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 for Johnston Atoll
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Johnston Atoll
     Introduction Johnston Atoll
                              Background: Both the US and the Kingdom of
                                          Hawaii annexed Johnston Atoll in
                                          1858, but it was the US that mined
                                          the guano deposits until the late
                                          1880s. The US Navy took over the
                                          atoll in 1934, and subsequently the
                                          US Air Force assumed control in
                                          1948. The site was used for high
                                          altitude nuclear tests in the 1950s
                                          and 1960s, and until late in 2000
                                          the atoll was maintained as a
                                          storage and disposal site for
                                          chemical weapons. Munitions
                                          destruction is now complete. Cleanup
                                          and closure of the facility is
                                          progressing, with completion
                                          anticipated in 2004.
     Geography Johnston Atoll
                                Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific
                                          Ocean 717 NM (1328 km) southwest of
                                          Honolulu, Hawaii, about one-third of
                                          the way from Hawaii to the Marshall
                  Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 169 31 W
                          Map references: Oceania
                                    Area: total: 2.8 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 2.8 sq km
                      Area - comparative: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall
                                          in Washington, DC
                         Land boundaries: 0 km
                               Coastline: 34 km
                         Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: tropical, but generally dry;
                                          consistent northeast trade winds
                                          with little seasonal temperature
                                 Terrain: mostly flat
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Summit Peak 5 m
                       Natural resources: guano deposits worked until
                                          depletion about 1890, terrestrial
                                          and aquatic wildlife
                                Land use: arable land: 0%
                                          permanent crops: 0%
                                          other: 100% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources
                        Geography - note: strategic location in the North
                                          Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and
                                          Sand Island are natural islands,
                                          which have been expanded by coral
                                          dredging; North Island (Akau) and
                                          East Island (Hikina) are manmade
                                          islands formed from coral dredging;
                                          egg-shaped reef is 34 km in
                                          circumference; closed to the public;
                                          former US nuclear weapons test site;
                                          site of Johnston Atoll Chemical
                                          Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some
                                          lowgrowing vegetation
     People Johnston Atoll
                              Population: no indigenous inhabitants
                                          note: in previous years, there was
                                          an average of 1,100 US military and
                                          civilian contractor personnel
                                          present; as of 1 September 2001,
                                          population had decreased
                                          significantly when US Army Chemical
                                          Activity Pacific (USACAP) departed
                                          (July 2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: NA%
     Government Johnston Atoll
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Johnston
                       Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US;
                                          administered from Honolulu, HI, by
                                          Pacific Air Forces, Hickam AFB, and
                                          the Fish and Wildlife Service of the
                                          US Department of the Interior as
                                          part of the National Wildlife Refuge
                            Legal system: the laws of the US, where
                                          applicable, apply
                        Flag description: the flag of the US is used
     Economy Johnston Atoll
                      Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to
                                          providing services to US military
                                          personnel and contractors located on
                                          the island. All food and
                                          manufactured goods must be imported.
                Electricity - production: approximately 1million kWh weekly;
                                          note - there are six 25,000 kWh
                                          generators operated by the base
                                          operating support contractor (1999)
               Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
     Communications Johnston Atoll
                        Telephone system: general assessment: 13 outgoing and
                                          10 incoming commercial lines;
                                          adequate telecommunications
                                          domestic: 60-channel submarine cable
                                          (broken in January 2002), 22 DSN
                                          circuits by satellite, Autodin with
                                          standard remote terminal, digital
                                          telephone switch, Military
                                          Affiliated Radio System (MARS
                                          station), UHF/VHF air-ground radio,
                                          a link to the Pacific Consolidated
                                          Telecommunications Network (PCTN)
                                          international: NA
                Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
           Television broadcast stations: commercial satellite television
                                          system, with 16 channels (1997)
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
     Transportation Johnston Atoll
                                         Waterways: none
                                 Ports and harbors: Johnston Island
                                          Airports: 1 (2001)
                     Airports - with paved runways: total: 1
                                                    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
     Military Johnston Atoll
                         Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the
     Transnational Issues Johnston Atoll
                                                Disputes - international: none

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