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2 definitions found
 for Romania
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in southeastern Europe with a short coastline on
           the Black Sea [syn: Romania, Roumania, Rumania]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Romania
                              Background: Soviet occupation following World
                                          War II led to the formation of a
                                          Communist "peoples republic" in 1947
                                          and the abdication of the king. The
                                          decades-long rule of dictator
                                          Nicolae CEAUSESCU and his Securitate
                                          police state became increasingly
                                          oppressive and draconian through the
                                          1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and
                                          executed in late 1989. Former
                                          communists dominated the government
                                          until 1996 when they were swept from
                                          power by a fractious coalition of
                                          center-right parties. Currently, the
                                          Party of Social Democracy forms a
                                          nominally minority government, which
                                          governs with the support of the
                                          opposition Democratic Union of
                                          Hungarians in Romania. Much economic
                                          restructuring remains to be carried
                                          out before Romania can achieve its
                                          hope of joining the EU.
     Geography Romania
                                Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the
                                          Black Sea, between Bulgaria and
                  Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 237,500 sq km
                                          land: 230,340 sq km
                                          water: 7,160 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,508 km
                                          border countries: Bulgaria 608 km,
                                          Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km,
                                          Yugoslavia 476 km, Ukraine (north)
                                          362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
                               Coastline: 225 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with
                                          frequent snow and fog; sunny summers
                                          with frequent showers and
                                 Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is
                                          separated from the Plain of Moldavia
                                          on the east by the Carpathian
                                          Mountains and separated from the
                                          Walachian Plain on the south by the
                                          Transylvanian Alps
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining),
                                          timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore,
                                          salt, arable land, hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 40.57%
                                          permanent crops: 2.4%
                                          other: 57.03% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 28,800 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: earthquakes, most severe in south
                                          and southwest; geologic structure
                                          and climate promote landslides
            Environment - current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water
                                          pollution; air pollution in south
                                          from industrial effluents;
                                          contamination of Danube delta
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic
                              agreements: Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
                                          Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol, Desertification,
                                          Endangered Species, Environmental
                                          Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
                                          of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
                                          Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental
                        Geography - note: controls most easily traversable
                                          land route between the Balkans,
                                          Moldova, and Ukraine
     People Romania
                              Population: 22,317,730 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.4% (male 1,992,505;
                                          female 1,898,122)
                                          15-64 years: 68.8% (male 7,618,801;
                                          female 7,726,300)
                                          65 years and over: 13.8% (male
                                          1,274,881; female 1,807,121) (2002
                  Population growth rate: -0.21% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 10.81 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 12.27 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.95 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 18.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.39 years
                                          female: 74.39 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 66.62 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 7,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 350 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Romanian(s)
                                          adjective: Romanian
                           Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 7.1%, Roma
                                          1.8%, German 0.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%,
                                          other 0.8% (1992)
                               Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman
                                          Catholic 6%, Protestant 6%,
                                          unaffiliated 18%
                               Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 97%
                                          male: 98%
                                          female: 95% (1992 est.)
