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2 definitions found
 for Nicaragua
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in Central America; achieved independence from
           Spain in 1821 [syn: Nicaragua, Republic of Nicaragua]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Nicaragua
                              Background: Settled as a colony of Spain in the
                                          1520s, Nicaragua gained its
                                          independence in 1821. Violent
                                          opposition to governmental
                                          manipulation and corruption spread
                                          to all classes by 1978 and resulted
                                          in a short-lived civil war that
                                          brought the Marxist Sandinista
                                          guerrillas to power in 1979.
                                          Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in
                                          El Salvador caused the US to sponsor
                                          anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas
                                          through much of the 1980s. Free
                                          elections in 1990, 1996, and again
                                          in 2001 saw the Sandinistas
                                          defeated. The country has slowly
                                          rebuilt its economy during the
                                          1990s, but was hard hit by Hurricane
                                          Mitch in 1998.
     Geography Nicaragua
                                Location: Middle America, bordering both the
                                          Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific
                                          Ocean, between Costa Rica and
                  Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 85 00 W
                          Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
                                    Area: total: 129,494 sq km
                                          water: 9,240 sq km
                                          land: 120,254 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the state of
                                          New York
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,231 km
                                          border countries: Costa Rica 309 km,
                                          Honduras 922 km
                               Coastline: 910 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: natural
                                          territorial sea: 200 NM
                                 Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in
                                 Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains
                                          rising to central interior
                                          mountains; narrow Pacific coastal
                                          plain interrupted by volcanoes
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m
                       Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten,
                                          lead, zinc, timber, fish
                                Land use: arable land: 20.24%
                                          permanent crops: 2.38%
                                          other: 77.38% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 880 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes, volcanoes,
                                          landslides; extremely susceptible to
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol, Desertification,
                                          Endangered Species, Hazardous
                                          Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
                                          Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified:
                                          Environmental Modification
                        Geography - note: largest country in Central America;
                                          contains the largest freshwater body
                                          in Central America, Lago de
     People Nicaragua
                              Population: 5,023,818 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.3% (male 980,621;
                                          female 945,386)
                                          15-64 years: 58.7% (male 1,464,468;
                                          female 1,483,082)
                                          65 years and over: 3% (male 65,610;
                                          female 84,651) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.09% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 26.98 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 4.76 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1 male(s)/female
                                          (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 32.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.37 years
                                          female: 71.44 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 67.39 years
                    Total fertility rate: 3.09 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2000/01 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 4,800 (2000/01 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 360 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Nicaraguan(s)
                                          adjective: Nicaraguan
                           Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white)
                                          69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian
                               Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant
                               Languages: Spanish (official)
                                          note: English and indigenous
                                          languages on Atlantic coast
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 68.2% (1999)
                                          male: 67.1%
                                          female: 70.5% (2000 est.)
     Government Nicaragua
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Nicaragua
                                          local short form: Nicaragua
                                          local long form: Republica de
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Managua
                Administrative divisions: 15 departments (departamentos,
                                          singular - departamento) and 2
                                          autonomous regions* (regiones
                                          autonomistas, singular - region
                                          autonomista); Boaco, Carazo,
                                          Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli,
                                          Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz,
                                          Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva
                                          Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas,
                                          Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*
                            Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September
                            Constitution: 9 January 1987, with reforms in 1995
                                          and 2000
                            Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may
                                          review administrative acts
                                Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Enrique
                                          BOLANOS Geyer (since 10 January
                                          2002); Vice President Jose RIZO
                                          Castellon (since 10 January 2002);
                                          note - the president is both chief
                                          of state and head of government
                                          head of government: President
                                          Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (since 10
                                          January 2002); Vice President Jose
                                          RIZO Castellon (since 10 January
                                          2002); note - the president is both
                                          chief of state and head of
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                                          elections: president and vice
                                          president elected on the same ticket
                                          by popular vote for a five-year
                                          term; election last held 4 November
                                          2001 (next to be held by November
                                          election results: Enrique BOLANOS
