali RAHMONOV
                                          elected president; percent of vote -
                                          Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a seven-year term;
                                          election last held 6 November 1999
                                          (next to be held NA 2006); prime
                                          minister appointed by the president
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or
                                          Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly
                                          of Representatives (lower chamber)
                                          or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats;
                                          members are elected by popular vote
                                          to serve five-year terms) and the
                                          National Assembly (upper chamber) or
                                          Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members
                                          are indirectly elected, 25 selected
                                          by local deputies, 8 appointed by
                                          the president; all serve five-year
                                          election results: Assembly of
                                          Representatives - percent of vote by
                                          party - PDPT 65%, Communist Party
                                          20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%,
                                          other 7.5%; seats by party - NA;
                                          National Assembly - percent of vote
                                          by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
                                          elections: last held 27 February and
                                          12 March 2000 for the Assembly of
                                          Representatives (next to be held NA
                                          2005) and 23 March 2000 for the
                                          National Assembly (next to be held
                                          NA 2005)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed
                                          by the president)
           Political parties and leaders: Congress of People's Unity of
                                          Tajikistan [Saiffidin TURAYEV];
                                          Democratic Party or TDP [Mahmadruzi
                                          ISKANDAROV, chairman]; Islamic
                                          Rebirth Party [Muhammadsharif
                                          HIMMAT-ZODA, chairman]; Party of
                                          Justice and Development [Rahmatullo
                                          ZOIROV]; People's Democratic Party
                                          of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali
                                          RAHMONOV]; Socialist Party [leader
                                          NA]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT
                                          [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Adolatho
                                          "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV,
            Political pressure groups and there are three unregistered
                                 leaders: political parties with 1,000 or more
                                          members: Progressive Party [Suton
                                          QUVVATOV]; Social Democratic Party
                                          [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; Unity Party
                                          [Hikmatuko SAIDOV]
               International organization AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM, ITU, OIC, OPCW,
                                          OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
                                          UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: Tajikistan does not have an embassy
                                          in the US, but does have a permanent
                                          mission to the UN: address - 136
                                          East 67th Street, New York, NY
                                          10021, telephone - [1] (212) 472-
                                          7645, FAX - [1] (212) 628-0252;
                                          permanent representative to the UN
                                          is Rashid ALIMOV
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
                                      US: Franklin P. "Pancho" HUDDLE, Jr.
                                          embassy: 10 Pavlova Street,
                                          Dushanbe, Tajikistan 734003; note -
                                          the embassy in Dushanbe is not yet
                                          fully operational; most business is
                                          still handled in Almaty at 531
                                          Sayfullin Street, Almaty,
                                          Kazakhstan, telephone 7-3272-58-79-
                                          61, FAX 7-3272-58079-68
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          telephone: 992-372-21-03-48, 03-50,
                                          FAX: 992-372-24-15-62
                        Flag description: three horizontal stripes of red
                                          (top), a wider stripe of white, and
                                          green; a gold crown surmounted by
                                          seven gold, five-pointed stars is
                                          located in the center of the white
     Economy Tajikistan
                      Economy - overview: Tajikistan has the lowest per capita
                                          GDP among the 15 former Soviet
                                          republics. Cotton is the most
                                          important crop. Mineral resources,
                                          varied but limited in amount,
                                          include silver, gold, uranium, and
                                          tungsten. Industry consists only of
                                          a large aluminum plant, hydropower
                                          facilities, and small obsolete
                                          factories mostly in light industry
                                          and food processing. The civil war
                                          (1992-97) severely damaged the
                                          already weak economic infrastructure
                                          and caused a sharp decline in
                                          industrial and agricultural
                                          production. Even though 80% of its
                                          people continue to live in abject
                                          poverty, Tajikistan has experienced
                                          strong economic growth since 1997.
                                          Continued privatization of medium
                                          and large state-owned enterprises
                                          will further increase productivity.
