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 for Howland Island
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Howland Island
     Introduction Howland Island
                              Background: Discovered by the US early in the
                                          19th century, the island was
                                          officially claimed by the US in
                                          1857. Both US and British companies
                                          mined for guano until about 1890.
                                          Earhart Light is a day beacon near
                                          the middle of the west coast that
                                          was partially destroyed during World
                                          War II, but has since been rebuilt;
                                          it is named in memory of the famed
                                          aviatrix Amelia EARHART. The island
                                          is administered by the US Department
                                          of the Interior as a National
                                          Wildlife Refuge.
     Geography Howland Island
                                Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific
                                          Ocean, about half way between Hawaii
                                          and Australia
                  Geographic coordinates: 0 48 N, 176 38 W
                          Map references: Oceania
                                    Area: total: 1.6 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 1.6 sq km
                      Area - comparative: about three times the size of The
                                          Mall in Washington, DC
                         Land boundaries: 0 km
                               Coastline: 6.4 km
                         Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant
                                          wind, burning sun
                                 Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy,
                                          coral island surrounded by a narrow
                                          fringing reef; depressed central
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: unnamed location 3 m
                       Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late
                                          1800s), terrestrial and aquatic
                                Land use: arable land: 0%
                                          permanent crops: 0%
                                          other: 100% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding
                                          the island can be a maritime hazard
            Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources
                        Geography - note: almost totally covered with grasses,
                                          prostrate vines, and low-growing
                                          shrubs; small area of trees in the
                                          center; primarily a nesting,
                                          roosting, and foraging habitat for
                                          seabirds, shorebirds, and marine
     People Howland Island
                              Population: uninhabited
                                          note: American civilians evacuated
                                          in 1942 after Japanese air and naval
                                          attacks during World War II;
                                          occupied by US military during World
                                          War II, but abandoned after the war;
                                          public entry is by special-use
                                          permit from US Fish and Wildlife
                                          Service only and generally
                                          restricted to scientists and
                                          educators; visited annually by US
                                          Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2002
                  Population growth rate: NA
     Government Howland Island
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Howland
                       Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US;
                                          administered from Washington, DC, by
                                          the Fish and Wildlife Service of the
                                          US Department of the Interior as
                                          part of the National Wildlife Refuge
                            Legal system: the laws of the US, where
                                          applicable, apply
                        Flag description: the flag of the US is used
     Economy Howland Island
                                      Economy - overview: no economic activity
     Transportation Howland Island
                               Waterways: none
                       Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note
                                          - there is one small boat landing
                                          area along the middle of the west
                                Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for
                                          scheduled refueling stop on the
                                          round-the-world flight of Amelia
                                          EARHART and Fred NOONAN - they left
                                          Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island,
                                          but were never seen again; the
                                          airstrip is no longer serviceable
                   Transportation - note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near
                                          the middle of the west coast that
                                          was partially destroyed during World
                                          War II, but has since been rebuilt;
                                          named in memory of famed aviatrix
                                          Amelia EARHART
     Military Howland Island
                         Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the
                                          US; visited annually by the US Coast
     Transnational Issues Howland Island
                                                Disputes - international: none

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