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4 definitions found
 for Russia
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Russia \Rus"sia\, n.
     A country of Europe and Asia.
     [1913 Webster]
     Russia iron, a kind of sheet iron made in Russia, having a
        lustrous blue-black surface.
     Russia leather, a soft kind of leather, made originally in
        Russia but now elsewhere, having a peculiar odor from
        being impregnated with an oil obtained from birch bark. It
        is much used in bookbinding, on account of its not being
        subject to mold, and being proof against insects.
     Russia matting, matting manufactured in Russia from the
        inner bark of the linden ({Tilia Europaea).
        [1913 Webster]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern
           Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other
           soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia and
           others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991 [syn:
           Soviet Union, Russia, Union of Soviet Socialist
           Republics, USSR]
      2: formerly the largest Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR
         occupying eastern Europe and northern Asia [syn: Soviet
         Russia, Russia, Russian Soviet Federated Socialist
      3: a former empire in eastern Europe and northern Asia created
         in the 14th century with Moscow as the capital; powerful in
         the 17th and 18th centuries under Peter the Great and
         Catherine the Great when Saint Petersburg was the capital;
         overthrown by revolution in 1917
      4: a federation in northeastern Europe and northern Asia;
         formerly Soviet Russia; since 1991 an independent state [syn:
         Russia, Russian Federation]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Russia
                              Background: The defeat of the Russian Empire in
                                          World War I led to the seizure of
                                          power by the Communists and the
                                          formation of the USSR. The brutal
                                          rule of Josef STALIN (1924-53)
                                          strengthened Russian dominance of
                                          the Soviet Union at a cost of tens
                                          of millions of lives. The Soviet
                                          economy and society stagnated in the
                                          following decades until General
                                          Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-
                                          91) introduced glasnost (openness)
                                          and perestroika (restructuring) in
                                          an attempt to modernize Communism,
                                          but his initiatives inadvertently
                                          released forces that by December
                                          1991 splintered the USSR into 15
                                          independent republics. Since then,
                                          Russia has struggled in its efforts
                                          to build a democratic political
                                          system and market economy to replace
                                          the strict social, political, and
                                          economic controls of the Communist
                                          period. A determined guerrilla
                                          conflict still plagues Russia in
     Geography Russia
                                Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the
                                          Urals is sometimes included with
                                          Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean,
                                          between Europe and the North Pacific
                  Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 17,075,200 sq km
                                          water: 79,400 sq km
                                          land: 16,995,800 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.8 times the
                                          size of the US
                         Land boundaries: total: 19,990 km
                                          border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km,
                                          Belarus 959 km, China (southeast)
                                          3,605 km, China (south) 40 km,
                                          Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km,
                                          Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km,
                                          North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km,
                                          Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227
                                          km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway 196
                                          km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206
                                          km, Ukraine 1,576 km
                               Coastline: 37,653 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: ranges from steppes in the south
                                          through humid continental in much of
                                          European Russia; subarctic in
                                          Siberia to tundra climate in the
                                          polar north; winters vary from cool
                                          along Black Sea coast to frigid in
                                          Siberia; summers vary from warm in
                                          the steppes to cool along Arctic
                                 Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of
                                          Urals; vast coniferous forest and
                                          tundra in Siberia; uplands and
                                          mountains along southern border
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
                                          highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m
                       Natural resources: wide natural resource base including
                                          major deposits of oil, natural gas,
                                          coal, and many strategic minerals,
                                          note: formidable obstacles of
                                          climate, terrain, and distance
                                          hinder exploitation of natural
                                Land use: arable land: 7.46%
                                          permanent crops: 0.11%
                                          other: 92.43% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 46,630 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a
                                          major impediment to development;
                                          volcanic activity in the Kuril
                                          Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes
                                          on the Kamchatka Peninsula
            Environment - current issues: air pollution from heavy industry,
                                          emissions of coal-fired electric
                                          plants, and transportation in major
                                          cities; industrial, municipal, and
                                          agricultural pollution of inland
                                          waterways and seacoasts;
                                          deforestation; soil erosion; soil
                                          contamination from improper
                                          application of agricultural
                                          chemicals; scattered areas of
                                          sometimes intense radioactive
                                          contamination; groundwater
                                          contamination from toxic waste
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                              agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-
                                          Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-
                                          Marine Living Resources, Antarctic
                                          Seals, Antarctic Treaty,
                                          Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Endangered Species, Environmental
                                          Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
                                          of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
                                          Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Wetlands, Whaling
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol
                        Geography - note: largest country in the world in
                                          terms of area but unfavorably
                                          located in relation to major sea
                                          lanes of the world; despite its
                                          size, much of the country lacks
                                          proper soils and climates (either
                                          too cold or too dry) for
                                          agriculture; Mount Elbrus is
                                          Europe's tallest peak
     People Russia
                              Population: 144,978,573 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.7% (male 12,334,659;
                                          female 11,840,058)
                                          15-64 years: 70.2% (male 49,330,660;
                                          female 52,402,610)
                                          65 years and over: 13.1% (male
                                          6,150,775; female 12,919,811) (2002
                  Population growth rate: -0.33% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 9.71 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 13.91 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.88 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 19.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.5 years
                                          female: 72.97 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 62.29 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.18% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 130,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 850 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Russian(s)
                                          adjective: Russian
                           Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian
                                          3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%,
                                          Belarusian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%,
                                          other 8.1%
                               Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other
                               Languages: Russian, other
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 98%
                                          male: 100%
                                          female: 97% (1989 est.)
