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2 definitions found
 for Nepal
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a small landlocked Asian country high in the Himalayas
           between India and China [syn: Nepal, Kingdom of Nepal]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Nepal
                              Background: In 1951, the Nepalese monarch ended
                                          the century-old system of rule by
                                          hereditary premiers and instituted a
                                          cabinet system of government.
                                          Reforms in 1990 established a
                                          multiparty democracy within the
                                          framework of a constitutional
                                          monarchy. The refugee issue of some
                                          100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains
                                          unresolved; 90% of these displaced
                                          persons are housed in seven United
                                          Nations Offices of the High
                                          Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
     Geography Nepal
                                Location: Southern Asia, between China and
                  Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 84 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 140,800 sq km
                                          water: 4,000 sq km
                                          land: 136,800 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arkansas
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,926 km
                                          border countries: China 1,236 km,
                                          India 1,690 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: varies from cool summers and severe
                                          winters in north to subtropical
                                          summers and mild winters in south
                                 Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the
                                          Ganges in south, central hill
                                          region, rugged Himalayas in north
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
                                          highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
                                          (1999 est.)
                       Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower,
                                          scenic beauty, small deposits of
                                          lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
                                Land use: arable land: 20.27%
                                          permanent crops: 0.49%
                                          other: 79.24% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 11,350 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding,
                                          landslides, drought, and famine
                                          depending on the timing, intensity,
                                          and duration of the summer monsoons
            Environment - current issues: deforestation (overuse of wood for
                                          fuel and lack of alternatives);
                                          contaminated water (with human and
                                          animal wastes, agricultural runoff,
                                          and industrial effluents); wildlife
                                          conservation; vehicular emissions
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
                                          the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
                                          Layer Protection, Tropical Timber
                                          83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Marine
                                          Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
                        Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location
                                          between China and India; contains
                                          eight of world's 10 highest peaks,
                                          including Mount Everest - the
                                          world's tallest - on the border with
     People Nepal
                              Population: 25,873,917 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 40% (male 5,346,422;
                                          female 5,007,416)
                                          15-64 years: 56.4% (male 7,476,202;
                                          female 7,125,471)
                                          65 years and over: 3.6% (male
                                          453,263; female 465,143) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.29% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 32.94 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 10.03 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1.05 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 72.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.61 years
                                          female: 58.2 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 59.01 years
                    Total fertility rate: 4.48 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.29% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 34,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,500 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)
                                          adjective: Nepalese
                           Ethnic groups: Brahman, Chetri, Newar, Gurung,
                                          Magar, Tamang, Rai, Limbu, Sherpa,
                                          Tharu, and others (1995)
                               Religions: Hinduism 86.2%, Buddhism 7.8%, Islam
                                          3.8%, other 2.2%
                                          note: only official Hindu state in
                                          the world (1995)
                               Languages: Nepali (official; spoken by 90% of
                                          the population), about a dozen other
                                          languages and about 30 major
                                          dialects; note - many in government
                                          and business also speak English
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 27.5%
                                          male: 40.9%
                                          female: 14% (1995 est.)
     Government Nepal
                            Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of
                                          conventional short form: Nepal
                         Government type: parliamentary democracy and
                                          constitutional monarchy
                                 Capital: Kathmandu
                Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and
                                          plural); Bagmati, Bheri,
                                          Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur,
                                          Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali,
                                          Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha,
                            Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan
                        National holiday: Birthday of King GYANENDRA, 7 July
                            Constitution: 9 November 1990
                            Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and
                                          English common law; has not accepted
                                          compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: King GYANENDRA Bir
                                          Bikram Shah (succeeded to the throne
                                          4 June 2001 following the death of
                                          his nephew, King DIPENDRA Bir Bikram
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Sher Bahadur DEUBA (since 22 July
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          monarch on the recommendation of the
                                          prime minister
                                          elections: none; the monarch is
                                          hereditary; following legislative
                                          elections, the leader of the
                                          majority party or leader of a
