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7 definitions found
 for Peru
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in western South America; achieved independence
           from Spain in 1821; was the heart of the Inca empire from
           the 12th to 16th centuries [syn: Peru, Republic of

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Peru
                              Background: Ancient Peru was the seat of several
                                          prominent Andean civilizations, most
                                          notably that of the Incas whose
                                          empire was captured by the Spanish
                                          conquistadores in 1533. Peruvian
                                          independence was declared in 1821,
                                          and remaining Spanish forces
                                          defeated in 1824. After a dozen
                                          years of military rule, Peru
                                          returned to democratic leadership in
                                          1980, but experienced economic
                                          problems and the growth of a violent
                                          insurgency. President Alberto
                                          FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered
                                          in a decade that saw a dramatic
                                          turnaround in the economy and
                                          significant progress in curtailing
                                          guerrilla activity. Nevertheless,
                                          the president's increasing reliance
                                          on authoritarian measures and an
                                          economic slump in the late 1990s
                                          generated mounting dissatisfaction
                                          with his regime. FUJIMORI won
                                          reelection to a third term in the
                                          spring of 2000, but international
                                          pressure and corruption scandals led
                                          to his ouster by Congress in
                                          November of that year. A caretaker
                                          government oversaw new elections in
                                          the spring of 2001, which ushered in
                                          Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of
     Geography Peru
                                Location: Western South America, bordering the
                                          South Pacific Ocean, between Chile
                                          and Ecuador
                  Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W
                          Map references: South America
                                    Area: total: 1,285,220 sq km
                                          water: 5,220 sq km
                                          land: 1.28 million sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska
                         Land boundaries: total: 5,536 km
                                          border countries: Bolivia 900 km,
                                          Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km,
                                          Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador
                                          1,420 km
                               Coastline: 2,414 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 200 NM
                                 Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry
                                          desert in west; temperate to frigid
                                          in Andes
                                 Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high
                                          and rugged Andes in center (sierra),
                                          eastern lowland jungle of Amazon
                                          Basin (selva)
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Nevado Huascaran
                                          6,768 m
                       Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum,
                                          timber, fish, iron ore, coal,
                                          phosphate, potash, hydropower,
                                          natural gas
                                Land use: arable land: 2.85%
                                          permanent crops: 0.38%
                                          other: 96.77% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 11,950 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding,
                                          landslides, mild volcanic activity
            Environment - current issues: deforestation (some the result of
                                          illegal logging); overgrazing of the
                                          slopes of the costa and sierra
                                          leading to soil erosion;
                                          desertification; air pollution in
                                          Lima; pollution of rivers and
                                          coastal waters from municipal and
                                          mining wastes
              Environment - international party to: Antarctic-Environmental
                              agreements: Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
                                          Resources, Antarctic Treaty,
                                          Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol
                        Geography - note: shares control of Lago Titicaca,
                                          world's highest navigable lake, with
                                          Bolivia; remote Lake McIntyre is the
                                          ultimate source of the Amazon River
     People Peru
                              Population: 27,949,639 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 34% (male 4,820,892;
                                          female 4,671,205)
                                          15-64 years: 61.1% (male 8,598,328;
                                          female 8,492,830)
                                          65 years and over: 4.9% (male
                                          627,601; female 738,783) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.66% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 23.36 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1.01 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 38.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.59 years
                                          female: 73.12 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 68.18 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.89 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.35% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 48,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Peruvian(s)
                                          adjective: Peruvian
                           Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed
                                          Amerindian and white) 37%, white
                                          15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and
                                          other 3%
                               Religions: Roman Catholic 90%
                               Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua
                                          (official), Aymara
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 88.3%
                                          male: 94.5%
                                          female: 83% (1995 est.)
     Government Peru
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Peru
                                          local long form: Republica del Peru
                                          local short form: Peru
                         Government type: constitutional republic
                                 Capital: Lima
                Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos,
                                          singular - departamento) and 1
                                          constitutional province* (provincia
                                          constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash,
                                          Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho,
                                          Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco,
                                          Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin,
                                          La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima,
                                          Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua,
                                          Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin,
                                          Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
                                          note: the 1979 constitution mandated
                                          the creation of regions (regiones,
                                          singular - region) to function
                                          eventually as autonomous economic
                                          and administrative entities; so far,
                                          12 regions have been constituted
                                          from 23 of the 24 departments -
                                          Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres
                                          Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco,
                                          Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from
                                          Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash),
                                          Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca
                                          (from Cusco, Madre de Dios,
                                          Apurimac), La Libertad (from La
                                          Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari
                                          (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica),
                                          Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna,
                                          Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon
                                          (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca,
                                          Amazonas), San Martin (from San
                                          Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali);
                                          formation of another region has been
                                          delayed by the reluctance of the
                                          constitutional province of Callao to
                                          merge with the department of Lima;
                                          because of inadequate funding from
                                          the central government and
                                          organizational and political
                                          difficulties, the regions have yet
                                          to assume major responsibilities;
                                          the 1993 constitution retains the
                                          regions but limits their authority;
                                          the 1993 constitution also reaffirms
                                          the roles of departmental and
                                          municipal governments
                            Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
                            Constitution: 31 December 1993
                            Legal system: based on civil law system; has not
                                          accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Alejandro
                                          TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July
                                          2001); note - the president is both
                                          the chief of state and head of
                                          government; additionally two vice
                                          presidents are provided for by the
                                          constitution, First Vice President
                                          Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July
                                          2001) and Second Vice President
                                          David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)
                                          head of government: President
                                          Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28
                                          July 2001); note - the president is
                                          both the chief of state and head of
                                          government; additionally two vice
                                          presidents are provided for by the
                                          constitution, First Vice President
                                          Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July
                                          2001) and Second Vice President
                                          David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)
                                          note: Prime Minister Roberto DANINO
                                          (since 28 July 2001) does not
                                          exercise executive power; this power
                                          is in the hands of the president
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          special presidential and
                                          congressional elections held 8 April
                                          2001, with runoff election held 3
                                          June 2001; next to be held 9 April
                                          election results: President
                                          Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected
                                          president in runoff election;
                                          percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO
                                          Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic
                                          of Peru or Congresso de la Republica
                                          del Peru (120 seats; members are
                                          elected by popular vote to serve
                                          five-year terms)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA
                                          19.7%, Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM
                                          11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party
                                          - Peru Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad
                                          Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17
