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 for Iraq
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in the Middle East in western Asia; the ancient
           civilization of Mesopotamia was in the area now known as
           Iraq [syn: Iraq, Republic of Iraq, Al-Iraq, Irak]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Iraq
                              Background: Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire,
                                          Iraq became an independent kingdom
                                          in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed
                                          in 1958, but in actuality a series
                                          of military strongmen have ruled the
                                          country since then, the latest being
                                          SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes
                                          with Iran led to an inconclusive and
                                          costly eight-year war (1980-88). In
                                          August 1990 Iraq seized Kuwait, but
                                          was expelled by US-led, UN coalition
                                          forces during January-February 1991.
                                          The victors did not occupy Iraq,
                                          however, thus allowing the regime to
                                          stay in control. Following Kuwait's
                                          liberation, the UN Security Council
                                          (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all
                                          weapons of mass destruction and
                                          long-range missiles and to allow UN
                                          verification inspections. UN trade
                                          sanctions remain in effect due to
                                          incomplete Iraqi compliance with
                                          relevant UNSC resolutions.
     Geography Iraq
                                Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian
                                          Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait
                  Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 44 00 E
                          Map references: Middle East
                                    Area: total: 437,072 sq km
                                          water: 4,910 sq km
                                          land: 432,162 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of
                         Land boundaries: total: 3,650 km
                                          border countries: Iran 1,458 km,
                                          Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi
                                          Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey
                                          352 km
                               Coastline: 58 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: not specified
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters
                                          with dry, hot, cloudless summers;
                                          northern mountainous regions along
                                          Iranian and Turkish borders
                                          experience cold winters with
                                          occasionally heavy snows that melt
                                          in early spring, sometimes causing
                                          extensive flooding in central and
                                          southern Iraq
                                 Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes
                                          along Iranian border in south with
                                          large flooded areas; mountains along
                                          borders with Iran and Turkey
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
                                          highest point: Haji Ibrahim 3,600 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates,
                                Land use: arable land: 11.89%
                                          permanent crops: 0.78%
                                          other: 87.33% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 35,250 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms, floods
            Environment - current issues: government water control projects
                                          have drained most of the inhabited
                                          marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by
                                          drying up or diverting the feeder
                                          streams and rivers; a once sizable
                                          population of Shi'a Muslims, who
                                          have inhabited these areas for
                                          thousands of years, has been
                                          displaced; furthermore, the
                                          destruction of the natural habitat
                                          poses serious threats to the area's
                                          wildlife populations; inadequate
                                          supplies of potable water;
                                          development of Tigris-Euphrates
                                          Rivers system contingent upon
                                          agreements with upstream riparian
                                          Turkey; air and water pollution;
                                          soil degradation (salination) and
                                          erosion; desertification
              Environment - international party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear
                              agreements: Test Ban
                                          signed, but not ratified:
                                          Environmental Modification
                        Geography - note: strategic location on Shatt al Arab
                                          waterway and at the head of the
                                          Persian Gulf
     People Iraq
                              Population: 24,001,816 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.1% (male 5,003,755;
                                          female 4,849,238)
                                          15-64 years: 55.9% (male 6,794,265;
                                          female 6,624,662)
                                          65 years and over: 3% (male 341,520;
                                          female 388,376) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.82% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 34.2 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 6.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1.02 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 57.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.38 years
                                          female: 68.5 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 66.31 years
                    Total fertility rate: 4.63 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Iraqi(s)
                                          adjective: Iraqi
                           Ethnic groups: Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%,
                                          Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
                               Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni
                                          32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
                               Languages: Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish
                                          regions), Assyrian, Armenian
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 58%
                                          male: 70.7%
                                          female: 45% (1995 est.)