                                          majority coalition is usually
                                          appointed prime minister by the
                                          note: King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah
                                          Dev died in a bloody shooting at the
                                          royal palace on 1 June 2001 that
                                          also claimed the lives of most of
                                          the royal family; King BIRENDRA's
                                          son, Crown Price DIPENDRA, is
                                          believed to have been responsible
                                          for the shootings before fatally
                                          wounding himself; immediately
                                          following the shootings and while
                                          still clinging to life, DIPENDRA was
                                          crowned king; he died three days
                                          later and was succeeded by his uncle
                      Legislative branch: note: Nepal's Parliament was
                                          dissolved on 22 May 2002 and
                                          elections are scheduled for 13
                                          November 2002
                                          : bicameral Parliament consists of
                                          the National Council (60 seats; 35
                                          appointed by the House of
                                          Representatives, 10 by the king, and
                                          15 elected by an electoral college;
                                          one-third of the members elected
                                          every two years to serve six-year
                                          terms) and the House of
                                          Representatives (205 seats; members
                                          elected by popular vote to serve
                                          five-year terms)
                                          election results: House of
                                          Representatives - percent of vote by
                                          party - NC 37.3%, CPN/UML 31.6%, NDP
                                          10.4%, NSP 3.2%, Rastriya Jana
                                          Morcha 1.4%, Samyukta Janmorcha
                                          Nepal 0.8%, NWPP 0.5%, others 14.8%;
                                          seats by party - NC 113, CPN/UML 69,
                                          NDP 11, NSP 5, Rastriya Jana Morcha
                                          5, Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal 1, NWPP
                                          elections: House of Representatives
                                          - last held 3 and 17 May 1999 (next
                                          to be held 13 November 2002)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Sarbochha Adalat
                                          (chief justice is appointed by the
                                          monarch on recommendation of the
                                          Constitutional Council; the other
                                          judges are appointed by the monarch
                                          on the recommendation of the
                                          Judicial Council)
           Political parties and leaders: Communist Party of Nepal/United
                                          Marxist-Leninist or CPN/UML [Madhav
                                          Kumar NEPAL, general secretary];
                                          National Democratic Party or NDP
                                          (also called Rastriya Prajantra
                                          Party or RPP) [Surya Bahadur THAPA,
                                          chairman]; National People's Front
                                          (Rastriya Jana Morcha) [Chitra
                                          Bahadur, chairman]; Nepal Sadbhavana
                                          (Goodwill) Party or NSP [Bhadri
                                          Prasad MANDAL, acting party
                                          president]; Nepal Workers and
                                          Peasants Party or NWPP [Narayan Man
                                          BIJUKCHHE, party chair]; Nepali
                                          Congress or NC [Girija Prasad
                                          KOIRALA, party president, Sushil
                                          KOIRALA, general secretary];
                                          Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal [Lila Mani
                                          POKHAREL, general secretary]
            Political pressure groups and Maoist guerrilla-based insurgency;
                                 leaders: numerous small, left-leaning student
                                          groups in the capital; several
                                          small, radical Nepalese
                                          antimonarchist groups
               International organization AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
                           participation: IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
                                          IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
                                          (correspondent), ITU, MONUC, NAM,
                                          OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
                                          UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT,
                                          UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador-
                                          designate Jai Pratap RANA
                                          chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Michael
                                      US: E. MALINOWSKI (since December 2001)
                                          embassy: Panipokhari, Kathmandu
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          telephone: [977] (1) 411179
                                          FAX: [977] (1) 419963
                        Flag description: red with a blue border around the
                                          unique shape of two overlapping
                                          right triangles; the smaller, upper
                                          triangle bears a white stylized moon
                                          and the larger, lower triangle bears
                                          a white 12-pointed sun
     Economy Nepal
                      Economy - overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least
                                          developed countries in the world
                                          with nearly half of its population
                                          living below the poverty line.
                                          Agriculture is the mainstay of the
                                          economy, providing a livelihood for
                                          over 80% of the population and
                                          accounting for 41% of GDP.
                                          Industrial activity mainly involves
                                          the processing of agricultural
                                          produce including jute, sugarcane,
                                          tobacco, and grain. Textile and
                                          carpet production, accounteing for
                                          about 80% of foreign exchange
                                          earnings in recent years, contracted
                                          significantly in 2001 due to the
                                          overall slowdown in the world
                                          economy and pressures by Maoist
                                          insurgents on factory owners and
                                          workers. Security concerns in the
                                          wake of Maoist activity, the June
                                          massacre of many members of the
                                          royal family, and the September 11
                                          terrorist attacks in the US led to a
                                          decrease in tourism, another key
                                          source of foreign exchange.
