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 for Rwanda
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a landlocked republic in central Africa; formerly a German
           colony [syn: Rwanda, Rwandese Republic, Ruanda]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Rwanda
                              Background: In 1959, three years before
                                          independence from Belgium, the
                                          majority ethnic group, the Hutus,
                                          overthrew the ruling Tutsi king.
                                          Over the next several years
                                          thousands of Tutsis were killed, and
                                          some 150,000 driven into exile in
                                          neighboring countries. The children
                                          of these exiles later formed a rebel
                                          group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front
                                          and began a civil war in 1990. The
                                          war, along with several political
                                          and economic upheavals, exacerbated
                                          ethnic tensions culminating in April
                                          1994 in the genocide of roughly
                                          800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
                                          The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu
                                          regime and ended the killing in July
                                          1994, but approximately 2 million
                                          Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi
                                          retribution - fled to neighboring
                                          Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and
                                          Zaire. Since then most of the
                                          refugees have returned to Rwanda.
                                          Despite substantial international
                                          assistance and political reforms -
                                          including Rwanda's first local
                                          elections in March 1999 - the
                                          country continues to struggle to
                                          boost investment and agricultural
                                          output and to foster reconciliation.
                                          A series of massive population
                                          displacements, a nagging Hutu
                                          extremist insurgency, and Rwandan
                                          involvement in two wars over the
                                          past four years in the neighboring
                                          DROC continue to hinder Rwanda's
     Geography Rwanda
                                Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic
                                          Republic of the Congo
                  Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 30 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 26,338 sq km
                                          water: 1,390 sq km
                                          land: 24,948 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland
                         Land boundaries: total: 893 km
                                          border countries: Burundi 290 km,
                                          Democratic Republic of the Congo 217
                                          km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons
                                          (February to April, November to
                                          January); mild in mountains with
                                          frost and snow possible
                                 Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills;
                                          relief is mountainous with altitude
                                          declining from west to east
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
                                          highest point: Volcan Karisimbi
                                          4,519 m
                       Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore),
                                          wolframite (tungsten ore), methane,
                                          hydropower, arable land
                                Land use: arable land: 32.43%
                                          permanent crops: 10.13%
                                          other: 57.44% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic
                                          Virunga mountains are in the
                                          northwest along the border with
                                          Democratic Republic of the Congo
            Environment - current issues: deforestation results from
                                          uncontrolled cutting of trees for
                                          fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion;
                                          soil erosion; widespread poaching
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
                                          Layer Protection
                                          signed, but not ratified: Law of the
                        Geography - note: landlocked; most of the country is
                                          savanna grassland with the
                                          population predominantly rural
     People Rwanda
                              Population: 7,398,074
                                          note: estimates for this country
                                          explicitly take into account the
                                          effects of excess mortality due to
                                          AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                          expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                          and death rates, lower population
                                          and growth rates, and changes in the
                                          distribution of population by age
                                          and sex than would otherwise be
                                          expected (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.7% (male 1,550,141;
                                          female 1,539,375)
                                          15-64 years: 55.4% (male 2,039,573;
                                          female 2,057,059)
                                          65 years and over: 2.9% (male
                                          84,030; female 127,896) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.16% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 33.28 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 21.39 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.99 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 117.79 deaths/1,000 live births
                                          (2002 est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 38.66 years
                                          female: 39.2 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 38.14 years
                    Total fertility rate: 4.72 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 11.21% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 400,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 40,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Rwandan(s)
                                          adjective: Rwandan
                           Ethnic groups: Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid)
                               Religions: Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant
                                          26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%,
                                          indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7%
                               Languages: Kinyarwanda (official) universal
                                          Bantu vernacular, French (official),
                                          English (official), Kiswahili
                                          (Swahili) used in commercial centers
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 48%
                                          male: 52%
                                          female: 45% (1995 est.)
