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2 definitions found
 for Somalia
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in extreme eastern Africa on the Somali
           peninsula; subject to tribal warfare

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Somalia
                              Background: The SIAD BARRE regime was ousted in
                                          January 1991; turmoil, factional
                                          fighting, and anarchy have followed
                                          for eleven years. In May of 1991,
                                          northern clans declared an
                                          independent Republic of Somaliland
                                          that now includes the administrative
                                          regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed,
                                          Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although
                                          not recognized by any government,
                                          this entity has maintained a stable
                                          existence, aided by the overwhelming
                                          dominance of a ruling clan and
                                          economic infrastructure left behind
                                          by British, Russian, and American
                                          military assistance programs. The
                                          regions of Bari and Nugaal comprise
                                          a neighboring self-declared
                                          autonomous state of Puntland, which
                                          has been self-governing since 1998,
                                          but does not aim at independence; it
                                          has also made strides towards
                                          reconstructing legitimate,
                                          representative government. Puntland
                                          also claims Sool and eastern Sanaag.
                                          Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN
                                          humanitarian effort (primarily in
                                          the south) was able to alleviate
                                          famine conditions, but when the UN
                                          withdrew in 1995, having suffered
                                          significant casualties, order still
                                          had not been restored. A
                                          Transitional National Government
                                          (TNG) was created in August 2000 in
                                          Arta, Djibouti which was attended by
                                          a broad representation of Somali
                                          clans. The TNG has a three-year
                                          mandate to create a permanent
                                          national Somali government. The TNG
                                          does not recognize Somaliland as an
                                          independent republic but so far has
                                          been unable to reunite either
                                          Somaliland or Puntland with the
                                          unstable regions in the south.
                                          Numerous warlords and factions are
                                          still fighting for control of
                                          Mogadishu and the other southern
                                          regions. Suspicion of Somali links
                                          with global terrorism complicate the
     Geography Somalia
                                Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf
                                          of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east
                                          of Ethiopia
                  Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 637,657 sq km
                                          water: 10,320 sq km
                                          land: 627,337 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,340 km
                                          border countries: Djibouti 58 km,
                                          Ethiopia 1,600 km, Kenya 682 km
                               Coastline: 3,025 km
                         Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 NM
                                 Climate: principally desert; December to
                                          February - northeast monsoon,
                                          moderate temperatures in north and
                                          very hot in south; May to October -
                                          southwest monsoon, torrid in the
                                          north and hot in the south,
                                          irregular rainfall, hot and humid
                                          periods (tangambili) between
                                 Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau
                                          rising to hills in north
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m
                       Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited
                                          reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum,
                                          bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas,
                                          likely oil reserves
                                Land use: arable land: 1.66%
                                          permanent crops: 0.04%
                                          other: 98.31% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 2,000 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust
                                          storms over eastern plains in
                                          summer; floods during rainy season
            Environment - current issues: famine; use of contaminated water
                                          contributes to human health
                                          problems; deforestation;
                                          overgrazing; soil erosion;
              Environment - international party to: Endangered Species, Law of
                              agreements: the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
                                          signed, but not ratified: Marine
                                          Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
                        Geography - note: strategic location on Horn of Africa
                                          along southern approaches to Bab el
                                          Mandeb and route through Red Sea and
                                          Suez Canal
     People Somalia
                              Population: 7,753,310
                                          note: this estimate was derived from
                                          an official census taken in 1975 by
                                          the Somali Government; population
                                          counting in Somalia is complicated
                                          by the large number of nomads and by
                                          refugee movements in response to
                                          famine and clan warfare (July 2002
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.7% (male 1,737,491;
                                          female 1,730,237)
                                          15-64 years: 52.6% (male 2,054,243;
                                          female 2,019,980)
                                          65 years and over: 2.7% (male
                                          92,617; female 118,742) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 3.46% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 46.83 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 17.99 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 5.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1 male(s)/female
                                          (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 122.15 deaths/1,000 live births
                                          (2002 est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.96 years
                                          female: 48.65 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 45.33 years
                    Total fertility rate: 7.05 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Somali(s)
                                          adjective: Somali
                           Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-
                                          Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)
                               Religions: Sunni Muslim
                               Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian,
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 37.8%
                                          male: 49.7%
                                          female: 25.8% (2001 est.)