     Government Russia
                            Country name: conventional long form: Russian
                                          conventional short form: Russia
                                          local long form: Rossiyskaya
                                          former: Russian Empire, Russian
                                          Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
                                          local short form: Rossiya
                         Government type: federation
                                 Capital: Moscow
                Administrative divisions: 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular -
                                          oblast), 21 republics* (respublik,
                                          singular - respublika), 10
                                          autonomous okrugs**(avtonomnykh
                                          okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy
                                          okrug), 6 krays*** (krayev, singular
                                          - kray), 2 federal cities (singular
                                          - gorod)****, and 1 autonomous
                                          oblast*****(avtonomnaya oblast');
                                          Adygeya (Maykop)*, Aginskiy
                                          Buryatskiy (Aginskoye)**, Altay
                                          (Gorno-Altaysk)*, Altayskiy
                                          (Barnaul)***, Amurskaya
                                          (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'skaya,
                                          Astrakhanskaya, Bashkortostan
                                          (Ufa)*, Belgorodskaya, Bryanskaya,
                                          Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude)*, Chechnya
                                          (Groznyy)*, Chelyabinskaya,
                                          Chitinskaya, Chukotskiy (Anadyr')**,
                                          Chuvashiya (Cheboksary)*, Dagestan
                                          (Makhachkala)*, Evenkiyskiy
                                          (Tura)**, Ingushetiya (Nazran')*,
                                          Irkutskaya, Ivanovskaya, Kabardino-
                                          Balkariya (Nal'chik)*,
                                          Kaliningradskaya, Kalmykiya
                                          (Elista)*, Kaluzhskaya, Kamchatskaya
                                          Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk)*,
                                          Kareliya (Petrozavodsk)*,
                                          Kemerovskaya, Khabarovskiy***,
                                          Khakasiya (Abakan)*, Khanty-
                                          Mansiyskiy (Khanty-Mansiysk)**,
                                          Kirovskaya, Komi (Syktyvkar)*,
                                          Koryakskiy (Palana)**, Kostromskaya,
                                          Krasnodarskiy***, Krasnoyarskiy***,
                                          Kurganskaya, Kurskaya,
                                          Leningradskaya, Lipetskaya,
                                          Magadanskaya, Mariy-El (Yoshkar-
                                          Ola)*, Mordoviya (Saransk)*,
                                          Moskovskaya, Moskva (Moscow)****,
                                          Murmanskaya, Nenetskiy (Nar'yan-
                                          Mar)**, Nizhegorodskaya,
                                          Novgorodskaya, Novosibirskaya,
                                          Omskaya, Orenburgskaya, Orlovskaya
                                          (Orel), Penzenskaya, Permskaya,
                                          Komi-Permyatskiy (Kudymkar)**,
                                          Primorskiy (Vladivostok)***,
                                          Pskovskaya, Rostovskaya,
                                          Ryazanskaya, Sakha (Yakutiya)*,
                                          Sakhalinskaya (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk),
                                          Samarskaya, Sankt-Peterburg (Saint
                                          Petersburg)****, Saratovskaya,
                                          Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya [North
                                          Ossetia] (Vladikavkaz)*,
                                          Smolenskaya, Stavropol'skiy***,
                                          Sverdlovskaya (Yekaterinburg),
                                          Tambovskaya, Tatarstan (Kazan')*,
                                          Taymyrskiy (Dudinka)**, Tomskaya,
                                          Tul'skaya, Tverskaya, Tyumenskaya,
                                          Tyva (Kyzyl)*, Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)*,
                                          Ul'yanovskaya, Ust'-Ordynskiy
                                          Buryatskiy (Ust'-Ordynskiy)**,
                                          Vladimirskaya, Volgogradskaya,
                                          Vologodskaya, Voronezhskaya, Yamalo-
                                          Nenetskiy (Salekhard)**,
                                          Yaroslavskaya, Yevreyskaya*****;
                                          note - when using a place name with
                                          an adjectival ending 'skaya' or
                                          'skiy,' the word Oblast' or
                                          Avonomnyy Okrug or Kray should be
                                          added to the place name
                                          note: administrative divisions have
                                          the same names as their
                                          administrative centers (exceptions
                                          have the administrative center name
                                          following in parentheses)
                            Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
                            Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993
                            Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial
                                          review of legislative acts
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Vladimir
                                          Vladimirovich PUTIN (acting
                                          president since 31 December 1999,
                                          president since 7 May 2000)
                                          head of government: Premier Mikhail
                                          Mikhaylovich KASYANOV (since 7 May
                                          2000); Deputy Premiers Aleksey
                                          Leonidovich KUDRIN (since 18 May
                                          2000), Aleksey Vasilyevich GORDEYEV
                                          (since 20 May 2000), Viktor
                                          Borisovich KHRISTENKO (since 31 May
                                          1999), Valentina Ivanovna MATVIYENKO
                                          (since 22 September 1998)
                                          cabinet: Ministries of the
                                          Government or "Government" composed
                                          of the premier and his deputies,
                                          ministers, and other agency heads;
                                          all are appointed by the president
                                          note: there is also a Presidential
                                          Administration (PA) that provides
                                          staff and policy support to the