     Government Iraq
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Iraq
                                          local short form: Al Iraq
                                          local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Baghdad
                Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat, singular -
                                          muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al
                                          Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf,
                                          Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim,
                                          Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar,
                                          Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa,
                                          Salah ad Din, Wasit
                            Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of
                                          Nations mandate under British
                        National holiday: Revolution Day, 17 July (1968)
                            Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July
                                          1970 (provisional constitution); new
                                          constitution drafted in 1990 but not
                            Legal system: based on Islamic law in special
                                          religious courts, civil law system
                                          elsewhere; has not accepted
                                          compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President SADDAM
                                          Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice
                                          Presidents Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF
                                          (since 21 April 1974) and Taha Yasin
                                          RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991)
                                          elections: president and vice
                                          presidents elected by a two-thirds
                                          majority of the Revolutionary
                                          Command Council; election last held
                                          17 October 1995 (next to be held NA
                                          election results: SADDAM Husayn
                                          reelected president; percent of vote
                                          - 99%; Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF and
                                          Taha Yasin RAMADAN elected vice
                                          presidents; percent of vote - NA%
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers; note
                                          - there is also a Revolutionary
                                          Command Council or RCC with eight
                                          members as of 2001 (Chairman SADDAM
                                          Husayn, Vice Chairman Izzat IBRAHIM
                                          al-Duri) which controls the ruling
                                          Ba'th Party; the RCC is the highest
                                          executive and legislative body and
                                          the most powerful political entity
                                          in the country; new RCC members must
                                          come from the Regional Command
                                          Leadership of the Ba'th Party
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          SADDAM Husayn (since 29 May 1994);
                                          Deputy Prime Ministers Tariq Mikhail
                                          AZIZ (since NA 1979), Hikmat Mizban
                                          Ibrahim al-AZZAWI (since 30 July
                                          1999), Ahmad Husayn al-KHUDAYIR
                                          (since NA July 2001), and Abd al-
                                          Tawab Mullah al-HUWAYSH (since NA
                                          July 2001)
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Majlis al-Watani (250 seats; 30
                                          appointed by the president to
                                          represent the three northern
                                          provinces of Dahuk, Arbil, and As
                                          Sulaymaniyah; 220 elected by popular
                                          vote; members serve four-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 27 March 2000
                                          (next to be held NA March 2004)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - NA
                         Judicial branch: Court of Cassation
           Political parties and leaders: Ba'th Party [SADDAM Husayn, central
                                          party leader]
            Political pressure groups and any formal political activity must
                                 leaders: be sanctioned by the government;
                                          opposition to regime from Kurdish
                                          groups and southern Shi'a dissidents
               International organization ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU,
                           participation: CCC, EAPC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77,
                                          IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
                                          IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC,
                                          OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
     Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Iraq has an Interest
                                          Section in the Algerian Embassy
                                          headed by Akram AL DOURI; address:
                                          Iraqi Interests Section, Algerian
                                          Embassy, 1801 P Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20036; telephone: [1]
                                          (202) 483-7500; FAX: [1] (202) 462-
       Diplomatic representation from the none; note - the US has an Interests
                                      US: Section in the Polish Embassy in
                                          Baghdad; address: P. O. Box 2051 Hay
                                          Babel, Baghdad; telephone: [964] (1)
                                          718-9267; FAX: [964] (1) 718-9297
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red
                                          (top), white, and black with three
                                          green five-pointed stars in a
                                          horizontal line centered in the
                                          white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR
                                          (God is Great) in green Arabic
                                          script - Allahu to the right of the
                                          middle star and Akbar to the left of
                                          the middle star - was added in
                                          January 1991 during the Persian Gulf
                                          crisis; similar to the flag of Syria
                                          which has two stars but no script
                                          and the flag of Yemen which has a
                                          plain white band; also similar to
                                          the flag of Egypt which has a
                                          symbolic eagle centered in the white
     Economy Iraq
                      Economy - overview: Iraq's economy is dominated by the
                                          oil sector, which has traditionally
                                          provided about 95% of foreign
                                          exchange earnings. In the 1980s
                                          financial problems caused by massive
                                          expenditures in the eight-year war
                                          with Iran and damage to oil export
                                          facilities by Iran led the
                                          government to implement austerity
                                          measures, borrow heavily, and later
                                          reschedule foreign debt payments;
                                          Iraq suffered economic losses from
                                          the war of at least $100 billion.
                                          After hostilities ended in 1988, oil
                                          exports gradually increased with the
                                          construction of new pipelines and
                                          restoration of damaged facilities.
                                          Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August
                                          1990, subsequent international
                                          economic sanctions, and damage from
                                          military action by an international
                                          coalition beginning in January 1991
                                          drastically reduced economic
                                          activity. Although government
                                          policies supporting large military
                                          and internal security forces and
                                          allocating resources to key
                                          supporters of the regime have hurt
                                          the economy, implementation of the
                                          UN's oil-for-food program in
                                          December 1996 has helped improve
                                          conditions for the average Iraqi
                                          citizen. For the first six, six-
                                          month phases of the program, Iraq
                                          was allowed to export limited
                                          amounts of oil in exchange for food,
                                          medicine, and some infrastructure
                                          spare parts. In December 1999 the UN
                                          Security Council authorized Iraq to
                                          export under the program as much oil
                                          as required to meet humanitarian
                                          needs. Oil exports are now more than
                                          three-quarters prewar level.
                                          However, 28% of Iraq's export
                                          revenues under the program are
                                          deducted to meet UN Compensation
                                          Fund and UN administrative expenses.