     Government Romania
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Romania
                                          local short form: Romania
                                          local long form: none
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Bucharest
                Administrative divisions: 41 counties (judete, singular -
                                          judet) and 1 municipality*
                                          (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges,
                                          Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud,
                                          Botosani, Braila, Brasov,
                                          Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-
                                          Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna,
                                          Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj,
                                          Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara,
                                          Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures,
                                          Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt,
                                          Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu,
                                          Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea,
                                          Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
                            Independence: 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed
                                          from Turkey; independence recognized
                                          13 July 1878 by the Treaty of
                                          Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 26 March
                                          1881; republic proclaimed 30
                                          December 1947)
                        National holiday: Unification Day (of Romania and
                                          Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
                            Constitution: 8 December 1991
                            Legal system: former mixture of civil law system
                                          and communist legal theory; is now
                                          based on the constitution of
                                          France's Fifth Republic
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Ion
                                          ILIESCU (since 20 December 2000)
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a four-year term;
                                          election last held 26 November 2000,
                                          with runoff between the top two
                                          candidates held 10 December 2000
                                          (next to be held NA November/
                                          December 2004); prime minister
                                          appointed by the president
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Adrian NASTASE (since 29 December
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the prime minister
                                          election results: percent of vote -
                                          Ion ILIESCU 66.84%, Corneliu Vadim
                                          TUDOR 33.16%
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament
                                          consists of the Senate or Senat (140
                                          seats; members are elected by
                                          direct, popular vote on a
                                          proportional representation basis to
                                          serve four-year terms) and the
                                          Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea
                                          Deputatilor (345 seats; members are
                                          elected by direct, popular vote on a
                                          proportional representation basis to
                                          serve four-year terms)
                                          elections: Senate - last held 26
                                          November 2000 (next to be held in
                                          the fall of 2004); Chamber of
                                          Deputies - last held 26 November
                                          2000 (next to be held in the fall of
                                          election results: Senate - percent
                                          of vote by party - PDSR 37.1%, PRM
                                          21.0%, PD 7.6%, PNL 7.5%, UDMR 6.9%;
                                          seats by party - PDSR 65, PRM 37, PD
                                          13, PNL 13, UDMR 12; Chamber of
                                          Deputies - percent of vote by party
                                          - PDSR 36.6%, PRM 19.5%, PD 7.0%,
                                          PNL, 6.9%, UDMR 6.8%; seats by party
                                          - PDSR 155, PRM 84, PD 31, PNL 30,
                                          UDMR 27, ethnic minorities 18
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (judges are
                                          appointed by the president on the
                                          recommendation of the Superior
                                          Council of Magistrates)
           Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or PD [Traian
                                          BASESCU]; Democratic Union of
                                          Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela
                                          MARKO]; National Liberal Party or
                                          PNL [Valeriu STOICA]; Party of
                                          Social Democracy or PSD [Adrian
                                          NASTASE]; note - used to be known as
                                          the Party of Social Democracy in
                                          Romania or PDSR; Romania Mare Party
                                          (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM
                                          [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]
            Political pressure groups and various human rights and
                                 leaders: professional associations
               International organization ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC,
                           participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU
                                          (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA,
                                          IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD,
                                          IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
                                          IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer),
                                          MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS
                                          (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP,
                                          UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
                                          UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU
                                          (associate partner), WFTU, WHO,
                                          WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sorin
                                          Dumitru DUCARU
                                          consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los
                                          Angeles, and New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848,
                                          chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Michael
                                      US: GUEST
                                          embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9,
                                          mailing address: American Embassy
                                          Bucharest, Department of State,
                                          Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
                                          telephone: [40] (1) 210 40 42
                                          FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95
                                          branch office(s): Cluj-Napoca
                        Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue
                                          (hoist side), yellow, and red; the
                                          national coat of arms that used to
                                          be centered in the yellow band has
                                          been removed; now similar to the
                                          flag of Chad, also resembles the
                                          flags of Andorra and Moldova
     Economy Romania
                      Economy - overview: Romania, one of the poorest
                                          countries of Central and Eastern
                                          Europe, began the transition from
                                          Communism in 1989 with a largely
                                          obsolete industrial base and a
                                          pattern of output unsuited to the
                                          country's needs. Over the past
                                          decade economic restructuring has
                                          lagged behind most other countries
                                          in the region. Consequently, living
                                          standards have continued to fall -
                                          real wages are down perhaps 40%. The
                                          country emerged in 2000 from a
                                          punishing three-year recession
                                          thanks to strong demand in EU export
                                          markets, and despite the global
                                          slowdown in 2001, strong domestic
                                          activity in construction,
                                          agriculture, and consumption led to
                                          4.8% growth. A standby agreement
                                          with the IMF - covering the period
                                          October 2001 to March 2003 -
                                          provides a key opportunity for
                                          vigorous privatization, regulatory
                                          reform, deficit reduction, and the
                                          curbing of inflation. The government
                                          in the past has not been able to
                                          fully implement IMF agreements; its
                                          degree of success in this case will
                                          affect prospects for joining the EU.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $152.7
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,800
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15%
                                          industry: 30%
                                          services: 55% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: 44.5% (2000)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.7%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 22.7% (1994)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 30.5 (1997)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 34.5% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 9.9 million (1999 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 25%,
                                          services 35% (1998)
                       Unemployment rate: 9.1% (2001)
                                  Budget: revenues: $11.7 billion
                                          expenditures: $12.4 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1999 est.)