                                          president, drafts presidential
                                          decrees, and coordinates policy
                                          among government agencies; a
                                          Security Council also reports
                                          directly to the president
                                          election results: Vladimir
                                          Vladimirovich PUTIN elected
                                          president; percent of vote -
                                          Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN 52.9%,
                                          Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV 29.2%,
                                          Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a four-year term;
                                          election last held 26 March 2000
                                          (next to be held NA 2004); note - no
                                          vice president; if the president
                                          dies in office, cannot exercise his
                                          powers because of ill health, is
                                          impeached, or resigns, the premier
                                          succeeds him; the premier serves as
                                          acting president until a new
                                          presidential election is held, which
                                          must be within three months; premier
                                          appointed by the president with the
                                          approval of the Duma
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or
                                          Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of
                                          the Federation Council or Sovet
                                          Federatsii (178 seats; as of July
                                          2000, members appointed by the top
                                          executive and legislative officials
                                          in each of the 89 federal
                                          administrative units - oblasts,
                                          krays, republics, autonomous okrugs
                                          and oblasts, and the federal cities
                                          of Moscow and Saint Petersburg;
                                          members serve four-year terms) and
                                          the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya
                                          Duma (450 seats; 225 seats elected
                                          by proportional representation from
                                          party lists winning at least 5% of
                                          the vote, and 225 seats from single-
                                          member constituencies; members are
                                          elected by direct popular vote to
                                          serve four-year terms)
                                          election results: State Duma -
                                          percent of vote received by parties
                                          clearing the 5% threshold entitling
                                          them to a proportional share of the
                                          225 party list seats - KPRF 24.29%,
                                          Unity 23.32%, OVR 13.33%, Union of
                                          Right Forces 8.52%, LDPR 5.98%,
                                          Yabloko 5.93%; seats by party - KPRF
                                          113, Unity 72, OVR 67, Union of
                                          Rightist Forces 29, LDPR 17, Yabloko
                                          21, other 16, independents 106,
                                          repeat election required 8, vacant 1
                                          elections: State Duma - last held 19
                                          December 1999 (next to be held NA
                                          December 2003)
                         Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court;
                                          Superior Court of Arbitration;
                                          judges for all courts are appointed
                                          for life by the Federation Council
                                          on the recommendation of the
           Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Mikhail Ivanovich
                                          LAPSHIN]; Communist Party of the
                                          Russian Federation or KPRF [Gennadiy
                                          Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Fatherland-
                                          All Russia or OVR [Yuriy
                                          Mikhaylovich LUZHKOV]; Liberal
                                          Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR
                                          [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY];
                                          Union of Rightist Forces [Anatoliy
                                          Borisovich CHUBAYS, Yegor Timurovich
                                          GAYDAR, Irina Mutsuovna KHAKAMADA,
                                          Boris Yefimovich NEMTSOV]; Unity
                                          [Sergey Kuzhugetovich SHOYGU];
                                          Yabloko Bloc [Grigoriy Alekseyevich
                                          note: some 150 political parties,
                                          blocs, and movements registered with
                                          the Justice Ministry as of the 19
                                          December 1998 deadline to be
                                          eligible to participate in the 19
                                          December 1999 Duma elections; of
                                          these, 36 political organizations
                                          actually qualified to run slates of
                                          candidates on the Duma party list
                                          ballot, 6 parties cleared the 5%
                                          threshold to win a proportional
                                          share of the 225 party seats in the
                                          Duma, 9 other organizations hold
                                          seats in the Duma: Bloc of Nikolayev
                                          and Academician Fedorov, Congress of
                                          Russian Communities, Movement in
                                          Support of the Army, Our Home Is
                                          Russia, Party of Pensioners, Power
                                          to the People, Russian All-People's
                                          Union, Russian Socialist Party, and
                                          Spiritual Heritage; primary
                                          political blocs include pro-market
                                          democrats - (Yabloko Bloc and Union
                                          of Right Forces), anti-market and/or
                                          ultranationalist (Communist Party of
                                          the Russian Federation and Liberal
                                          Democratic Party of Russia)
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), ASEAN
                           participation: (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS,