                                          Geyer (PLC) elected president -
                                          56.3%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN)
                                          42.3%, Alberto SABORIO (PC) 1.4%;
                                          Jose RIZO Castellon elected vice
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Asamblea Nacional (93 seats; members
                                          are elected by proportional
                                          representation to serve five-year
                                          elections: last held 4 November 2001
                                          (next to be held by November 2006)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - Liberal Alliance (ruling
                                          party - includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN,
                                          and PUCA) 46.03%, FSLN 36.55%, PCCN
                                          3.73%, PCN 2.12%, MRS 1.33%; seats
                                          by party - Liberal Alliance 42, FSLN
                                          36, PCCN 4, PCN 3, PRONAL 2, MRS 1,
                                          PRN 1, PC 1, PLI 1, AU 1, UNO-96 1
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (16
                                          judges elected for five-year terms
                                          by the National Assembly)
           Political parties and leaders: Conservative Party of Nicaragua or
                                          PCN [Dr. Fernando AGUERO Rocha];
                                          Independent Liberal Party or PLI
                                          [Virgilio GODOY]; Liberal Alliance
                                          (ruling alliance including Liberal
                                          Constitutional Party or PLC, New
                                          Liberal Party or PALI, Independent
                                          Liberal Party for National Unity or
                                          PLIUN, and Central American Unionist
                                          Party or PUCA) [leader NA]; National
                                          Conservative Party or PC [Pedro
                                          SOLARZANO, Noel VIDAURRE]; National
                                          Project or PRONAL [Benjamin LANZAS];
                                          Nicaraguan Party of the Christian
                                          Path or PCCN [Guillermo OSORNO,
                                          Roberto RODRIGUEZ]; Nicaraguan
                                          Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador
                                          TALAVERA]; Sandinista National
                                          Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel
                                          ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista
                                          Renovation Movement or MRS [Sergio
                                          RAMIREZ]; Unity Alliance or AU
                                          [Alejandro SERRANO]; Union Nacional
                                          Opositora 96 or UNO-96 [Alfredo
                                          CESAR Aguirre]
            Political pressure groups and National Workers Front or FNT is a
                                 leaders: Sandinista umbrella group of eight
                                          labor unions including - Farm
                                          Workers Association or ATC, Health
                                          Workers Federation or FETASALUD,
                                          Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of
                                          Professional Associations or
                                          CONAPRO, National Association of
                                          Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN,
                                          National Union of Employees or UNE,
                                          National Union of Farmers and
                                          Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers
                                          Central or CST, and Union of
                                          Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN;
                                          Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT
                                          is an umbrella group of four non-
                                          Sandinista labor unions including -
                                          Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers
                                          Central or CTN-A, Confederation of
                                          Labor Unification or CUS,
                                          Independent General Confederation of
                                          Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and
                                          Unity Central or CAUS; Nicaraguan
                                          Workers' Central or CTN is an
                                          independent labor union; Superior
                                          Council of Private Enterprise or
                                          COSEP is a confederation of business
               International organization BCIE, CACM, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77,
                           participation: IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
                                          IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
                                          IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO
                                          (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA
                                          (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW,
                                          PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos
                                          J. ULVERT
                                          consulate(s) general: Houston, Los
                                          Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 939-6542
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570
                                          chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20009
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Oliver
                                      US: P. GARZA
                                          embassy: Apartado Postal 327,
                                          Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur, Managua
                                          mailing address: APO AA 34021
                                          telephone: [505] (2) 662298, 666010,
                                          666012, 666013, 666015, 666018,
                                          666026, 666027, 666032, 666033
                                          FAX: [505] (2) 669074
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue
                                          (top), white, and blue with the
                                          national coat of arms centered in
                                          the white band; the coat of arms
                                          features a triangle encircled by the
                                          words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the
                                          top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the
                                          bottom; similar to the flag of El
                                          Salvador, which features a round
                                          emblem encircled by the words
                                          REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA
                                          AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the
                                          white band; also similar to the flag
                                          of Honduras, which has five blue
                                          stars arranged in an X pattern
                                          centered in the white band
     Economy Nicaragua
                      Economy - overview: Nicaragua, one of the hemisphere's
                                          poorest countries, faces low per
                                          capita income, flagging socio-
                                          economic indicators, and huge
                                          external debt. Distribution of
                                          income is extremely unequal. While
                                          the country has made progress toward
                                          macroeconomic stabilization over the
                                          past few years, a banking crisis and
                                          scandal has shaken the economy.
