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 for I/O redirection
From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018) :

  input/output redirection
  I/O redirection
      In Unix, to send ouput from a process
     to different file or device or to another process via a
     pipe, or to have a process read its input from a different
     file, device or pipe.  Some other operating systems have
     similar facilities.
     To redirect input to come from a file instead of the keyboard,
     use "<":
     	myprog < myfile
     Similarly to redirect output to a file instead of the screen:
     	ls > filelist
     A pipe redirects the output of one process directly into the
     input of another
     	who | wc -l
     A common misuse by beginners is
     	cat myfile | myprog
     Which is more or less equivalent to "myprog < myfile" except
     that it introduces an extra unnecessary cat process and buffer
     space for the pipe.  Even the "<" is unnecessary with many
     standard Unix commands since they accept input file names as
     command line arguments anyway.
     Unix's concept of standard input/output and I/O redirection
     make it easy to combine simple processes in powerful ways and
     to use the same commands for different purposes.

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