The DICT Development Group

Search for:
Search type:

Database copyright information
Server information

2 definitions found
 for Kyrgyzstan
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a landlocked republic in west central Asia bordering on
           northwestern China; formerly an Asian soviet but became
           independent in 1991 [syn: Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz Republic,
           Kirghizia, Kirgizia, Kirghiz, Kirgiz,
           Kirghizstan, Kirgizstan]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Kyrgyzstan
                              Background: A Central Asian country of
                                          incredible natural beauty and proud
                                          nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was
                                          annexed by Russia in 1864; it
                                          achieved independence from the
                                          Soviet Union in 1991. Current
                                          concerns include: privatization of
                                          state-owned enterprises, expansion
                                          of democracy and political freedoms,
                                          interethnic relations, and combating
     Geography Kyrgyzstan
                                Location: Central Asia, west of China
                  Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 75 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 198,500 sq km
                                          water: 7,200 sq km
                                          land: 191,300 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota
                         Land boundaries: total: 3,878 km
                                          border countries: China 858 km,
                                          Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870
                                          km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: dry continental to polar in high
                                          Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest
                                          (Fergana Valley); temperate in
                                          northern foothill zone
                                 Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan and associated
                                          valleys and basins encompass entire
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Kara-Daryya
                                          (Karadar'ya) 132 m
                                          highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik
                                          Pobedy) 7,439 m
                       Natural resources: abundant hydropower; significant
                                          deposits of gold and rare earth
                                          metals; locally exploitable coal,
                                          oil, and natural gas; other deposits
                                          of nepheline, mercury, bismuth,
                                          lead, and zinc
                                Land use: arable land: 7.04%
                                          permanent crops: 0.39%
                                          note: Kyrgyzstan has the world's
                                          largest natural growth walnut forest
                                          (1998 est.)
                                          other: 92.57%
                          Irrigated land: 10,740 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: water pollution; many people get
                                          their water directly from
                                          contaminated streams and wells; as a
                                          result, water-borne diseases are
                                          prevalent; increasing soil salinity
                                          from faulty irrigation practices
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Hazardous Wastes,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: landlocked; entirely mountainous,
                                          dominated by the Tien Shan range;
                                          many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-
                                          altitude lakes
     People Kyrgyzstan
                              Population: 4,822,166 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.4% (male 838,224;
                                          female 821,230)
                                          15-64 years: 59.4% (male 1,403,328;
                                          female 1,459,914)
                                          65 years and over: 6.2% (male
                                          113,861; female 185,609) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.45% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 26.11 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -2.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.96 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 75.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.56 years
                                          female: 67.98 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 59.35 years
                    Total fertility rate: 3.16 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
                                          adjective: Kyrgyzstani
                           Ethnic groups: Kyrgyz 52.4%, Russian 18%, Uzbek
                                          12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German 2.4%,
                                          other 11.8%
                               Religions: Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%,
                                          other 5%
                               Languages: Kyrgyz - official language, Russian
                                          - official language
                                          note: in December 2001, the
                                          Kyrgyzstani legislature made Russian
                                          an official language, equal in
                                          status to Kyrgyz
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 97%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 96% (1989 est.)
     Government Kyrgyzstan
                            Country name: conventional long form: Kyrgyz
                                          conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
                                          local short form: none
                                          former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist
                                          local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Bishkek
                Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (oblastlar, singular -
                                          oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken
                                          Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy
                                          Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad
                                          Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty,
                                          Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty
                                          note: administrative divisions have
                                          the same names as their
                                          administrative centers (exceptions
                                          have the administrative center name
                                          following in parentheses)
                            Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
                            Constitution: adopted 5 May 1993; note - amendment
                                          proposed by President AKAYEV and
                                          passed in a national referendum on
                                          10 February 1996 significantly
                                          expands the powers of the president
                                          at the expense of the legislature
                            Legal system: based on civil law system
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Askar
                                          AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Nikolay TANAYEV (since 22 May 2002);
                                          note - Prime Minister Kurmanbek
                                          BAKIYEV resigned on 22 May 2002 when
                                          five demonstrators were killed in
                                          clashes with the police
                                          cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president on the
