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 for Korea, North
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Korea, North
     Introduction Korea, North
                              Background: Following World War II, Korea was
                                          split with the northern half coming
                                          under Communist domination and the
                                          southern portion becoming Western
                                          oriented. KIM Chong-il has ruled
                                          North Korea since his father and the
                                          country's founder, president KIM Il-
                                          song, died in 1994. After decades of
                                          mismanagement, the North relies
                                          heavily on international food aid to
                                          feed its population, while
                                          continuing to expend resources to
                                          maintain an army of about 1 million.
                                          North Korea's long-range missile
                                          development and research into
                                          nuclear, chemical, and biological
                                          weapons and massive conventional
                                          armed forces are of major concern to
                                          the international community.
     Geography Korea, North
                                Location: Eastern Asia, northern half of the
                                          Korean Peninsula bordering the Korea
                                          Bay and the Sea of Japan, between
                                          China and South Korea
                  Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 127 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 120,540 sq km
                                          water: 130 sq km
                                          land: 120,410 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Mississippi
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,673 km
                                          border countries: China 1,416 km,
                                          South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km
                               Coastline: 2,495 km
                         Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          note: military boundary line 50 NM
                                          in the Sea of Japan and the
                                          exclusive economic zone limit in the
                                          Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels
                                          and aircraft without permission are
                                 Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated
                                          in summer
                                 Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated
                                          by deep, narrow valleys; coastal
                                          plains wide in west, discontinuous
                                          in east
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m
                                          highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m
                       Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc,
                                          graphite, magnesite, iron ore,
                                          copper, gold, pyrites, salt,
                                          fluorspar, hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 14.12%
                                          permanent crops: 2.49%
                                          other: 83.39% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 14,600 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: late spring droughts often followed
                                          by severe flooding; occasional
                                          typhoons during the early fall
            Environment - current issues: water pollution; inadequate supplies
                                          of potable water; water-borne
                                          disease; deforestation; soil erosion
                                          and degradation
              Environment - international party to: Antarctic Treaty,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Environmental Modification, Ozone
                                          Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
                                          signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-
                                          Environmental Protocol, Law of the
                        Geography - note: strategic location bordering China,
                                          South Korea, and Russia; mountainous
                                          interior is isolated and sparsely
     People Korea, North
                              Population: 22,224,195 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.4% (male 2,888,478;
                                          female 2,747,133)
                                          15-64 years: 67.4% (male 7,380,183;
                                          female 7,612,275)
                                          65 years and over: 7.2% (male
                                          527,256; female 1,068,870) (2002
                  Population growth rate: 1.1% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 17.95 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 6.96 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.95 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 22.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.3 years
                                          female: 74.44 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 68.31 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.22 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Korean(s)
                                          adjective: Korean
                           Ethnic groups: racially homogeneous; there is a
                                          small Chinese community and a few
                                          ethnic Japanese
                               Religions: traditionally Buddhist and
                                          Confucianist, some Christian and
                                          syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the
                                          Heavenly Way)
                                          note: autonomous religious
                                          activities now almost nonexistent;
                                          government-sponsored religious
                                          groups exist to provide illusion of
                                          religious freedom
                               Languages: Korean
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write Korean
                                          total population: 99%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 99% (1990 est.)