                                          Managua will continue to be
                                          dependent on international aid and
                                          debt relief under the Heavily
                                          Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)
                                          initiative. Donors have made aid
                                          conditional on improving
                                          governability, the openness of
                                          government financial operation,
                                          poverty alleviation, and human
                                          rights. Nicaragua met the conditions
                                          for additional debt service relief
                                          in December 2000. Growth should move
                                          up in 2002 because of increased
                                          private investment and recovery in
                                          the global economy.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.3
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 33%
                                          industry: 23%
                                          services: 44% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: 50% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 0.7%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 48.8% (1998)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 60.3 (1998)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 1.7 million (1999)
             Labor force - by occupation: services 43%, agriculture 42%,
                                          industry 15% (1999 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 23% plus considerable
                                          underemployment (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $726 million
                                          expenditures: $908 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2000 est.)
                              Industries: food processing, chemicals,
                                          machinery and metal products,
                                          textiles, clothing, petroleum
                                          refining and distribution,
                                          beverages, footwear, wood
       Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 2.233 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 81.68%
                                          hydro: 9.4%
                                          other: 8.92% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 2.176 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 1 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 100 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton,
                                          rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya,
                                          beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry,
                                          dairy products
                                 Exports: $609.5 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: coffee, shrimp and lobster, cotton,
                                          tobacco, beef, sugar, bananas; gold
                      Exports - partners: US 57.7%, Germany 5.3%, Canada 4.2%,
                                          Costa Rica 3.3%, Honduras 3% (2000)
                                 Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw
                                          materials, petroleum products,
                                          consumer goods
                      Imports - partners: US 23.9%, Costa Rica 11.4%,
                                          Venezuela 9.9%, Guatemala 7.9%,
                                          Mexico 5.9% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $6.1 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: NA
                                Currency: gold cordoba (NIO)
                           Currency code: NIO
                          Exchange rates: gold cordobas per US dollar - 13.88
                                          (January 2002), 13.37 (2001), 12.69
                                          (2000), 11.81 (1999), 10.58 (1998),
                                          9.45 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Nicaragua
          Telephones - main lines in use: 140,000 (1996)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,911 (1997)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate
                                          system being upgraded by foreign
                                          domestic: low-capacity microwave
                                          radio relay and wire system being
                                          expanded; connected to Central
                                          American Microwave System
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
                                          Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat
                                          (Atlantic Ocean)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 63, FM 32, shortwave 1 (1998)
                                  Radios: 1.24 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus seven low-power repeaters)
                             Televisions: 320,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .ni
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)
                          Internet users: 20,000 (2000)
     Transportation Nicaragua
                                Railways: total: 6 km
                                          narrow gauge: 6 km 1.067-m gauge
                                          note: carries mostly passengers from
                                          Chichigalpa to Ingenio San Antonio
                                Highways: total: 16,382 km
                                          paved: 1,818 km
                                          unpaved: 14,564 km (1998)
                               Waterways: 2,220 km (including 2 large lakes)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 56 km
                       Ports and harbors: Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff,
                                          Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino,
                                          Rama, San Juan del Sur
                         Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 182 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 11
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 3
                                          under 914 m: 3 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 171
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 25
                                          under 914 m: 145 (2001)
     Military Nicaragua
                       Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,308,430 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 802,779 (2002 est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 58,232 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $26 million (FY98)
       Military expenditures - percent of 1.2% (FY98)
     Transnational Issues Nicaragua
                Disputes - international: territorial disputes with Colombia
                                          over the Archipelago de San Andres y
                                          Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank;
                                          with respect to the maritime
                                          boundary question in the Golfo de
                                          Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the
                                          line determined by the 1900
                                          Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary
                                          Commission and advised that some
                                          tripartite resolution among El
                                          Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua
                                          likely would be required; legal
                                          dispute over navigational rights of
                                          San Juan River on border with Costa
                           Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine
                                          destined for the US and
                                          transshipment point for arms-for-
                                          drugs dealing

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