                                          CCC, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EAPC,
                                          EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, G- 8, IAEA, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC,
                                          IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
                                          IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA
                                          (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM
                                          (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW,
                                          OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security
                                          Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE,
                                          UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOVIC,
                                          UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU,
                                          WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
                                          (observer), ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Yuriy
                                          Viktorovich USHAKOV
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
                                          consulate(s) general: New York, San
                                          Francisco, and Seattle
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701,
                                          5704, 5708
                                          chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20007
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
                                      US: Alexander VERSHBOW
                                          embassy: Bolshoy Devyatinskiy
                                          Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
                                          mailing address: APO AE 09721
                                          telephone: [7] (095) 728-5000
                                          FAX: [7] (095) 728-5203
                                          consulate(s) general: Saint
                                          Petersburg, Vladivostok,
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of
                                          white (top), blue, and red
     Economy Russia
                      Economy - overview: A decade after the implosion of the
                                          Soviet Union in December 1991,
                                          Russia is still struggling to
                                          establish a modern market economy
                                          and achieve strong economic growth.
                                          In contrast to its trading partners
                                          in Central Europe - which were able
                                          to overcome the initial production
                                          declines that accompanied the launch
                                          of market reforms within three to
                                          five years - Russia saw its economy
                                          contract for five years, as the
                                          executive and legislature dithered
                                          over the implementation of many of
                                          the basic foundations of a market
                                          economy. Russia achieved a slight
                                          recovery in 1997, but the
                                          government's stubborn budget
                                          deficits and the country's poor
                                          business climate made it vulnerable
                                          when the global financial crisis
                                          swept through in 1998. The crisis
                                          culminated in the August
                                          depreciation of the ruble, a debt
                                          default by the government, and a
                                          sharp deterioration in living
                                          standards for most of the
                                          population. The economy subsequently
                                          has rebounded, growing by an average
                                          of more than 6% annually in 1999-
                                          2001 on the back of higher oil
                                          prices and a weak ruble. This
                                          recovery, along with a renewed
                                          government effort in 2000 and 2001
                                          to advance lagging structural
                                          reforms, have raised business and
                                          investor confidence over Russia's
                                          prospects in its second decade of
                                          transition. Yet serious problems
                                          persist. Russia remains heavily
                                          dependent on exports of commodities,
                                          particularly oil, natural gas,
                                          metals, and timber, which account
                                          for over 80% of exports, leaving the
                                          country vulnerable to swings in
                                          world prices. Russia's industrial
                                          base is increasingly dilapidated and
                                          must be replaced or modernized if
                                          the country is to achieve
                                          sustainable economic growth. Other
                                          problems include widespread
                                          corruption, lack of a strong legal
                                          system, capital flight, and brain
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2
                                          trillion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,300
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 7%
                                          industry: 37%
                                          services: 56% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 40% (1999 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.4%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 33.5% (2001 est.)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 39.9 (2000)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 21.9% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 71.3 million (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 10.8%, industry 27.8%,
                                          services 61.4% (2001 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 8.7% (2001 est.), plus considerable
                                  Budget: revenues: $45 billion
                                          expenditures: $43 billion, including
                                          capital expenditures of $NA (2001
                              Industries: complete range of mining and
                                          extractive industries producing
                                          coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and
                                          metals; all forms of machine
                                          building from rolling mills to high-
                                          performance aircraft and space
