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 for Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
     Introduction Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                              Background: International recognition of The
                                          Former Yugoslav Republic of
                                          Macedonia's (F.Y.R.O.M.)
                                          independence from Yugoslavia in 1991
                                          was delayed by Greece's objection to
                                          the new state's use of what it
                                          considered a Hellenic name and
                                          symbols. Greece finally lifted its
                                          trade blockade in 1995, and the two
                                          countries agreed to normalize
                                          relations, despite continued
                                          disagreement over F.Y.R.O.M.'s use
                                          of "Macedonia." F.Y.R.O.M.'s large
                                          Albanian minority, an ethnic
                                          Albanian armed insurgency in
                                          F.Y.R.O.M. in 2001, and the status
                                          of neighboring Kosovo continue to be
                                          sources of ethnic tension.
     Geography Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                                Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
                  Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 25,333 sq km
                                          water: 477 sq km
                                          land: 24,856 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Vermont
                         Land boundaries: total: 766 km
                                          border countries: Albania 151 km,
                                          Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km,
                                          Yugoslavia 221 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: warm, dry summers and autumns and
                                          relatively cold winters with heavy
                                 Terrain: mountainous territory covered with
                                          deep basins and valleys; three large
                                          lakes, each divided by a frontier
                                          line; country bisected by the Vardar
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
                                          highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e
                                          Korabit) 2,753 m
                       Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese,
                                          tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron
                                          ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber,
                                          arable land
                                Land use: arable land: 23.59%
                                          permanent crops: 1.85%
                                          other: 74.56% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 550 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: high seismic risks
            Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Endangered Species, Hazardous
                                          Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: landlocked; major transportation
                                          corridor from Western and Central
                                          Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern
                                          Europe to Western Europe
     People Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                              Population: 2,054,800
                                          note: a Framework Agreement ratified
                                          by Macedonia on 16 November 2001
                                          calls for a new census in 2002 (July
                                          2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.4% (male 239,638;
                                          female 221,446)
                                          15-64 years: 67.2% (male 694,368;
                                          female 686,450)
                                          65 years and over: 10.4% (male
                                          94,214; female 118,684) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.41% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 13.35 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -1.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1 male(s)/female
                                          (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 12.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.26 years
                                          female: 76.68 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 72.01 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Macedonian(s)
                                          adjective: Macedonian
                           Ethnic groups: Macedonian 66.6%, Albanian 22.7%,
                                          Turkish 4%, Roma 2.2%, Serb 2.1%,
                                          other 2.4% (1994)
                               Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%,
                                          other 3%
                               Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%,
                                          Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other
                                Literacy: definition: NA
                                          total population: NA%
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
     Government Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                            Country name: conventional long form: The Former
                                          Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
                                          conventional short form: none
                                          local long form: Republika
                                          abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.
                                          local short form: Makedonija
                         Government type: emerging democracy
                                 Capital: Skopje
                Administrative divisions: 123 municipalities (opstini,
                                          singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac,
                                          Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola,
                                          Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila,
                                          Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair
                                          (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane,
                                          Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa,
                                          Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar,
                                          Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar,
                                          Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna
                                          Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov
                                          (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi
                                          Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar,
                                          Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce,
                                          Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos
                                          (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela
                                          Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani,
                                          Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel,
                                          Kratovo, Kriva Palanka,
                                          Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis,
                                          Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista,
                                          Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska
                                          Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi
                                          Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila,
                                          Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Polosko,
                                          Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid,
                                          Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo,
                                          Petrovec, Plasnica, Podares, Prilep,
                                          Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen,
                                          Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj,
                                          Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnica,
                                          Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina,
                                          Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga,
                                          Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari
                                          (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce,
                                          Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo,
                                          Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani,
                                          Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica,
                                          Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas,
                                          Zelenikovo, Zeleno, Zitose, Zletovo,
                                          note: the seven municipalities
                                          followed by Skopje in parentheses
                                          collectively constitute "greater
                            Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
                        National holiday: Uprising Day, 2 August (1903)
                            Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective
                                          20 November 1991
                                          note: the Macedonian Parliament
                                          approved November 2001 a series of
                                          new constitutional amendments,
                                          strengthening minority rights
                            Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial
                                          review of legislative acts
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Boris
                                          TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI (since 30
                                          November 1998)
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 14 November 1999
                                          (next to be held NA October 2004);
                                          prime minister elected by the
                                          Assembly; election last held NA
                                          November 1998 (next to be held NA
                                          election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI
                                          elected president on second-round
                                          ballot; percent of vote - Boris
                                          TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          elected by the majority vote of all
                                          the deputies in the Assembly; note -
                                          current cabinet formed by the
                                          government coalition parties VMRO-
                                          DPMNE, PDP, and DPA
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120
                                          seats - 85 members are elected by
                                          popular vote, 35 members come from
                                          lists of candidates submitted by
                                          parties based on the percentage that
                                          a party gains from the overall vote;
                                          all serve four-year terms)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - VMRO-
                                          DPMNE 43, SDSM 27, PDP 14, DA 13,