                                          Tajikistan's economic situation,
                                          however, remains fragile due to
                                          uneven implementation of structural
                                          reforms, weak governance, and the
                                          external debt burden. Servicing of
                                          the debt, owed principally to Russia
                                          and Uzbekistan, could require as
                                          much as 50% of government revenues
                                          in 2002, thus limiting the nation's
                                          ability to meet pressing development
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.5
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 8.3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,140
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19%
                                          industry: 25%
                                          services: 56% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 33% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 3.187 million (2000)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 67.2%, industry 7.5%,
                                          services 25.3% (2000 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 20% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $146 million
                                          expenditures: $196 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2000 est.)
                              Industries: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and
                                          fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil,
                                          metal-cutting machine tools,
                                          refrigerators and freezers
       Industrial production growth rate: 10.3% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 14.245 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2%
                                          hydro: 98%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 12.539 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 3.909 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 3.2 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes,
                                          vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
                                 Exports: $640 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: aluminum, electricity, cotton,
                                          fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
                      Exports - partners: Europe 43%, Russia 30%, Uzbekistan
                                          13% (2000)
                                 Imports: $700 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: electricity, petroleum products,
                                          aluminum oxide, machinery and
                                          equipment, foodstuffs
                      Imports - partners: Uzbekistan 27%, Russia 16%, Europe
                                          12% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $1.23 billion (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $60.7 million from US (2001)
                                Currency: somoni
                           Currency code: SM
                          Exchange rates: Tajikistani somoni per US dollar -
                                          2.55 (January 2002), 2.2 (January
                                          2001), 1550 (January 2000), 998
                                          (January 1999), 350 (January 1997),
                                          284 (January 1996)
                                          note: the new unit of exchange was
                                          introduced on 30 October 2000, with
                                          one somoni equal to 1,000 of the old
                                          Tajikistani rubles
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Tajikistan
          Telephones - main lines in use: 363,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,500 (1997)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: poorly developed
                                          and not well maintained; many towns
                                          are not reached by the national
                                          domestic: cable and microwave radio
                                          international: linked by cable and
                                          microwave radio relay to other CIS
                                          republics and by leased connections
                                          to the Moscow international gateway
                                          switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat
                                          to international gateway switch in
                                          Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth
                                          stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 7, shortwave 2 (2001)
                                  Radios: 1.291 million (1991)
           Television broadcast stations: 13 (2001)
                             Televisions: 820,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .tj
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001)
                          Internet users: 2,000 (2000)
     Transportation Tajikistan
                                Railways: total: 482 km
                                          broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          note: includes only lines in common
                                          carrier service; lines dedicated to
                                          particular industries are excluded
                                Highways: total: 29,900 km
                                          paved: 21,400 km (includes some all-
                                          weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                          unpaved: 8,500 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1990)
                               Waterways: none
                               Pipelines: natural gas 400 km (1992)
                       Ports and harbors: none
                                Airports: 53 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 2
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 51
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 12
                                          under 914 m: 36 (2001)
     Military Tajikistan
                       Military branches: Army, Air Force and Air Defense
                                          Force, Presidential National Guard,
                                          Security Forces (internal and border
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,646,278 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,349,505 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 72,056 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $35.4 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 3.9% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Tajikistan
                Disputes - international: the undemarcated northern and
                                          western border with Uzbekistan is
                                          mined in many sections; continues to
                                          maintain a territorial dispute with
                                          Kyrgyzstan in Isfara Valley area;
                                          ongoing talks with China have failed
                                          to resolve the longstanding dispute
                                          over the indefinite boundary;
                                          Kazakhstan, Tajikistan,
                                          Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan wrestle
                                          with sharing limited water resources
                                          and the regional environmental
                                          degradation caused by the shrinking
                                          of the Aral Sea
                           Illicit drugs: major transshipment zone for heroin
                                          and opiates from Afghanistan going
                                          to Russia and Western Europe;
                                          limited illicit cultivation of
                                          narcotics crops, mostly for domestic

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