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3 definitions found
 for Madagascar
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Madagascar \Mad`a*gas"car\ (m[a^]d`[.a]*g[a^]s"k[~e]r) prop. n.
     An island in the Indian Ocean, about 240 miles off the
     southeast coast of Africa, governed as a single country, the
     Republic of Madagascar. It is the world's fourth-largest
     island, with a total area of 587,040 sq km, with 4,828 km of
     coastline. Once a French colony, it gained independence from
     France in 1960. The name of the government after independence
     was the Malagasy Republic.
           Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a
           French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in
           1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National
           Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of
           single-party rule. In 1997 in the second presidential
           race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and
           1980s, was returned to the presidency. The Population:
           is 15,982,563 (July 2001 est.) The highest point is
           Maromokotro, at 2,876 m. Natural resources are:
           graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar
           sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, and hydropower.
                                                    --CIA World

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic on the island of Madagascar; achieved
           independence from France in 1960 [syn: Madagascar,
           Republic of Madagascar, Malagasy Republic]
      2: an island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of
         Africa; the 4th largest island in the world

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Madagascar
                              Background: Formerly an independent kingdom,
                                          Madagascar became a French colony in
                                          1886, but regained its independence
                                          in 1960. During 1992-93, free
                                          presidential and National Assembly
                                          elections were held, ending 17 years
                                          of single-party rule. In 1997, in
                                          the second presidential race, Didier
                                          RATSIRAKA, the leader during the
                                          1970s and 1980s, was returned to the
                                          presidency. The 2001 presidential
                                          election was contested between the
                                          followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and
                                          Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing
                                          secession of half of the country. In
                                          April 2002 the High Constitutional
                                          Court announced RAVALOMANANA the
     Geography Madagascar
                                Location: Southern Africa, island in the
                                          Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
                  Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 587,040 sq km
                                          water: 5,500 sq km
                                          land: 581,540 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of
                         Land boundaries: 0 km
                               Coastline: 4,828 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          continental shelf: 200 NM or 100 NM
                                          from the 2,500-m deep isobath
                                 Climate: tropical along coast, temperate
                                          inland, arid in south
                                 Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau
                                          and mountains in center
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
                       Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite,
                                          salt, quartz, tar sands,
                                          semiprecious stones, mica, fish,
                                Land use: arable land: 4.41%
                                          permanent crops: 0.93%
                                          other: 94.66% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 10,900 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: periodic cyclones
            Environment - current issues: soil erosion results from
                                          deforestation and overgrazing;
                                          desertification; surface water
                                          contaminated with raw sewage and
                                          other organic wastes; several
                                          species of flora and fauna unique to
                                          the island are endangered
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
                                          the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
                                          Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: world's fourth-largest island;
                                          strategic location along Mozambique
     People Madagascar
                              Population: 16,473,477 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 3,713,700;
                                          female 3,696,478)
                                          15-64 years: 51.8% (male 4,227,931;
                                          female 4,313,940)
                                          65 years and over: 3.2% (male
                                          241,699; female 279,729) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 3.03% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 42.41 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 12.15 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.99 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 81.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.74 years
                                          female: 58.11 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 53.45 years
                    Total fertility rate: 5.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 11,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 870 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
                                          adjective: Malagasy
                           Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and
                                          related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed
                                          African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab
                                          ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety,
                                          Antaisaka, Sakalava), French,
                                          Indian, Creole, Comoran
                               Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian
                                          41%, Muslim 7%
                               Languages: French (official), Malagasy
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 80%
                                          male: 88%
                                          female: 73% (1990 est.)
     Government Madagascar
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Madagascar
                                          local short form: Madagascar
                                          former: Malagasy Republic
                                          local long form: Republique de
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Antananarivo
                Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany);
                                          Antananarivo, Antsiranana,
                                          Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina,
                            Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
                            Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national
                            Legal system: based on French civil law system and
                                          traditional Malagasy law; has not
                                          accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Marc
                                          RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Jacques SYLLA (27 May 2002)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the prime minister
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 16 December 2001
                                          (next to be held NA November 2006);
                                          prime minister appointed by the
                                          president from a list of candidates
                                          nominated by the National Assembly
                                          election results: percent of vote -
                                          Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 40.89%,
                                          Marc RAVALOMANANA 46.21%; note - on
                                          29 April 2002, the High
                                          Constitutional Court announced
                                          RAVALOMANANA the winner by just over
                                          50% after a recount; RATSIRIKA's
                                          prime minister was put under house
                                          arrest on 27 May 2002, and SYLLA was
                                          appointed the new prime minister by
                                          President RAVALOMANANA
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Assemblee Nationale (150 seats;
                                          members are directly elected by
                                          popular vote to serve four-year
                                          terms); note - the legislature is
                                          scheduled to become a bicameral
                                          Parliament with the establishment of
                                          a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of
                                          this Senate will be filled by
                                          regional assemblies whose members
                                          will be elected by popular vote; the
                                          remaining one-third of the seats
                                          will be appointed by the president;
                                          the total number of seats will be
                                          determined by the National Assembly;
                                          all members will serve four-year
                                          elections: National Assembly - last
                                          held 17 May 1998 (next to be held NA
                                          election results: National Assembly
                                          - percent of vote by party - NA%;
                                          seats by party - AREMA 63, LEADER/
                                          Fanilo 16, AVI 14, RPSD 11, AFFA 6,
                                          MFM 3, AKFM/Fanavaozana 3, GRAD/
                                          Iloafo 1, Fihaonana 1, independents
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High
                                          Constitutional Court or Haute Cour
           Political parties and leaders: Action, Truth, Development, and
                                          Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert
                                          ZAFY]; Association for the Rebirth