                              Industries: textiles and footwear, light
                                          machinery and auto assembly, mining,
                                          timber, construction materials,
                                          metallurgy, chemicals, food
                                          processing, petroleum refining
       Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (2001)
                Electricity - production: 49.787 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 52.58%
                                          hydro: 36.92%
                                          other: 0.01% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 10.49%
               Electricity - consumption: 45.677 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 1.4 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 775 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower
                                          seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
                                 Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear 26%, metals
                                          and metal products 15%, machinery
                                          and equipment 11%, minerals and
                                          fuels 6% (1999)
                      Exports - partners: Italy 22%, Germany 16%, France 7%,
                                          Turkey 6%, US (2000)
                                 Imports: $14.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 23%, fuels
                                          and minerals 12%, chemicals 9%,
                                          textile and products 19% (1999)
                      Imports - partners: Italy 19%, Germany 15%, Russia 9%,
                                          France 6% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $11.6 billion (2001 est.)
                                Currency: leu (ROL)
                           Currency code: ROL
                          Exchange rates: lei per US dollar - 35,052.0
                                          (January 2002), 29,060.8 (2001),
                                          21,708.7 (2000), 15,332.8 (1999),
                                          8,875.6 (1998), 7,167.9 (1997); note
                                          - lei is the plural form of leu
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Romania
          Telephones - main lines in use: 3.777 million (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 645,500 (1999)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: poor domestic
                                          service, but improving
                                          domestic: 90% of telephone network
                                          is automatic; trunk network is
                                          mostly microwave radio relay, with
                                          some fiber-optic cable; about one-
                                          third of exchange capacity is
                                          digital; roughly 3,300 villages have
                                          no service
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          station - 1 Intelsat; new digital,
                                          international, direct-dial exchanges
                                          operate in Bucharest; note - Romania
                                          is an active participant in several
                                          international telecommunication
                                          network projects (1999)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)
                                  Radios: 7.2 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995)
                             Televisions: 5.25 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .ro
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 38 (2000)
                          Internet users: 800,000 (2001)
     Transportation Romania
                                Railways: total: 11,385 km (3,888 km
                                          standard gauge: 10,898 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge
                                          narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge
                                          broad gage: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
                                Highways: total: 153,359 km
                                          paved: 103,671 km (including 133 km
                                          of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 49,688 km (1998 est.)
                               Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum
                                          products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400
                                          km (1992)
                       Ports and harbors: Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia,
                                          Sulina, Tulcea
                         Merchant marine: total: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 561,470 GRT/754,836 DWT
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Greece 1, Italy 5 (2002
                                          ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 47,
                                          passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1,
                                          petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier
                                          2, roll on/roll off 4
                                Airports: 61 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 24
                                          over 3,047 m: 4
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 37
                                          under 914 m: 23 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 12
                               Heliports: 2 (2001)
     Military Romania
                        Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense
                                           Forces (AMR), Paramilitary Forces,
                                           Civil Defense, Border Guards
         Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,906,601 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 4,970,496 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 179,951 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $985 million (2002)
        Military expenditures - percent of 2.47% (2002)
     Transnational Issues Romania
                Disputes - international: Romania and Ukraine have yet to
                                          resolve claims over Ukrainian-
                                          administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island
                                          and delimitation of Black Sea
                                          maritime boundary, despite 1997
                                          bilateral treaty to find a solution
                                          in two years and numerous talks;
                                          because of a shift in the Danube
                                          course since the last correction of
                                          the boundary in 1920, a joint
                                          Bulgarian-Romanian team will
                                          recommend sovereignty changes to
                                          several islands and redefine the
                           Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for
                                          Southwest Asian heroin transiting
                                          the Balkan route and small amounts
                                          of Latin American cocaine bound for
                                          Western Europe

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