     Government Rwanda
                            Country name: conventional long form: Rwandese
                                          conventional short form: Rwanda
                                          local short form: Rwanda
                                          former: Ruanda
                                          local long form: Republika y'u
                         Government type: republic; presidential, multiparty
                                 Capital: Kigali
                Administrative divisions: 12 prefectures (in French -
                                          prefectures, singular - prefecture;
                                          in Kinyarwanda - plural - NA,
                                          singular - prefegitura); Butare,
                                          Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro,
                                          Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye,
                                          Kigali Rurale, Kigali-ville,
                                          Umutara, Ruhengeri
                            Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-
                                          administered UN trusteeship)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
                            Constitution: on 5 May 1995, the Transitional
                                          National Assembly adopted as
                                          Fundamental Law the constitution of
                                          18 June 1991, provisions of the 1993
                                          Arusha peace accord, the July 1994
                                          Declaration by the Rwanda Patriotic
                                          Front, and the November 1994
                                          multiparty protocol of understanding
                            Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil
                                          law systems and customary law;
                                          judicial review of legislative acts
                                          in the Supreme Court; has not
                                          accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Maj. Gen.
                                          Paul KAGAME (FPR) (since 22 April
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                                          elections: normally the president is
                                          elected by popular vote for a five-
                                          year term; special election for new
                                          president by deputies of the
                                          National Assembly and governmental
                                          ministers held 17 April 2000 (next
                                          national election to be held NA
                                          2003); prime minister is appointed
                                          by the president
                                          election results: Paul KAGAME (FPR)
                                          elected president in a special
                                          parliamentary/ministerial ballot
                                          receiving 81 of a possible 86 votes
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Transitional National
                                          Assembly or Assemblee Nationale de
                                          Transition (a power-sharing body
                                          with 70 seats established on 12
                                          December 1994 following a multiparty
                                          protocol of understanding; members
                                          were named by their parties, number
                                          of seats per party predetermined by
                                          the Arusha peace accord)
                                          note: four additional seats, two for
                                          women and two for youth, added in
                                          election results: seats by party
                                          under the Arusha peace accord - FPR
                                          13, MDR 13, PSD 13, PL 13, PDC 6,
                                          RPA 6, PSR 2, PDI 2, UDPR 2; note -
                                          the distribution of seats was
                                          predetermined, four additional seats
                                          (two for women and two for youth)
                                          added in 2001
                                          elections: the last national
                                          legislative elections were held 16
                                          December 1988 for the National
                                          Development Council (the legislature
                                          prior to the advent of the
                                          Transitional National Assembly); no
                                          elections have been held for the
                                          Transitional National Assembly as
                                          the distribution of seats was
                                          predetermined by the Arusha peace
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court; communal courts;
                                          appeals courts
           Political parties and leaders: Centrist Democratic Party or PDC
                                          [Jean-Nipomuscene NAYINZIRA];
                                          Democratic Socialist Party or PSD
                                          [leader NA]; Democratic Popular
                                          Union of Rwanda or UDPR [leader NA];
                                          Democratic Republican Movement or
                                          MDR [Celestin KABANDA]; Islamic
                                          Democratic Party or PDI [Andre
                                          BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Pie
                                          MUGABO]; Party for Democratic
                                          Renewal (officially banned) [Pasteur
                                          BIZIMURGI and Charilg NTAKIROTINKA];
                                          Rwanda Patriotic Army or RPA [Maj.
                                          Gen. Paul KAGAME, commander]; Rwanda
                                          Patriotic Front or FPR [Maj. Gen.
                                          Paul KAGAME]; Rwandan Socialist
                                          Party or PSR [leader NA]
            Political pressure groups and IBUKA - association of genocide
                                 leaders: survivors
               International organization ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL,
                           participation: ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
                                          IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
                                          ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU,
                                          OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard
                                          chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Ave.