                                          vehicles; shipbuilding; road and
                                          rail transportation equipment;
                                          communications equipment;
                                          agricultural machinery, tractors,
                                          and construction equipment; electric
                                          power generating and transmitting
                                          equipment; medical and scientific
                                          instruments; consumer durables,
                                          textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
       Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 835.572 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 66.14%
                                          hydro: 18.89%
                                          other: 0.31% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 14.66%
               Electricity - consumption: 767.082 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 18 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 8 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
                                          vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
                                 Exports: $103.3 billion (2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products,
                                          natural gas, wood and wood products,
                                          metals, chemicals, and a wide
                                          variety of civilian and military
                      Exports - partners: Germany 9.0%, US 7.2%, Italy 7.0%,
                                          Belarus 5.4%, China 5.1%, Ukraine
                                          4.9%, Netherlands (2000)
                                 Imports: $51.7 billion (2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, consumer
                                          goods, medicines, meat, grain,
                                          sugar, semifinished metal products
                      Imports - partners: Germany 11.5%, Belarus 11.1%,
                                          Ukraine 10.8%, US 8.0%, Kazakhstan
                                          6.5%, Italy 3.6% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $157 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $8.523 billion (1995)
                                Currency: Russian ruble (RUR)
                           Currency code: RUR
                          Exchange rates: Russian rubles per US dollar -
                                          30.4669 (January 2002), 29.1685
                                          (2001), 28.1292 (2000), 24.6199
                                          (1999), 9.7051 (1998), 5,785 (1997)
                                          note: the post-1 January 1998 ruble
                                          is equal to 1,000 of the pre-
                                          1 January 1998 rubles
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Russia
          Telephones - main lines in use: 30 million (1998)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.5 million (October 2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: the telephone
                                          system has undergone significant
                                          changes in the 1990s; there are more
                                          than 1,000 companies licensed to
                                          offer communication services; access
                                          to digital lines has improved,
                                          particularly in urban centers;
                                          Internet and e-mail services are
                                          improving; Russia has made progress
                                          toward building the
                                          telecommunications infrastructure
                                          necessary for a market economy;
                                          however, a large demand for main
                                          line service remains unsatisfied
                                          domestic: cross-country digital
                                          trunk lines run from Saint
                                          Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from
                                          Moscow to Novorossiysk; the
                                          telephone systems in 60 regional
                                          capitals have modern digital
                                          infrastructures; cellular services,
                                          both analog and digital, are
                                          available in many areas; in rural
                                          areas, the telephone services are
                                          still outdated, inadequate, and low
                                          international: Russia is connected
                                          internationally by three undersea
                                          fiber-optic cables; digital switches
                                          in several cities provide more than
                                          50,000 lines for international
                                          calls; satellite earth stations
                                          provide access to Intelsat,
                                          Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat,
                                          and Orbita systems
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 420, FM 447, shortwave 56 (1998)
                                  Radios: 61.5 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 7,306 (1998)
                             Televisions: 60.5 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .ru
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 35 (2000)
                          Internet users: 9.2 million (2000)
     Transportation Russia
                                Railways: total: 87,157 km
                                          broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          (40,300 km are electrified)
                                          narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge
                                          (installed on Sakhalin Island)
                                          note: an additional 63,000 km of
                                          broad gauge routes serve specific
                                          industries and are not available for
                                          common carrier use (2002)
                                Highways: total: 952,000 km
                                          paved: 752,000 km (including about
                                          336,000 km of conventionally paved
                                          roads, and about 416,000 km of roads
                                          with all-weather gravel surfaces)
                                          unpaved: 200,000 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1998)
                               Waterways: 95,900 km (total routes in general
                                          note: routes with navigation guides
                                          serving the Russian River Fleet -
                                          95,900 km; routes with night
                                          navigational aids - 60,400 km; man-
                                          made navigable routes - 16,900 km
                                          (Jan 1994)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 48,000 km; petroleum
                                          products 15,000 km; natural gas
                                          140,000 km (June 1993 est.)