                                          DPA 11, VMRO-VMRO 6, LDP 4, SP 1,
                                          Roma Party 1
                                          elections: last held 18 October and
                                          1 November 1998 (next tentatively
                                          scheduled for June 2002)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court - Parliament appoints
                                          the judges; Constitutional Court -
                                          Parliament appoints the judges;
                                          Republican Judicial Council -
                                          Parliament appoints the judges
           Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil
                                          TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic
                                          Party of Albanians or DPA [Arben
                                          XHAFERI, president]; Internal
                                          Macedonian Revolutionary
                                          Organization-Democratic Party for
                                          Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-
                                          DPMNE [Ljubcho GEORGIEVSKI,
                                          president]; Internal Macedonian
                                          Revolutionary Organization-True
                                          Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-
                                          VMRO [Boris STOJMANOV]; Liberal
                                          Democratic Party or LDP [Risto
                                          GUSTERVO]; Liberal Party [leader
                                          NA]; National Democratic Party or
                                          MPDK [Kastriot HAXHISEXHA]; Party
                                          for Democratic Prosperity or PDP
                                          [Imeri IMERI, president]; Social-
                                          Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or
                                          SDSM (former Communist Party)
                                          [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president];
                                          Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP
                                          [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Union
                                          of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM
                                          [leader NA]
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization ACCT, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD,
                           participation: ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
                                          IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
                                          IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
                                          ISO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
                                          WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola
                                          chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th
                                          Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 337-3063
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Larry
                                      US: BUTLER
                                          embassy: Bul. Ilinden bb, 91000
                                          mailing address: American Embassy
                                          Skopje, Department of State,
                                          Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
                                          telephone: [389] (02) 116-180
                                          FAX: [389] (02) 213-767
                        Flag description: a rising yellow sun with eight rays
                                          extending to the edges of the red
     Economy Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                      Economy - overview: At independence in November 1991,
                                          Macedonia was the least developed of
                                          the Yugoslav republics, producing a
                                          mere 5% of the total federal output
                                          of goods and services. The collapse
                                          of Yugoslavia ended transfer
                                          payments from the center and
                                          eliminated advantages from inclusion
                                          in a de facto free trade area. An
                                          absence of infrastructure, UN
                                          sanctions on Yugoslavia, one of its
                                          largest markets, and a Greek
                                          economic embargo over a dispute
                                          about the country's constitutional
                                          name and flag hindered economic
                                          growth until 1996. GDP subsequently
                                          rose each year through 2000.
                                          However, the leadership's commitment
                                          to economic reform, free trade, and
                                          regional integration was undermined
                                          by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of
                                          2001. The economy shrank about 4%
                                          because of decreased trade,
                                          intermittent border closures,
                                          increased deficit spending on
                                          security needs, and investor
                                          uncertainty. The international
                                          community hopes to restart growth
                                          with a donors' conference in 2002.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $9 billion
                                          (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: -4% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,400
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%
                                          industry: 32%
                                          services: 58% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 24% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 1.1 million (2000 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%,
                                          services NA%
                       Unemployment rate: 39% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $850 million
                                          expenditures: $950 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc,
                                          ferronickel, textiles, wood
                                          products, tobacco, food processing,
       Industrial production growth rate: -8% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 6.395 billion kWh (1999)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 82.25%
                                          hydro: 17.75%
                                          other: 0% (1999)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 5.992 billion kWh (1999)
                   Electricity - exports: 30 million kWh (1999)
                   Electricity - imports: 75 million kWh (1999)
                  Agriculture - products: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet,
                                          cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves,
                                          citrus, vegetables; beef, pork,
                                          poultry, mutton
                                 Exports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: food, beverages, tobacco;
                                          miscellaneous manufactures, iron and
                      Exports - partners: Yugoslavia 25%, Germany 19%, US 13%,
                                          Italy 7%, Greece 6% (2000)
                                 Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals,
                                          fuels; food products
                      Imports - partners: Germany 12%, Ukraine 10%, Greece
                                          10%, Russia 9%, Yugoslavia 9% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $1.3 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $150 million (2001 est.)
                                Currency: Macedonian denar (MKD)
                           Currency code: MKD
                          Exchange rates: Macedonian denars per US dollar -
                                          64.757 (January 2001), 65.904
                                          (2000), 56.902 (1999), 54.462
                                          (1998), 50.004 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
              Telephones - main lines in use: 408,000 (1997)
                Telephones - mobile cellular: 12,362 (1997)
                            Telephone system: general assessment: NA
                                              domestic: NA
                                              international: NA
                    Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
                                      Radios: 410,000 (1997)
               Television broadcast stations: 31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
                                 Televisions: 510,000 (1997)
                       Internet country code: .mk
           Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
                              Internet users: 100,000 (2001)
     Transportation Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                                Railways: total: 699 km
                                          standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge
                                          (233 km electrified)
                                          note: a 56-km extension of the
                                          Kumanovo-Beljakovce line to the
                                          Bulgarian border at Gyueshevo is
                                          under construction (2001)
                                Highways: total: 8,684 km
                                          paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of
                                          unpaved: 3,144 km (1997)
                               Waterways: note: lake transport only, on the
                                          Greek and Albanian borders
                               Pipelines: 10 km
                       Ports and harbors: none
                                Airports: 17 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 10
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
                                          under 914 m: 8 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 7
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 3
                                          under 914 m: 4 (2001)
     Military Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                       Military branches: Army (ARM), Air and Air Defense
                                          Forces, Police Force
        Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 551,523 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 444,575 (2002 est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 17,905 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $200 million (FY01/02 est.)
       Military expenditures - percent of 6% (FY01/02 est.)
     Transnational Issues Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                Disputes - international: dispute with Greece over country's
                                          name persists; 2001 FYROM-Yugoslavia
                                          boundary delimitation agreement,
                                          which adjusts former republic
                                          boundaries, was signed and ratified
                                          and awaits demarcation; ethnic
                                          Albanians in Kosovo dispute
                                          legitimacy of the agreement, which
                                          cedes small tracts of Kosovo lands
                                          to FYROM
                           Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for
                                          Southwest Asian heroin and hashish;
                                          minor transit point for South
                                          American cocaine destined for Europe

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