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2 definitions found
 for Luxembourg
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: the capital and largest city of Luxembourg [syn:
           Luxembourg-Ville, Luxembourg, Luxemburg, Luxembourg
           City, capital of Luxembourg]
      2: a grand duchy (a constitutional monarchy) landlocked in
         northwestern Europe between France and Belgium and Germany;
         an international financial center [syn: Luxembourg, Grand
         Duchy of Luxembourg, Luxemburg]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Luxembourg
                              Background: Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a
                                          grand duchy in 1815 and an
                                          independent state under the
                                          Netherlands. It lost more than half
                                          of its territory to Belgium in 1839,
                                          but gained a larger measure of
                                          autonomy. Full independence was
                                          attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany
                                          in both World Wars, it ended its
                                          neutrality in 1948 when it entered
                                          into the Benelux Customs Union and
                                          when it joined NATO the following
                                          year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one
                                          of the six founding countries of the
                                          European Economic Community (later
                                          the European Union) and in 1999 it
                                          joined the euro currency area.
     Geography Luxembourg
                                Location: Western Europe, between France and
                  Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 6 10 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 2,586 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 2,586 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island
                         Land boundaries: total: 359 km
                                          border countries: Belgium 148 km,
                                          France 73 km, Germany 138 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: modified continental with mild
                                          winters, cool summers
                                 Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with
                                          broad, shallow valleys; uplands to
                                          slightly mountainous in the north;
                                          steep slope down to Moselle flood
                                          plain in the southeast
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
                                          highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
                       Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited),
                                          arable land
                                Land use: arable land: 25%
                                          permanent crops: 0%
                                          other: 75% (includes Belgium) (1998
                          Irrigated land: 40 sq km (includes Belgium) (1998
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in urban
                                          areas, soil pollution of farmland
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                              agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur
                                          85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
                                          Pollution-Volatile Organic
                                          Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate
                                          Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
                                          the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
                                          Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental
                        Geography - note: landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in
                                          the world, it is the smallest of the
                                          European Union member states
     People Luxembourg
                              Population: 448,569 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.9% (male 43,634;
                                          female 41,164)
                                          15-64 years: 67% (male 151,364;
                                          female 149,156)
                                          65 years and over: 14.1% (male
                                          25,486; female 37,765) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.25% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 12.06 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 8.83 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 9.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.97 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 4.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.48 years
                                          female: 80.97 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 74.2 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.16% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Luxembourger(s)
                                          adjective: Luxembourg
                           Ethnic groups: Celtic base (with French and German
                                          blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs
                                          (from Montenegro, Albania, and
                                          Kososvo) and European (guest and
                                          resident workers)
                               Religions: the greatest preponderance of the
                                          population is Roman Catholic with a
                                          very few Protestants, Jews, and
                                          note: 1979 legislation forbids the
                                          collection of religious statistics
                               Languages: Luxembourgish (national language),
                                          German (administrative language),
                                          French (administrative language)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 100%
                                          male: 100%
                                          female: 100% (2000 est.)
     Government Luxembourg
                            Country name: conventional long form: Grand Duchy
                                          of Luxembourg
                                          conventional short form: Luxembourg
                                          local short form: Luxembourg
                                          local long form: Grand Duche de
                         Government type: constitutional monarchy
                                 Capital: Luxembourg
                Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher,
                            Independence: 1839 (from the Netherlands)
                        National holiday: National Day (Birthday of Grand
                                          Duchess Charlotte) 23 June
                            Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional
                            Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts
                                          compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and
                        Executive branch: chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI
                                          (since 7 October 2000); Heir
                                          Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of
                                          the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January
                                          1995) and Vice Prime Minister Lydie
                                          POLFER (since 7 August 1999)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          recommended by the prime minister
                                          and appointed by the monarch
                                          elections: none; the monarch is
                                          hereditary; prime minister and vice
                                          prime minister appointed by the
                                          monarch, following popular election
                                          to the Chamber of Deputies; they are
                                          responsible to the Chamber of
                                          note: government coalition - CSV and
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or
                                          Chambre des Deputes (60 seats;
                                          members are elected by direct,
                                          popular vote to serve five-year
                                          elections: last held 13 June 1999
                                          (next to be held by June 2004)
                                          note: there is also a Council of
                                          State that serves as an advisory
                                          body to the Chamber of Deputies; the
                                          Council of State has 21 members
                                          appointed by the Grand Duke on the
                                          advice of the prime minister
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - CSV 29.79%, DP 21.58%, LSAP
                                          23.75%, ADR 10.36%, Green Party
                                          9.09%, the Left 3.77%; seats by
                                          party - CSV 19, DP 15, LSAP 13, ADR
                                          6, Green Party 5, the Left 2
                         Judicial branch: judicial courts and tribunals (3
                                          Justices of the Peace, 2 district
                                          courts, and 1 Supreme Court of
                                          Appeals); administrative courts and
                                          tribunals (State Prosecutor's
                                          Office, administrative courts and
                                          tribunals, and the Constitutional
                                          Court); judges for all courts are
                                          appointed for life by the monarch
           Political parties and leaders: Action Committee for Democracy and
                                          Justice or ADR [Robert MEHLEN];
                                          Christian Social People's Party or
                                          CSV (known also as Christian Social
                                          Party or PCS) [Erna HENNICOT-
                                          SCHOEPGES]; Democratic Party or DP
                                          [Lydie POLFER]; Green Party [Abbes
                                          JACOBY and Felix BRAS]; Luxembourg
                                          Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP
                                          [Jean ASSELBORN]; Marxist and
                                          Reformed Communist Party DEI LENK
                                          (the Left) [no formal leadership];