                       Ports and harbors: Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky,
                                          Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', De-Kastri,
                                          Indigirskiy, Kaliningrad,
                                          Kandalaksha, Kazan', Khabarovsk,
                                          Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Lazarev, Mago,
                                          Mezen', Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka,
                                          Nevel'sk, Novorossiysk, Onega,
                                          Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Rostov,
                                          Shakhtersk, Saint Petersburg, Sochi,
                                          Taganrog, Tuapse, Uglegorsk, Vanino,
                                          Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochnyy,
                         Merchant marine: total: 888 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 4,390,745 GRT/5,357,436 DWT
                                          ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk
                                          21, cargo 556, chemical tanker 7,
                                          combination bulk 21, combination
                                          ore/oil 6, container 29, multi-
                                          functional large-load carrier 1,
                                          passenger 41, passenger/cargo 3,
                                          petroleum tanker 153, refrigerated
                                          cargo 22, roll on/roll off 20,
                                          short-sea passenger 7
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Belize 1, Cambodia 1,
                                          Cyprus 9, Denmark 1, Estonia 4,
                                          Greece 3, Honduras 1, Latvia 4,
                                          Lithuania 3, Moldova 3, Netherlands
                                          1, South Korea 1, Turkey 18,
                                          Turkmenistan 2, Ukraine 10, United
                                          Kingdom 5, United States 1 (2002
                                Airports: 2,743 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 471
                                          over 3,047 m: 56
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 178
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 69
                                          under 914 m: 92 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2,272
                                          over 3,047 m: 28
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 118
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 204
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 324
                                          under 914 m: 1,598 (2001)
     Military Russia
                         Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces,
                                            Space Forces, Airborne Forces,
                                            Strategic Rocket Forces
          Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
          Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 38,906,796 (2002
       Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 30,392,946 (2002
                                   service: est.)
      Military manpower - reaching military males: 1,242,778 (2002 est.)
                              age annually:
             Military expenditures - dollar $NA
         Military expenditures - percent of NA%
     Transnational Issues Russia
                Disputes - international: 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness,
                                          Friendship, and Cooperation commits
                                          Russia and China to seek peaceable
                                          unanimity over disputed alluvial
                                          islands at the confluence of the
                                          Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small
                                          island on the Argun; Russia hastens
                                          to delimit and demarcate boundary
                                          with Kazakhstan to limit illegal
                                          border activities; in 2002, Russia
                                          is the first state to submit data to
                                          the UN Commission on the Limits of
                                          the Continental Shelf to extend its
                                          continental shelf by claiming two
                                          undersea ridges in the Arctic;
                                          Russia signed bilateral agreements
                                          with Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan
                                          delimiting the Caspian seabed, but
                                          littoral states are far from
                                          multilateral agreement on dividing
                                          the waters and seabed regimes - Iran
                                          insists on division of Caspian Sea
                                          into five equal sectors while
                                          Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and
                                          Turkmenistan have generally agreed
                                          upon equidistant seabed boundaries;
                                          despite recent discussions, Russia
                                          and Norway dispute their maritime
                                          limits in the Barents Sea and
                                          Russia's fishing rights beyond
                                          Svalbard's territorial limits within
                                          the Svalbard Treaty zone; Russia
                                          continues to reject signing and
                                          ratifying the joint December 1996
                                          technical border agreement with
                                          Estonia; the Russian Duma refuses to
                                          ratify boundary treaties signed with
                                          Latvia and Lithuania; Russia and
                                          Ukraine have successfully delimited
                                          land boundary in 2001, but disagree
                                          on delimitation of maritime boundary
                                          in the Sea of Azov and Black Sea;
                                          boundary with Georgia has been
                                          largely delimited, but not
                                          demarcated; several small, strategic
                                          segments remain in dispute; islands
                                          of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan,
                                          and the Habomai group occupied by
                                          the Soviet Union in 1945, now
                                          administered by Russia, claimed by
                           Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of illicit
                                          cannabis and opium poppy and
                                          producer of amphetamine, mostly for
                                          domestic consumption; government has
                                          active eradication program;
                                          increasingly used as transshipment
                                          point for Southwest and Southeast
                                          Asian opiates and cannabis and Latin
                                          American cocaine to Western Europe,
                                          possibly to the US, and growing
                                          domestic market; major source of
                                          heroin precursor chemicals;
                                          corruption and organized crime are
                                          major concerns; heroin an increasing
                                          threat in domestic drug market

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Russia, OH -- U.S. village in Ohio
     Population (2000):    551
     Housing Units (2000): 206
     Land area (2000):     0.645213 sq. miles (1.671095 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    0.645213 sq. miles (1.671095 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            69344
     Located within:       Ohio (OH), FIPS 39
     Location:             40.234696 N, 84.410416 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     45363
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
      Russia, OH

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