                                          of Madagascar or AREMA [leader
                                          vacant]; Congress Party for Malagasy
                                          Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana
                                          [leader NA]; Economic Liberalism and
                                          Democratic Action for National
                                          Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo
                                          RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Rally or
                                          Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]; Group of
                                          Reflection and Action for the
                                          Development of Madagascar or GRAD/
                                          Iloafo; Judged by Your Work or AVI
                                          [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]; Movement
                                          for the Progress of Madagascar or
                                          MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA];
                                          Renewal of the Social Democratic
                                          Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON];
                                          Tranobe (Big House) [Ny Hasina
            Political pressure groups and Federalist Movement; National
                                 leaders: Council of Christian Churches or
               International organization ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-
                           participation: 77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
                                          IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
                                          IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO
                                          (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
                                          WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Zina
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526
                                          chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Wanda
                                      US: L. NESBITT
                                          embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo,
                                          Antsahavola, Antananarivo
                                          mailing address: B. P. 620,
                                          Antsahavola, Antananarivo
                                          telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57
                                          FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39
                        Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red
                                          (top) and green with a vertical
                                          white band of the same width on
                                          hoist side
     Economy Madagascar
                      Economy - overview: Madagascar faces problems of chronic
                                          malnutrition, underfunded health and
                                          education facilities, a roughly 3%
                                          annual population growth rate, and
                                          severe loss of forest cover,
                                          accompanied by erosion. Agriculture,
                                          including fishing and forestry, is
                                          the mainstay of the economy,
                                          accounting for one-third of GDP and
                                          contributing more than 70% to export
                                          earnings. Industry features textile
                                          manufacturing and the processing of
                                          agricultural products. Growth in
                                          output in 1992-97 averaged less than
                                          the growth rate of the population.
                                          Growth has been held back by
                                          antigovernment strikes and
                                          demonstrations, a decline in world
                                          coffee prices, and the erratic
                                          commitment of the government to
                                          economic reform. The extent of
                                          government reforms, outside
                                          financial aid, and foreign
                                          investment will be key determinants
                                          of future growth.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $14
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $870 (2001
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 34%
                                          industry: 11%
                                          services: 55% (1999 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 70% (1994 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.2%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 37.3% (1997)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 46 (1997)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 7 million (1999)
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $553 million
                                          expenditures: $735 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1998 est.)
                              Industries: meat processing, soap, breweries,
                                          tanneries, sugar, textiles,
                                          glassware, cement, automobile
                                          assembly plant, paper, petroleum,
       Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 820 million kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36.59%
                                          hydro: 63.41%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 762.6 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves,
                                          cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca),
                                          beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock
                                 Exports: $680 million (f.o.b., 2000)
                   Exports - commodities: coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar;
                                          cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum
                      Exports - partners: France 41%, US 21%, Germany 7%,
                                          Japan 4%, UK 1% (2000)
                                 Imports: $919 million (f.o.b., 2000)
                   Imports - commodities: intermediate manufactures, capital
                                          goods, petroleum, consumer goods,
                      Imports - partners: France 38%, Hong Kong 10%, China 5%,
                                          Singapore 5%, Japan 3%
                         Debt - external: $4.5 billion (2000)
                Economic aid - recipient: $838 million (1997)
                                Currency: Malagasy franc (MGF)
                           Currency code: MGF
                          Exchange rates: Malagasy francs per US dollar -
                                          6,531.4 (December 2001), 6,588.5
                                          (2001), 6,767.5 (2000), 6,283.8
                                          (1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Madagascar
          Telephones - main lines in use: 55,000 (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 63,100 (2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: system is above
                                          average for the region
                                          domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial
                                          cables, microwave radio relay, and
                                          tropospheric scatter links connect
                                          international: submarine cable to
                                          Bahrain; satellite earth stations -
                                          1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1
                                          Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 2 (plus a number of repeater
                                          stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
                                  Radios: 3.05 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
                             Televisions: 325,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .mg
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
                          Internet users: 30,000 (2000)
     Transportation Madagascar
                                Railways: total: 893 km
                                          narrow gauge: 893 km 1.000-m gauge
                                Highways: total: 49,837 km
                                          paved: 5,781 km
                                          unpaved: 44,056 km (1996)
                               Waterways: note: of local importance only
                       Ports and harbors: Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona,
                                          Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
                         Merchant marine: total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 27,199 GRT/37,462 DWT
                                          ships by type: cargo 9, chemical
                                          tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum
                                          tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2002
                                Airports: 130 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 29
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 20
                                          under 914 m: 2 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 101
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 55
                                          under 914 m: 44 (2001)
     Military Madagascar
                         Military branches: People's Armed Forces (comprising
                                            Intervention Force, Development
                                            Force, Aeronaval [Navy and Air]
                                            Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential
                                            Security Regiment
          Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)
          Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,758,940 (2002
       Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 2,229,304 (2002
                                   service: est.)
      Military manpower - reaching military males: 153,856 (2002 est.)
                              age annually:
             Military expenditures - dollar $48.7 million (FY01)
         Military expenditures - percent of 1.2% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Madagascar
                Disputes - international: claims Bassas da India, Europa
                                          Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de
                                          Nova Island, and Tromelin Island
                                          (all administered by France)
                           Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis
                                          (cultivated and wild varieties) used
                                          mostly for domestic consumption;
                                          transshipment point for heroin

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