     Government Korea, North
                            Country name: conventional long form: Democratic
                                          People's Republic of Korea
                                          conventional short form: North Korea
                                          local short form: none
                                          local long form: Choson-minjujuui-
                                          note: the North Koreans generally
                                          use the term "Choson" to refer to
                                          their country
                                          abbreviation: DPRK
                         Government type: authoritarian socialist; one-man
                                 Capital: P'yongyang
                Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and
                                          plural) and 4 special cities* (si,
                                          singular and plural); Chagang-do
                                          (Chagang Province), Hamgyong-bukto
                                          (North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-
                                          namdo (South Hamgyong Province),
                                          Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae
                                          Province), Hwanghae-namdo (South
                                          Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si*
                                          (Kaesong City), Kangwon-do (Kangwon
                                          Province), Najin Sonbong-si*,
                                          Namp'o-si* (Namp'o City), P'yongan-
                                          bukto (North P'yongan Province),
                                          P'yongan-namdo (South P'yongan
                                          Province), P'yongyang-si*
                                          (P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do
                                          (Yanggang Province)
                            Independence: 15 August 1945 (from Japan)
                        National holiday: Founding of the Democratic People's
                                          Republic of Korea (DPRK), 9
                                          September (1948)
                            Constitution: adopted 1948, completely revised 27
                                          December 1972, revised again in
                                          April 1992 and September 1998
                            Legal system: based on German civil law system
                                          with Japanese influences and
                                          Communist legal theory; no judicial
                                          review of legislative acts; has not
                                          accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: KIM Chong-il (since
                                          NA July 1994); note - in September
                                          1998, KIM Chong-il was reelected
                                          Chairman of the National Defense
                                          Commission, a position accorded the
                                          nation's "highest administrative
                                          authority"; KIM Yong-nam was named
                                          President of the Supreme People's
                                          Assembly Presidium and given the
                                          responsibility of representing the
                                          state and receiving diplomatic
                                          elections: premier elected by the
                                          Supreme People's Assembly; election
                                          last held NA September 1998 (next to
                                          be held NA)
                                          election results: HONG Song-nam
                                          elected premier; percent of Supreme
                                          People's Assembly vote - NA%
                                          cabinet: Cabinet (Naegak), members,
                                          except for the Minister of People's
                                          Armed Forces, are appointed by the
                                          Supreme People's Assembly
                                          head of government: Premier HONG
                                          Song-nam (since 5 September 1998);
                                          Vice Premiers CHO Ch'ang-tok (since
                                          NA), KWAK Pom-ki (since NA), Sin IL-
                                          nam (since NA April 2002)
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly
                                          or Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui (687 seats;
                                          members elected by popular vote to
                                          serve five-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 26 July 1998
                                          (next to be held NA 2003)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - the
                                          KWP approves a single list of
                                          candidates who are elected without
                                          opposition; minor parties hold a few
                         Judicial branch: Central Court (judges are elected by
                                          the Supreme People's Assembly)
           Political parties and leaders: Chondoist Chongu Party [YU Mi-yong,
                                          chairwoman]; Korean Social
                                          Democratic Party [KIM Yong-tae,
                                          chairman]; major party - Korean
                                          Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Chong-il,
                                          General Secretary]
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization ARF (dialogue partner), ESCAP, FAO,
                           participation: G-77, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO,
                                          IMO, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WToO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - North Korea has a
                                          Permanent Mission to the UN in New
       Diplomatic representation from the none (Swedish Embassy in P'yongyang
                                      US: represents the US as consular
                                          protecting power)
                        Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue
                                          (top), red (triple width), and blue;
                                          the red band is edged in white; on
                                          the hoist side of the red band is a
                                          white disk with a red five-pointed
     Economy Korea, North
                      Economy - overview: North Korea, one of the world's most
                                          centrally planned and isolated
                                          economies, faces desperate economic
                                          conditions. Industrial capital stock
                                          is nearly beyond repair as a result
                                          of years of underinvestment and
                                          spare parts shortages. Industrial
                                          and power output have declined in
                                          parallel. Despite a good harvest in
                                          2001, the nation faces its eighth
                                          year of food shortages because of a
                                          lack of arable land; collective
                                          farming; weather-related problems,
                                          including major drought in 2000; and
                                          chronic shortages of fertilizer and
                                          fuel. Massive international food aid
                                          deliveries have allowed the regime
                                          to escape mass starvation since
                                          1995-96, but the population remains
                                          vulnerable to prolonged malnutrition
                                          and deteriorating living conditions.