     Government Somalia
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Somalia
                                          former: Somali Republic, Somali
                                          Democratic Republic
                         Government type: no permanent national government;
                                          transitional, parliamentary national
                                 Capital: Mogadishu
                Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular -
                                          gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir,
                                          Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan,
                                          Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug,
                                          Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe,
                                          Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer,
                                          Woqooyi Galbeed
                            Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of
                                          British Somaliland, which became
                                          independent from the UK on 26 June
                                          1960, and Italian Somaliland, which
                                          became independent from the Italian-
                                          administered UN trusteeship on 1
                                          July 1960, to form the Somali
                        National holiday: Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1
                                          July (1960); note - 26 June (1960)
                                          in Somaliland
                            Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential
                                          approval 23 September 1979
                                          note: the Transitional National
                                          Government formed in August 2000 has
                                          a mandate to create a new
                                          constitution and hold elections
                                          within three years
                            Legal system: no national system; Shari'a and
                                          secular courts are in some
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: ABDIKASSIM Salad
                                          Hassan (since 26 August 2000); note
                                          - Interim President ABDIKASSIM was
                                          chosen for a three-year term by a
                                          245-member National Assembly serving
                                          as a transitional government; the
                                          present political situation is still
                                          unstable, particularly in the south,
                                          with interclan fighting and random
                                          election results: ABDIKASSIM Salad
                                          Hassan was elected president of an
                                          interim government at the Djibouti-
                                          sponsored Arta Peace Conference on
                                          26 August 2000 by a broad
                                          representation of Somali clans that
                                          comprised a transitional National
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          HASSAN Abshir Farah (since 12
                                          November 2001)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          prime minister and sworn in on 20
                                          October 2000; as of 1 January 2002,
                                          the Cabinet was in caretaker status
                                          following a no-confidence vote in
                                          October 2001 that ousted HASSAN's
                      Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or
                                          Golaha Shacbiga
                                          note: fledgling parliament; a
                                          transitional 245-member National
                                          Assembly began to meet on 13 August
                                          2000 in the town of Arta, Djibouti
                                          and is now based in Mogadishu
                         Judicial branch: following the breakdown of national
                                          government, most regions have
                                          reverted to Islamic (Shari'a) law
                                          with a provision for appeal of all
           Political parties and leaders: none
            Political pressure groups and numerous clan and subclan factions
                                 leaders: are currently vying for power
               International organization ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU,
                           participation: ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
                                          IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM
                                          (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
                                          WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: Somalia does not have an embassy in
                                          the US (ceased operations on 8 May
                                          1991); note - the TNG and other
                                          factions have representatives in
       Diplomatic representation from the the US does not have an embassy in
                                      US: Somalia; US interests are
                                          represented by the US Embassy in
                                          Nairobi at Mombasa Road; mail
                                          address: P. O. Box 30137, Unit
                                          64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831;
                                          telephone: [254] (2) 537800; FAX
                                          [254] (2) 537810
                        Flag description: light blue with a large white five-
                                          pointed star in the center; blue
                                          field influenced by the flag of the
                       Government - note: An interim Transitional National
                                          Government - with a president, prime
                                          minister, and 245-member National
                                          Assembly - was established in
                                          Mogadishu in October 2000. However,
                                          other governing bodies continue to
                                          exist and control various cities and
                                          regions of the country, including
                                          Somaliland, Puntland, and
                                          traditional clan and faction
     Economy Somalia
                      Economy - overview: One of the world's poorest and least
                                          developed countries, Somalia has few
                                          resources and is prone to drought.
                                          Moreover, much of the economy has
                                          been devastated by civil war since
                                          1991. Agriculture is the most
                                          important sector, with livestock
                                          accounting for about 40% of GDP and
                                          about 65% of export earnings. Nomads
                                          and semi-nomads, who are dependent
                                          upon livestock for their livelihood,
                                          make up a large portion of the
                                          population. Livestock, hides,
                                          charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's
                                          principal exports, while sugar,
                                          sorghum, corn, fish, qat, and
                                          machined goods are the principal
                                          imports. Somalia's small industrial
                                          sector, based on the processing of
                                          agricultural products, has largely
                                          been looted and sold as scrap metal.
                                          Despite the seeming anarchy,
                                          Somalia's service sector has managed
                                          to survive and grow.
                                          Telecommunication firms provide
                                          wireless services in most major
                                          cities and offer the lowest
                                          international call rates on the
                                          continent. In the absence of a
                                          formal banking sector, money
                                          exchange services have sprouted
                                          throughout the country, handling
                                          between $200 million and $500
                                          million in remittances annually.