                                          elections: last held 8 April 2001
                                          (next to be held 9 April 2006)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte
                                          Suprema de Justicia (judges are
                                          appointed by the National Council of
                                          the Judiciary)
           Political parties and leaders: American Popular Revolutionary
                                          Alliance or APRA [Alan GARCIA];
                                          Independent Moralizing Front or FIM
                                          [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National
                                          Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN
                                          [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible
                                          or PP [Luis SOLARI]; Popular Action
                                          or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela];
                                          Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA];
                                          Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE];
                                          Union for Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA
            Political pressure groups and leftist guerrilla groups include
                                 leaders: Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso
                                          (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top
                                          leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru
                                          Revolutionary Movement or MRTA
                                          [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo
                                          AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-
               International organization ABEDA, APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
                           participation: G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA,
                                          IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
                                          IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
                                          IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO
                                          (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA,
                                          MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA,
                                          RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
                                          UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Allan
                                          chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20036
                                          consulate(s) general: Boston,
                                          Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los
                                          Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson
                                          (New Jersey), San Francisco,
                                          Washington (DC)
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860
                                          through 9869
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador John R.
                                      US: HAMILTON
                                          embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra
                                          17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
                                          mailing address: P. O. Box 1995,
                                          Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO
                                          AA 34031-5000
                                          telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
                                          FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037
                        Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red
                                          (hoist side), white, and red with
                                          the coat of arms centered in the
                                          white band; the coat of arms
                                          features a shield bearing a vicuna,
                                          cinchona tree (the source of
                                          quinine), and a yellow cornucopia
                                          spilling out gold coins, all framed
                                          by a green wreath
     Economy Peru
                      Economy - overview: Thanks to strong foreign investment
                                          and the cooperation between the
                                          government and the IMF and World
                                          Bank, growth was strong in 1994-97
                                          and inflation was brought under
                                          control. In 1998, El Nino's impact
                                          on agriculture, the financial crisis
                                          in Asia, and instability in
                                          Brazilian markets undercut growth.
                                          And 1999 was another lean year for
                                          Peru, with the aftermath of El Nino
                                          and the Asian financial crisis
                                          working its way through the economy.
                                          Political instability resulting from
                                          the presidential election and
                                          FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from
                                          office limited growth in 2000. The
                                          downturn in the global economy
                                          further depressed growth in 2001.
                                          President TOLEDO, who assumed the
                                          presidency in July 2001, is working
                                          to reinvigorate the economy and
                                          reduce unemployment. Economic growth
                                          in 2002 is projected to be 3 to
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $132
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: -0.3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,800
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%
                                          industry: 35%
                                          services: 55% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 50% (2000 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1.6%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 35.4% (1996)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 46.2 (1996)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 7.5 million (2000 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture, mining and quarrying,
                                          manufacturing, construction,
                                          transport, services
                       Unemployment rate: 9%; widespread underemployment (2001
                                  Budget: revenues: $10.4 billion
                                          expenditures: $10.4 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2002 est.)
                              Industries: mining of metals, petroleum,
                                          fishing, textiles, clothing, food
                                          processing, cement, auto assembly,
                                          steel, shipbuilding, metal
       Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 19.679 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 17.89%
                                          hydro: 81.38%
                                          other: 0.73% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 18.301 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice,
                                          wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains,
                                          coca; poultry, beef, dairy products,
                                          wool; fish
                                 Exports: $7.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: fish and fish products, gold,
                                          copper, zinc, crude petroleum and
                                          byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar,
                      Exports - partners: US 28%, UK 8%, Switzerland 8%, China
                                          6%, Japan, Chile, Brazil (2000)
                                 Imports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment,
                                          foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and
                                          steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
                      Imports - partners: US 27%, Chile 8%, Spain 6%,
                                          Venezuela 4%, Colombia, Brazil,
                                          Japan (2000)
                         Debt - external: $33.1 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $895.1 million (1995)
                                Currency: nuevo sol (PEN)
                           Currency code: PEN
                          Exchange rates: nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.4400
                                          (November 2001), 3.509 (2001),
                                          3.4900 (2000), 3.3833 (1999), 2.9300
                                          (1998), 2.6642 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Peru
          Telephones - main lines in use: 1.509 million (1998)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 504,995 (1998)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: adequate for
                                          most requirements
                                          domestic: nationwide microwave radio
                                          relay system and a domestic
                                          satellite system with 12 earth
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
                                          Ocean); Pan American submarine cable
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
                                  Radios: 6.65 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
                             Televisions: 3.06 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .pe
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10 (2000)
                          Internet users: 400,000 (2000)
     Transportation Peru
                                Railways: total: 2,102 km
                                          standard gauge: 1,695 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge
                                          narrow gauge: 407 km 0.914-m gauge
                                Highways: total: 72,900 km
                                          paved: 8,700 km
                                          unpaved: 64,200 km (1999 est.)
                               Waterways: 8,808 km
                                          note: 8,600 km of navigable
                                          tributaries of Amazon system and 208
                                          km of Lago Titicaca
                               Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and
                                          natural gas liquids 64 km
                       Ports and harbors: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani,
                                          Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry,
                                          San Martin, Talara, Iquitos,
                                          Pucallpa, Yurimaguas
                                          note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and
                                          Yurimaguas are all on the upper
                                          reaches of the Amazon and its
                         Merchant marine: total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 29,470 GRT/45,451 DWT
                                          note: includes a foreign-owned ship
                                          registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: United States 1 (2002
                                          ships by type: cargo 4, petroleum
                                          tanker 1
                                Airports: 239 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 47
                                          over 3,047 m: 5
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 8
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 192
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 65
                                          under 914 m: 102 (2001)
     Military Peru
                       Military branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy
                                          (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes
                                          Naval Air, Marines, and Coast
                                          Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del
                                          Peru; FAP), National Police
                                          (includes General Police, Security
                                          Police, and Technical Police)
        Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 7,356,395 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 4,944,952 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 276,458 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $1 billion (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 1.8% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Peru
                Disputes - international: dispute with Chile over the economic
                                          zone delimited by the maritime
                                          boundary; Colombian drug activities
                                          penetrate Peruvian border area
                           Illicit drugs: until 1996 the world's largest coca
                                          leaf producer; emerging opium
                                          producer; Peru reduced the area of
                                          coca under cultivation by 64% to
                                          34,000 hectares between 1996 and the
                                          end of 2001; much of the cocaine
                                          base is shipped to neighboring
                                          Colombia for processing into
                                          cocaine, while finished cocaine is
                                          shipped out from Pacific ports to
                                          the international drug market;
                                          increasing amounts of base and
                                          finished cocaine, however, are being
                                          moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use
                                          in the Southern Cone or transshipped
                                          to Europe and Africa