                                          Large-scale military spending eats
                                          up resources needed for investment
                                          and civilian consumption. In 2001,
                                          the regime placed emphasis on
                                          earning hard currency, developing
                                          information technology, addressing
                                          power shortages, and attracting
                                          foreign aid, but in no way at the
                                          expense of relinquishing central
                                          control over key national assets or
                                          undergoing widespread market-
                                          oriented reforms.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.8
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: -3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 30%
                                          industry: 42%
                                          services: 28% (1999 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%
                             Labor force: 9.6 million
             Labor force - by occupation: agricultural 36%, nonagricultural
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $NA
                                          expenditures: $NA, including capital
                                          expenditures of $NA
                              Industries: military products; machine building,
                                          electric power, chemicals; mining
                                          (coal, iron ore, magnesite,
                                          graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and
                                          precious metals), metallurgy;
                                          textiles, food processing; tourism
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 33.4 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 32.63%
                                          hydro: 67.37%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 31.062 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans,
                                          pulses; cattle, pigs, pork, eggs
                                 Exports: $708 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: minerals, metallurgical products,
                                          manufactures (including armaments);
                                          agricultural and fishery products
                      Exports - partners: Japan 40%, South Korea 24%, Hong
                                          Kong 7%, China 6%, France 4%,
                                          Germany 4% (2000)
                                 Imports: $1.686 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: petroleum, coking coal, machinery
                                          and equipment; consumer goods, grain
                      Imports - partners: China 38%, Japan 17%, South Korea
                                          8%, Hong Kong 6%, Germany 4.5%
                         Debt - external: $12 billion (1996 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - nearly $300 million in
                                          food aid alone from US, South Korea,
                                          Japan, and EU in 2001 plus much
                                          additional aid from the UN and non-
                                          governmental organizations
                                Currency: North Korean won (KPW)
                           Currency code: KPW
                          Exchange rates: official: North Korean won per US
                                          dollar - 2.15 (December 2001), 2.15
                                          (May 1994), 2.13 (May 1992), 2.14
                                          (September 1991), 2.1 (January
                                          1990); market: North Korean won per
                                          US dollar - 200 (December 2001)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Korea, North
          Telephones - main lines in use: 1.1 million (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
                        Telephone system: general assessment: NA
                                          domestic: NA
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
                                          and 1 Russian (Indian Ocean region);
                                          other international connections
                                          through Moscow and Beijing
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 14, shortwave 12 (1999)
                                  Radios: 3.36 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 38 (1999)
                             Televisions: 1.2 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .kp
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
                          Internet users: NA
     Transportation Korea, North
                                Railways: total: 5,000 km
                                          standard gauge: 4,095 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge (3,500 km electrified; 159
                                          km double-tracked)
                                          narrow gauge: 665 km 0.762-m gauge
                                          dual gauge: 240 km 1.435-m and
                                          1.600-m gauges (three rails provide
                                          two gauges) (1996)
                                Highways: total: 31,200 km
                                          paved: 1,997 km
                                          unpaved: 29,203 km (1996)
                               Waterways: 2,253 km
                                          note: mostly navigable by small
                                          craft only
                               Pipelines: crude oil 37 km; petroleum product
                                          180 km
                       Ports and harbors: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam (Hamhung),
                                          Kimch'aek, Kosong, Najin, Namp'o,
                                          Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly
                                          Unggi), Ungsang, Wonsan
                         Merchant marine: total: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 738,886 GRT/1,037,506 DWT
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Denmark 1, Greece 2,
                                          Pakistan 1, Singapore 1 (2002 est.)
                                          ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 102,
                                          combination bulk 1, multi-functional
                                          large-load carrier 1, passenger 2,
                                          passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker
                                          6, refrigerated cargo 3, short-sea
                                          passenger 2
                                Airports: 87 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 39
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 48
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 13
                                          under 914 m: 8 (2001)
     Military Korea, North
                       Military branches: Korean People's Army (includes Army,
                                          Navy, Air Force), Civil Security
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,032,376 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 3,619,535 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 179,136 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $5,124.1 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 31.3% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Korea, North
                Disputes - international: 33-km section of boundary with China
                                          in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is
                                          indefinite; Demarcation Line with
                                          South Korea

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