                                          Mogadishu's main market offers a
                                          variety of goods from food to the
                                          newest electronic gadgets. Hotels
                                          continue to operate, and security is
                                          provided by militias. Ongoing civil
                                          disturbances and clan rivalries,
                                          however, have interfered with any
                                          broad-based economic development and
                                          international aid arrangements. The
                                          failure of spring rains caused major
                                          food shortages in the south in 2001.
                                          Economic data is scare and prone to
                                          a wide margin of error.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.1
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $550 (2001
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 65%
                                          industry: 10%
                                          services: 25% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 100% (businesses print their
                                          own money) (2000 est.)
                             Labor force: 3.7 million (very few are skilled
                                          laborers) (1993 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture (mostly pastoral
                                          nomadism) 71%, industry and services
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $NA
                                          expenditures: $NA, including capital
                                          expenditures of $NA
                              Industries: a few light industries, including
                                          sugar refining, textiles, petroleum
                                          refining (mostly shut down),
                                          wireless communication
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 250 million kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%
                                          hydro: 0%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 232.5 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cattle, sheep, goats; bananas,
                                          sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice,
                                          sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds,
                                          beans; fish
                                 Exports: $186 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish,
                                          charcoal, scrap metal (1999)
                      Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia 29%, UAE 29%, Yemen 28%
                                          (calculated through partners) (2000)
                                 Imports: $314 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: manufactures, petroleum products,
                                          foodstuffs, construction materials,
                                          qat (1995)
                      Imports - partners: Djibouti 27%, Kenya 12%, India 9%
                         Debt - external: $2.6 billion (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $60 million (1999 est.)
                                Currency: Somali shilling (SOS)
                           Currency code: SOS
                          Exchange rates: Somali shillings per US dollar -
                                          11,000 (November 2000), 2,620
                                          (January 1999), 7,500 (November 1997
                                          est.), 7,000 (January 1996 est.),
                                          5,000 (1 January 1995)
                                          note: the Republic of Somaliland, a
                                          self-declared independent country
                                          not recognized by any foreign
                                          government, issues its own currency,
                                          the Somaliland shilling
                             Fiscal year: NA
     Communications Somalia
          Telephones - main lines in use: NA
            Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
                        Telephone system: general assessment: the public
                                          telecommunications system was almost
                                          completely destroyed or dismantled
                                          by the civil war factions; private
                                          wireless companies offer service in
                                          most major cities and charge the
                                          lowest international rates on the
                                          domestic: local cellular telephone
                                          systems have been established in
                                          Mogadishu and in several other
                                          population centers
                                          international: international
                                          connections are available from
                                          Mogadishu by satellite (2001)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 5 (2001)
                                  Radios: 470,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 3
                                          note: two in Mogadishu; one in
                                          Hargeisa (2001)
                             Televisions: 135,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .so
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (one each in Boosaaso, Hargeisa,
                                          and Mogadishu) (2000)
                          Internet users: 200 (2000)
     Transportation Somalia
                                     Railways: 0 km
                                     Highways: total: 22,100 km
                                               paved: 2,608 km
                                               unpaved: 19,492 km (1996)
                                    Waterways: none
                                    Pipelines: crude oil 15 km
                            Ports and harbors: Boosaaso, Berbera, Chisimayu
                                               (Kismaayo), Merca, Mogadishu
                              Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)
                                     Airports: 54 (2001)
                Airports - with paved runways: total: 6
                                               over 3,047 m: 4
                                               1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)
              Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 48
                                               2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
                                               1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
                                               914 to 1,523 m: 27
                                               under 914 m: 3 (2001)
     Military Somalia
                       Military branches: A Somali National Army is being
                                          reformed under the interim
                                          government; numerous factions and
                                          clans maintain independent militias,
                                          and the Somaliland and Puntland
                                          regional governments maintain their
                                          own security and police forces
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,881,634 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,040,662 (2002
                                 service: est.)
           Military expenditures - dollar $15.3 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 0.9% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Somalia
                Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the
                                          boundary with Ethiopia is a
                                          provisional administrative line; in
                                          the Ogaden, regional states have
                                          established a variety of conflicting
                                          relationships with the Transitional
                                          National Government in Mogadishu,
                                          feuding factions in Puntland region,
                                          and the economically stabile break-
                                          away "Somaliland" region; Djibouti
                                          maintains economic ties and border
                                          accords with "Somaliland" leadership
                                          while politically supporting Somali
                                          Transitional National Government in
                                          Mogadishu; arms smuggling and Oromo
                                          rebel activities prompt strict
                                          border regime with Kenya

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