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Peru, NE -- U.S. city in Nebraska
     Population (2000):    569
     Housing Units (2000): 290
     Land area (2000):     0.536523 sq. miles (1.389589 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    0.536523 sq. miles (1.389589 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            38960
     Located within:       Nebraska (NE), FIPS 31
     Location:             40.480055 N, 95.731286 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     68421
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
      Peru, NE

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Peru, NY -- U.S. Census Designated Place in New York
     Population (2000):    1514
     Housing Units (2000): 558
     Land area (2000):     1.602415 sq. miles (4.150236 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    1.602415 sq. miles (4.150236 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            57364
     Located within:       New York (NY), FIPS 36
     Location:             44.579556 N, 73.530539 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     12972
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
      Peru, NY

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Peru, IL -- U.S. city in Illinois
     Population (2000):    9835
     Housing Units (2000): 4413
     Land area (2000):     5.940897 sq. miles (15.386853 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.108039 sq. miles (0.279821 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    6.048936 sq. miles (15.666674 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            59234
     Located within:       Illinois (IL), FIPS 17
     Location:             41.334458 N, 89.127385 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     61354
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
      Peru, IL

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Peru, IN -- U.S. city in Indiana
     Population (2000):    12994
     Housing Units (2000): 5943
     Land area (2000):     4.615116 sq. miles (11.953094 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.043069 sq. miles (0.111547 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    4.658185 sq. miles (12.064641 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            59328
     Located within:       Indiana (IN), FIPS 18
     Location:             40.757690 N, 86.067791 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     46970
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
      Peru, IN

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Peru, KS -- U.S. city in Kansas
     Population (2000):    183
     Housing Units (2000): 101
     Land area (2000):     0.377059 sq. miles (0.976578 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    0.377059 sq. miles (0.976578 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            55525
     Located within:       Kansas (KS), FIPS 20
     Location:             37.081299 N, 96.096277 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):     67360
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
      Peru, KS

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