                                          recommendation of the prime minister
                                          election results: Askar AKAYEV
                                          reelected president; percent of vote
                                          - Askar AKAYEV 74%, Omurbek
                                          TEKEBAYEV 14%, other candidates 12%;
                                          note - election marred by serious
                                          elections: president reelected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          elections last held 29 October 2000
                                          (next to be held November or
                                          December 2005); prime minister
                                          appointed by the president
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Council or
                                          Zhogorku Kenesh consists of the
                                          Assembly of People's Representatives
                                          (70 seats; members are elected by
                                          popular vote to serve five-year
                                          terms) and the Legislative Assembly
                                          (35 seats; members are elected by
                                          popular vote to serve five-year
                                          election results: Assembly of
                                          People's Representatives - percent
                                          of vote by party - NA%; percent of
                                          vote by party - NA; and Legislative
                                          Assembly - percent of vote by party
                                          - NA%; seats by party - NA; note -
                                          total seats by party in the Supreme
                                          Council were as follows: Union of
                                          Democratic Forces 12, Communists 6,
                                          My Country Party of Action 4,
                                          independents 73, other 10
                                          note: the legislature became
                                          bicameral for the 5 February 1995
                                          elections; the 2000 election results
                                          include both the Assembly of
                                          People's Representatives and the
                                          Legislative Assembly
                                          elections: Assembly of People's
                                          Representatives - last held 20
                                          February and 12 March 2000 (next to
                                          be held NA February 2005);
                                          Legislative Assembly - last held 20
                                          February and 12 March 2000 (next to
                                          be held NA February 2005)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed
                                          for 10-year terms by the Supreme
                                          Council on the recommendation of the
                                          president); Constitutional Court;
                                          Higher Court of Arbitration
           Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Labor Party of Kyrgyzstan
                                          [Uson S. SYDYKOV]; Agrarian Party of
                                          Kyrgyzstan [Arkin ALIYEV]; Ata-Meken
                                          or Fatherland [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV];
                                          Banner National Revival Party or
                                          ASABA [Chaprashty BAZARBAY];
                                          Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or
                                          DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV]; Democratic
                                          Women's Party of Kyrgyzstan [T. A.
                                          SHAILIYEVA]; Dignity Party [Feliks
                                          KULOV]; Erkin Kyrgyzstan Progressive
                                          and Democratic Party [Tursunbay
                                          Bakir UULU]; Justice Party [Chingiz
                                          AYTMATOV]; Movement for the People's
                                          Salvation [Jumgalbek AMAMBAYEV];
                                          Mutual Help Movement or Ashar
                                          [Jumagazy USUPOV]; My Country of
                                          Action [Almazbek ISMANKULOV];
                                          National Unity Democratic Movement
                                          or DDNE [Yury RAZGULYAYEV]; Party of
                                          Communists of Kyrgyzstan or KCP
                                          [Absamat M. MASALIYEV]; Party of the
                                          Veterans of the War in Afghanistan
                                          [leader NA]; Peasant Party [leader
                                          NA]; People's Party [Melis
                                          ESHIMKANOV]; Republican Popular
                                          Party of Kyrgyzstan [J.
                                          SHARSHENALIYEV]; Social Democratic
                                          Party or PSD [J. IBRAMOV]; Union of
                                          Democratic Forces (composed of
                                          Social Democratic Party of
                                          Kyrgyzstan or PSD [J. IBRAMOV],
                                          Economic Revival Party, and Birimdik
            Political pressure groups and Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz
                                 leaders: Committee on Human Rights [Ramazan
                                          DYRYLDAYEV]; National Unity
                                          Democratic Movement; Union of
               International organization AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
                                          IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
                                          IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO
                                          (correspondent), ITU, NAM
                                          (observer), OIC, OPCW (signatory),
                                          OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU,
                                          WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bakyt
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 338-5139
                                          consulate(s): New York
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 338-5141
                                          chancery: 1732 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20007
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador John M.
                                      US: O'KEEFE
                                          embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, 720016
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          telephone: [996] (312) 551-241,
                                          (517) 777-217
                                          FAX: [996] (312) 551-264
                        Flag description: red field with a yellow sun in the
                                          center having 40 rays representing
                                          the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse
                                          side the rays run counterclockwise,
                                          on the reverse, clockwise; in the
                                          center of the sun is a red ring
                                          crossed by two sets of three lines,
                                          a stylized representation of the
                                          roof of the traditional Kyrgyz yurt
     Economy Kyrgyzstan
                      Economy - overview: Kyrgyzstan is a small, poor,
                                          mountainous country with a
                                          predominantly agricultural economy.
                                          Cotton, wool, and meat are the main
                                          agricultural products and exports.
                                          Industrial exports include gold,
                                          mercury, uranium, and electricity.