                                          Agricultural production is growing
                                          by about 5% on average as compared
                                          with annual population growth of
                                          2.3%. Since May 1991, the government
                                          has been moving forward with
                                          economic reforms, particularly those
                                          that encourage trade and foreign
                                          investment, e.g., by reducing
                                          business licenses and registration
                                          requirements to simplify investment
                                          procedures. The government has also
                                          been cutting expenditures by
                                          reducing subsidies, privatizing
                                          state industries, and laying off
                                          civil servants. More recently,
                                          however, political instability -
                                          five different governments over the
                                          past few years - has hampered
                                          Kathmandu's ability to forge
                                          consensus to implement key economic
                                          reforms. Nepal has considerable
                                          scope for accelerating economic
                                          growth by exploiting its potential
                                          in hydropower and tourism, areas of
                                          recent foreign investment interest.
                                          Prospects for foreign trade or
                                          investment in other sectors will
                                          remain poor, however, because of the
                                          small size of the economy, its
                                          technological backwardness, its
                                          remoteness, its landlocked
                                          geographic location, and its
                                          susceptibility to natural disaster.
                                          The international community's role
                                          of funding more than 60% of Nepal's
                                          development budget and more than 28%
                                          of total budgetary expenditures will
                                          likely continue as a major
                                          ingredient of growth.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $35.6
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,400
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 41%
                                          industry: 22%
                                          services: 37% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 42% (FY95/96 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.2%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 29.8% (1995-96)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 36.7 (1995-96)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (FY00/01 est.)
                             Labor force: 10 million (1996 est.)
                                          note: severe lack of skilled labor
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 81%, services 16%,
                                          industry 3%
                       Unemployment rate: 47% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $665 million
                                          expenditures: $1.1 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (FY99/00 est.)
                              Industries: tourism, carpet, textile; small
                                          rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed
                                          mills; cigarette; cement and brick
       Industrial production growth rate: 8.7% (FY99/00)
                Electricity - production: 1.454 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 9.56%
                                          hydro: 90.44%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 1.431 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 95 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 174 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root
                                          crops; milk, water buffalo meat
                                 Exports: $757 million (f.o.b., FY00/01 est.),
                                          but does not include unrecorded
                                          border trade with India
                   Exports - commodities: carpets, clothing, leather goods,
                                          jute goods, grain
                      Exports - partners: India 48%, US 26%, Germany 11%
                                 Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., FY00/01 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: gold, machinery and equipment,
                                          petroleum products, fertilizer
                      Imports - partners: India 39%, Singapore 10%, China/Hong
                                          Kong 9%, (FY00/01)
                         Debt - external: $2.55 billion (FY00/01)
                Economic aid - recipient: $424 million (FY00/01)
                                Currency: Nepalese rupee (NPR)
                           Currency code: NPR
                          Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees per US dollar -
                                          76.675 (January 2002), 74.961
                                          (2001), 71.094 (2000), 68.239
                                          (1999), 65.976 (1998), 58.010 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: 16 July - 15 July
     Communications Nepal
          Telephones - main lines in use: 236,816 (January 2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
                        Telephone system: general assessment: poor telephone
                                          and telegraph service; fair
                                          radiotelephone communication service
                                          and mobile cellular telephone
                                          domestic: NA
                                          international: radiotelephone
                                          communications; microwave landline
                                          to India; satellite earth station -
                                          1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (January
                                  Radios: 840,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 9 repeaters) (1998)
                             Televisions: 130,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .np
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
                          Internet users: 50,000 (2001)
     Transportation Nepal
                                  Railways: total: 59 km
                                            narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge
                                            note: all in Kosi close to Indian
                                            border (2001)
                                  Highways: total: 13,223 km
                                            paved: 4,073 km
                                            unpaved: 9,150 km (April 1999)
                                 Waterways: none
                         Ports and harbors: none
                                  Airports: 45 (2001)
             Airports - with paved runways: total: 8
                                            over 3,047 m: 1
                                            1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                            914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2001)
           Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 37
                                            1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                            914 to 1,523 m: 7
                                            under 914 m: 29 (2001)
     Military Nepal
                       Military branches: Royal Nepalese Army (includes Royal
                                          Nepalese Army Air Service), Nepalese
                                          Police Force
        Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,484,343 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 3,369,454 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 292,589 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $51.5 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 1% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Nepal
                Disputes - international: formed Joint Border committee with
                                          India in 2001 to resolve 53 disputed
                                          sections of boundary covering an
                                          area of 720 sq km; approximately
                                          100,000 Bhutanese refugees living in
                                          Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven
                                          UN Office of the High Commissioner
                                          for Refugees camps, place decades-
                                          long strains on Nepal
                           Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the
                                          domestic and international drug
                                          markets; transit point for opiates
                                          from Southeast Asia to the West

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