                                          The drop in GDP in 2001 was largely
                                          the result of the global economic
                                          slowdown and lower oil prices. Per
                                          capita food imports have increased
                                          significantly, while medical
                                          supplies and health care services
                                          are steadily improving. Per capita
                                          output and living standards are
                                          still well below the prewar level,
                                          but any estimates have a wide range
                                          of error.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $59
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: -5.7% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6%
                                          industry: 13%
                                          services: 81% (1993 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 4.4 million (1989)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%,
                                          services NA%
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $NA
                                          expenditures: $NA, including capital
                                          expenditures of $NA
                              Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles,
                                          construction materials, food
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 27.3 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 98.17%
                                          hydro: 1.83%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 25.389 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, rice, vegetables,
                                          dates, cotton; cattle, sheep
                                 Exports: $15.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: crude oil
                      Exports - partners: US 46.2%, Italy 12.2%, France 9.6%,
                                          Spain 8.6% (2000)
                                 Imports: $11 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: food, medicine, manufactures
                      Imports - partners: France 22.5%, Australia 22%, China
                                          5.8%, Russia 5.8% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $62.2 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $327.5 million (1995)
                                Currency: Iraqi dinar (IQD)
                           Currency code: IQD
                          Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars per US dollar - 0.3109
                                          (fixed official rate since 1982);
                                          black market rate - Iraqi dinars per
                                          US dollar - 2,000 (December 2001),
                                          1,910 (December 1999), 1,815
                                          (December 1998), 1,530 (December
                                          1997), 910 (December 1996); note -
                                          subject to wide fluctuations
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Iraq
          Telephones - main lines in use: 675,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: NA; service available in northern
                                          Iraq (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: reconstitution
                                          of damaged telecommunication
                                          facilities began after the Gulf war;
                                          most damaged facilities have been
                                          domestic: the network consists of
                                          coaxial cables and microwave radio
                                          relay links
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
                                          Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1
                                          Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean
                                          region), and 1 Arabsat
                                          (inoperative); coaxial cable and
                                          microwave radio relay to Jordan,
                                          Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; Kuwait
                                          line is probably nonoperational
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 19 (5 are inactive), FM 51,
                                          shortwave 4 (1998)
                                  Radios: 4.85 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 13 (1997)
                             Televisions: 1.75 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .iq
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
                          Internet users: 12,500 (2001)
     Transportation Iraq
                                Railways: total: 2,339 km
                                          standard gauge: 2,339 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge (2001)
                                Highways: total: 45,550 km
                                          paved: 38,400 km
                                          unpaved: 7,150 km (1996 est.)
                               Waterways: 1,015 km
                                          note: Shatt al Arab is usually
                                          navigable by maritime traffic for
                                          about 130 km; channel has been
                                          dredged to 3 m and is in use; Tigris
                                          and Euphrates Rivers have navigable
                                          sections for shallow-draft boats;
                                          Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable
                                          by shallow-draft craft before
                                          closing in 1991 because of the Gulf
                               Pipelines: crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum
                                          products 725 km; natural gas 1,360
                       Ports and harbors: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al
                                          Basrah have limited functionality
                         Merchant marine: total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 186,709 GRT/278,575 DWT
                                          ships by type: cargo 14, passenger
                                          1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum
                                          tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1 (2002
                                Airports: 108 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 73
                                          over 3,047 m: 20
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 34
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 6
                                          under 914 m: 7 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 35
                                          under 914 m: 12 (2001)
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 10
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                               Heliports: 4 (2001)
     Military Iraq
                         Military branches: Army, Republican Guard, Navy, Air
                                            Force, Air Defense Force, Border
                                            Guard Force, Fedayeen Saddam
          Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
          Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,135,847 (2002
       Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 3,430,819 (2002
                                   service: est.)
      Military manpower - reaching military males: 274,035 (2002 est.)
                              age annually:
             Military expenditures - dollar $1.3 billion (FY00)
         Military expenditures - percent of NA%
     Transnational Issues Iraq
                Disputes - international: despite restored diplomatic
                                          relations in 1990, lacks maritime
                                          boundary with Iran and disputes land
                                          boundary, navigation channels, and
                                          other issues from eight-year war; in
                                          November 1994, Iraq formally
                                          accepted the UN-demarcated border
                                          with Kuwait which had been spelled
                                          out in Security Council Resolutions
                                          687 (1991), 773 (1993), and 883
                                          (1993); this formally ends earlier
                                          claims to Kuwait and to Bubiyan and
                                          Warbah islands although the
                                          government continues periodic
                                          rhetorical challenges; dispute over
                                          water development plans by Turkey
                                          for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers

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