                                          Kyrgyzstan has been one of the most
                                          progressive countries of the former
                                          Soviet Union in carrying out market
                                          reforms. With fits and starts,
                                          inflation has been lowered to an
                                          estimated 7% in 2001. Much of the
                                          government's stock in enterprises
                                          has been sold. Drops in production
                                          had been severe since the breakup of
                                          the Soviet Union in December 1991,
                                          but by mid-1995 production began to
                                          recover and exports began to
                                          increase. Growth was held down to
                                          2.1% in 1998 largely because of the
                                          spillover from Russia's economic
                                          difficulties, but moved ahead to
                                          3.6% in 1999, 5% in 2000, and 5%
                                          again in 2001. Despite these gains,
                                          poverty indicators are no better in
                                          2001 than in 1996. On the positive
                                          side, the government and the
                                          international financial institutions
                                          have embarked on a comprehensive
                                          medium-term poverty reduction and
                                          economic growth strategy. In
                                          November 2001, with financing
                                          assurance from the Paris Club, the
                                          IMF Board approved a three-year, $93
                                          million Poverty Reduction and Growth
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $13.5
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 38%
                                          industry: 27%
                                          services: 35% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 55% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.7%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 31.7% (1997)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 40.5 (1997)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 2.7 million (2000)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 55%, industry 15%,
                                          services 30% (2000 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 7.2% (1999 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $207.4 million
                                          expenditures: $238.7 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1999 est.)
                              Industries: small machinery, textiles, food
                                          processing, cement, shoes, sawn
                                          logs, refrigerators, furniture,
                                          electric motors, gold, rare earth
       Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 14.677 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 7.62%
                                          hydro: 92.38%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 9.818 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 4.153 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 321 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: tobacco, cotton, potatoes,
                                          vegetables, grapes, fruits and
                                          berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
                                 Exports: $475 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold,
                                          mercury, uranium, hydropower;
                                          machinery; shoes
                      Exports - partners: Germany 28.7%, Uzbekistan 17.7%,
                                          Russia 12.9%, China 8.7%, Kazakhstan
                                          6.6% (2000)
                                 Imports: $420 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: oil and gas, machinery and
                                          equipment, foodstuffs
                      Imports - partners: Russia 23.9%, Uzbekistan 13.5%,
                                          Kazakhstan 10.3%, US 9.7%, Turkey
                                          4.8% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $1.6 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $50 million from the US (2001)
                                Currency: Kyrgyzstani som (KGS)
                           Currency code: KGS
                          Exchange rates: soms per US dollar - 47.972 (January
                                          2002), 48.378 (2001), 47.704 (2000),
                                          39.008 (1999), 20.838 (1998), 17.362
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Kyrgyzstan
          Telephones - main lines in use: 351,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
                        Telephone system: general assessment: poorly
                                          developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied
                                          applications for household
                                          domestic: principally microwave
                                          radio relay; one cellular provider,
                                          probably limited to Bishkek region
                                          international: connections with
                                          other CIS countries by landline or
                                          microwave radio relay and with other
                                          countries by leased connections with
                                          Moscow international gateway switch
                                          and by satellite; satellite earth
                                          stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1
                                          Intelsat; connected internationally
                                          by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE)
                                          fiber-optic line
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 12 (plus 10 repeater stations),
                                          FM 14, shortwave 2 (1998)
                                  Radios: 520,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: NA (repeater stations throughout the
                                          country relay programs from Russia,
                                          Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkey)
                             Televisions: 210,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .kg
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
                          Internet users: 51,600 (2001)
     Transportation Kyrgyzstan
                                Railways: total: 370 km in common carrier
                                          service; does not include industrial
                                          broad gauge: 370 km 1.520-m gauge
                                Highways: total: 30,300 km (including 140 km
                                          of expressways)
                                          paved: 22,600 km (includes some all-
                                          weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                          unpaved: 7,700 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1990)
                               Waterways: 600 km (1990)
                               Pipelines: natural gas 200 km
                       Ports and harbors: Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)
                                Airports: 50 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 4
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 46
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 6
                                          under 914 m: 32 (2001)
     Military Kyrgyzstan
                        Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense, Security
                                           Forces, Border Troops
         Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,234,457 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,001,274 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 50,590 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $19.2 million (FY01)
        Military expenditures - percent of 1.4% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Kyrgyzstan
                Disputes - international: territorial dispute with Tajikistan
                                          on southwestern boundary in Isfara
                                          Valley area; dispute over access to
                                          Sokh and other Uzbek enclaves in
                                          Kyrgyzstan mars progress on boundary
                                          delimitation; disputes over
                                          provision of water and hydroelectric
                                          power to Kazakhstan; periodic target
                                          of Islamic insurgents from
                                          Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and
                           Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of
                                          cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for
                                          CIS consumption; limited government
                                          eradication program; increasingly
                                          used as transshipment point for
                                          illicit drugs to Russia and Western
                                          Europe from Southwest Asia

Contact=webmaster@dict.org Specification=RFC 2229