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20009
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
                                      US: Margaret K. McMILLION since 13
                                          December 2001
                                          embassy: #337 Boulevard de la
                                          Revolution, Kigali
                                          mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
                                          telephone: [250] 50 56 01 through 03
                                          FAX: [250] 721 28
                        Flag description: three horizontal bands of sky blue
                                          (top, double width), yellow, and
                                          green, with a golden sun with 24
                                          rays near the fly end of the blue
     Economy Rwanda
                      Economy - overview: Rwanda is a rural country with about
                                          90% of the population engaged in
                                          (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It
                                          is the most densely populated
                                          country in Africa; landlocked with
                                          few natural resources and minimal
                                          industry. Primary exports are coffee
                                          and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated
                                          Rwanda's fragile economic base,
                                          severely impoverished the
                                          population, particularly women, and
                                          eroded the country's ability to
                                          attract private and external
                                          investment. However, Rwanda has made
                                          significant progress in stabilizing
                                          and rehabilitating its economy. GDP
                                          has rebounded, and inflation has
                                          been curbed. Rwanda received
                                          approval for debt relief from the
                                          IMF in late 2000 and continued to
                                          make progress on inflation,
                                          privatization, and GDP growth in
                                          2001. However, export earnings were
                                          hindered by low global coffee
                                          prices, depriving the country of
                                          much needed hard currency. President
                                          KAGAME is encouraging investors to
                                          take advantage of export
                                          opportunities in Rwanda based on its
                                          membership in the COMESA free trade
                                          area and its access to the US and
                                          the EU markets through preferential
                                          trade agreements.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.2
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 46%
                                          industry: 20%
                                          services: 34% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 70% (2000 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.2%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 24.2% (1983-85)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 28.9 (1983-85)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 3.6 million
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 90%
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $199.3 million
                                          expenditures: $445 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: cement, agricultural products,
                                          small-scale beverages, soap,
                                          furniture, shoes, plastic goods,
                                          textiles, cigarettes
       Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 113 million kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.65%
                                          hydro: 97.35%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 174.09 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 1 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 70 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide
                                          made from chrysanthemums), bananas,
                                          beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
                                 Exports: $61 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
                      Exports - partners: EU 56.9%, Pakistan 12.3%, US 9.2%,
                                          China 4.4% Malaysia 4.4% (2000 est.)
                                 Imports: $248 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment,
                                          steel, petroleum products, cement
                                          and construction material
                      Imports - partners: Kenya 29.4%, EU 28%, US 10%, India
                                          4.4%, Tanzania 2.2% (2000 est.)
                         Debt - external: $1.3 billion (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $372.9 million (1999)
                                Currency: Rwandan franc (RWF)
                           Currency code: RWF
                          Exchange rates: Rwandan francs per US dollar -
                                          456.81 (January 2002), 442.99
                                          (2001), 389.70 (2000), 333.94 (1999)
                                          312.31 (1998), 301.53 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Rwanda
          Telephones - main lines in use: 11,000 (1999)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 11,000 (1999)
                                          note: Rwanda has mobile cellular
                                          service between Kigali and several
                                          prefecture capitals (2002)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: telephone system
                                          primarily serves business and
                                          domestic: the capital, Kigali, is
                                          connected to the centers of the
                                          prefectures by microwave radio relay
                                          and, recently, by cellular telephone
                                          service; much of the network depends
                                          on wire and HF radiotelephone
                                          international: international
                                          connections employ microwave radio
                                          relay to neighboring countries and
                                          satellite communications to more
                                          distant countries; satellite earth
                                          stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
                                          in Kigali (includes telex and
                                          telefax service)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3 (two main FM programs are
                                          broadcast through a system of
                                          repeaters and the third FM program
                                          is a 24 hour BBC program), shortwave
                                          1 (2002)
                                  Radios: 601,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: NA
                             Televisions: NA; probably less than 1,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .rw
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
                          Internet users: 5,000 (2001)
     Transportation Rwanda
                                Railways: 0 km
                                Highways: total: 12,000 km
                                          paved: 1,000 km
                                          unpaved: 11,000 km (1997 est.)
                               Waterways: note: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-
                                          draft barges and native craft
                       Ports and harbors: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye
                                Airports: 8 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 4
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 2
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 4
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 3 (2001)
     Military Rwanda
                       Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,858,443 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 946,990 (2002 est.)
           Military expenditures - dollar $58 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 3.1% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Rwanda
                Disputes - international: Tutsi, Hutu and other ethnic groups,
                                          political rebels, and various
                                          government forces continue fighting
                                          in Great Lakes region, transcending
                                          the boundaries of Burundi,
                                          Democratic Republic of the Congo,
                                          Rwanda, and Uganda

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