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 for Multipop-68
From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018) :

      An early time-sharing operating system
     developed in Edinburgh by Robin Popplestone and others.  It
     was inspired by MIT' Project MAC, via a "MiniMac" project
     which was aborted when it became obvious that Elliot
     Brothers Ltd. could not supply the necessary disk storage.
     Multipop was highly efficient in its use of machine resources
     to support symbolic programming, and effective - e.g. in
     supporting the development of the Boyer-Moore theorem prover
     and of Burstall and Darlington's transformation work.
     It was not good at supporting the user programs which were
     then the standard fare of computing, e.g. matrix inversion.
     This arose from the fact that while the POP-2 compiler
     generated good code for function call (which is a lot of what
     layered systems like operating systems do) it did not generate
     efficient code for arithmetic or store access, because there
     was no way to police the generation of illegal objects
     statically.  ({Hindley-Milner type checking did not exist).
     Indeed, since many OS features like file-access were performed
     by function-call (of a closure) rather than an OS call
     requiring a context switch, POP-2 actually gained
     Multipop68 was efficient primarily because the one language,
     POP-2 served all purposes: it was the command language for the
     operating system as well as being the only available
     programming language.  Thus there was no need to swap in
     compilers etc.  All store management was accomplished
     uniformly by the garbage collector, as opposed to having
     store management for the OS and store management for each
     There was a substantial amount of assembly language in
     Multipop68.  This was primarily for interrupt handling, and it
     is difficult to handle this without a real-time
     [Edited from a posting by Robin Popplestone].

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