                                          other minor parties
            Political pressure groups and ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA
                                 leaders: (financial sector trade union);
                                          Centrale Paysanne (federation of
                                          agricultural producers); CEP
                                          (professional sector chamber); CGFP
                                          (trade union representing civil
                                          service); Chambre de Commerce
                                          (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des
                                          Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL
                                          (federation of industrialists); LCGP
                                          (center-right trade union); OGBL
                                          (center-left trade union)
               International organization ACCT, Australia Group, Benelux, CCC,
                           participation: CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, EU,
                                          FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
                                          ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD,
                                          OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WTrO, ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arlette
                                          chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
                                          consulate(s) general: New York and
                                          San Francisco
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
                                      US: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Gerald
                                          embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-
                                          Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
                                          mailing address: American Embassy
                                          Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-
                                          1410 (official mail); American
                                          Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500,
                                          APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
                                          telephone: [352] 46 01 23
                                          FAX: [352] 46 14 01
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red
                                          (top), white, and light blue;
                                          similar to the flag of the
                                          Netherlands, which uses a darker
                                          blue and is shorter; design was
                                          based on the flag of France
     Economy Luxembourg
                      Economy - overview: This stable, high-income economy
                                          features solid growth, low
                                          inflation, and low unemployment. The
                                          industrial sector, initially
                                          dominated by steel, has become
                                          increasingly diversified to include
                                          chemicals, rubber, and other
                                          products. Growth in the financial
                                          sector has more than compensated for
                                          the decline in steel. Services,
                                          especially banking, account for a
                                          substantial proportion of the
                                          economy. Agriculture is based on
                                          small family-owned farms. The
                                          economy depends on foreign and
                                          trans-border workers for 30% of its
                                          labor force. Although Luxembourg,
                                          like all EU members, has suffered
                                          from the global economic slump, the
                                          country has maintained a fairly
                                          robust growth rate. On 1 January
                                          2002, Luxembourg - together with 11
                                          of its EU partners - began to
                                          replace its circulating national
                                          currency with the euro.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $19.2
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $43,400
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%
                                          industry: 30%
                                          services: 69% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 262,300 (of whom 87,400 are foreign
                                          cross-border workers primarily from
                                          France, Belgium, and Germany) (2000)
             Labor force - by occupation: services 90.1%, industry 8%,
                                          agriculture 1.9% (1999 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 2.4% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $4.44 billion
                                          expenditures: $4.44 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2000 est.)
                              Industries: banking, iron and steel, food
                                          processing, chemicals, metal
                                          products, engineering, tires, glass,
       Industrial production growth rate: 1.9% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 467.7 million kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 57.52%
                                          hydro: 25.66%
                                          other: 16.82% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 6.158 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 735 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 6.458 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: barley, oats, potatoes, wheat,
                                          fruits, wine grapes; livestock
                                 Exports: $7.85 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, steel
                                          products, chemicals, rubber
                                          products, glass
                      Exports - partners: EU 85% (Germany 24%, France 21%,
                                          Belgium 13%), US 4% (2000)
                                 Imports: $10.25 billion (c.i.f., 2000)
                   Imports - commodities: minerals, metals, foodstuffs,
                                          quality consumer goods
                      Imports - partners: EU 88% (Belgium 37%, Germany 25%,
                                          France 13%), US 4% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $NA
                    Economic aid - donor: ODA, $160 million (1999)
                                Currency: euro (EUR); Luxembourg franc (LUF)
                                          note: on 1 January 1999, the
                                          European Monetary Union introduced
                                          the euro as a common currency to be
                                          used by financial institutions of
                                          member countries; on 1 January 2002,
                                          the euro became the sole currency
                                          for everyday transactions within the
                                          member countries
                           Currency code: EUR; LUF
                          Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324
                                          (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001),
                                          1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999);
                                          Luxembourg francs per US dollar -
                                          34.77 (January 1999), 36.299 (1998),
                                          35.774 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Luxembourg
          Telephones - main lines in use: 314,700 (1999)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 215,741 (2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: highly
                                          developed, completely automated and
                                          efficient system, mainly buried
                                          domestic: nationwide cellular
                                          telephone system; buried cable
                                          international: 3 channels leased on
                                          TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable
                                          (Europe to North America)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
                                  Radios: 285,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 5 (1999)
                             Televisions: 285,000 (1998 est.)
                   Internet country code: .lu
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)
                          Internet users: 100,000 (2001)
     Transportation Luxembourg
                                Railways: total: 274 km
                                          standard gauge: 274 km 1.435-m gauge
                                          (242 km electrified) (2001)
                                Highways: total: 5,166 km
                                          paved: 5,166 km (including 118 km of
                                          unpaved: 0 km (1999)
                               Waterways: 37 km (on the Moselle)
                               Pipelines: petroleum products 48 km
                       Ports and harbors: Mertert
                         Merchant marine: total: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 1,487,752 GRT/2,123,579 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 2, chemical
                                          tanker 13, container 8, liquefied
                                          gas 19, passenger 4, petroleum
                                          tanker 8, roll on/roll off 6
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Belgium 21, Finland 3,
                                          France 8, Germany 10, Monaco 1,
                                          Netherlands 3, Norway 1, United
                                          Kingdom 9, United States 3 (2002
                                Airports: 2 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 1
                                          over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
     Military Luxembourg
                       Military branches: Army, Grand Ducal Police
        Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 113,557 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 93,429 (2002 est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 2,565 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $147.8 million (FY01/02)
       Military expenditures - percent of 0.8% (FY01/02)
     Transnational Issues Luxembourg
                                                Disputes - international: none

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