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 for Holy See (Vatican City)
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Holy See (Vatican City)
     Introduction Holy See (Vatican City)
                              Background: Popes in their secular role ruled
                                          portions of the Italian peninsula
                                          for more than a thousand years until
                                          the mid 19th century, when many of
                                          the Papal States were seized by the
                                          newly united Kingdom of Italy. In
                                          1870, the pope's holdings were
                                          further circumscribed when Rome
                                          itself was annexed. Disputes between
                                          a series of "prisoner" popes and
                                          Italy were resolved in 1929 by three
                                          Lateran Treaties, which established
                                          the independent state of Vatican
                                          City and granted Roman Catholicism
                                          special status in Italy. In 1984, a
                                          concordat between the Holy See and
                                          Italy modified certain of the
                                          earlier treaty provisions, including
                                          the primacy of Roman Catholicism as
                                          the Italian state religion. Present
                                          concerns of the Holy See include the
                                          failing health of Pope John Paul II,
                                          interreligious dialogue and
                                          reconciliation, and the adjustment
                                          of church doctrine in an era of
                                          rapid change and globalization.
                                          About 1 billion people worldwide
                                          profess the Catholic faith.
     Geography Holy See (Vatican City)
                                Location: Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome
                  Geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 27 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 0.44 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 0.44 sq km
                      Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall
                                          in Washington, DC
                         Land boundaries: total: 3.2 km
                                          border countries: Italy 3.2 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters
                                          (September to mid-May) with hot, dry
                                          summers (May to September)
                                 Terrain: low hill
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: unnamed location 19 m
                                          highest point: unnamed location 75 m
                       Natural resources: none
                                Land use: arable land: 0%
                                          permanent crops: 0%
                                          other: 100% (urban area) (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: NA
              Environment - international party to: none of the selected
                              agreements: agreements
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution, Environmental
                        Geography - note: urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome,
                                          Italy; world's smallest state;
                                          outside the Vatican City, 13
                                          buildings in Rome and Castel
                                          Gandolfo (the pope's summer
                                          residence) enjoy extraterritorial
     People Holy See (Vatican City)
                                Population: 900 (July 2002 est.)
                    Population growth rate: 1.15% (2002 est.)
          HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
         HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                         HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                               Nationality: noun: none
                                            adjective: none
                             Ethnic groups: Italians, Swiss, other
                                 Religions: Roman Catholic
                                 Languages: Italian, Latin, French, various
                                            other languages
                                  Literacy: definition: NA
                                            total population: 100%
                                            male: NA%
                                            female: NA%
     Government Holy See (Vatican City)
                            Country name: conventional long form: The Holy See
                                          (State of the Vatican City)
                                          conventional short form: Holy See
                                          (Vatican City)
                                          local short form: Santa Sede (Citta
                                          del Vaticano)
                                          local long form: Santa Sede (Stato
                                          della Citta del Vaticano)
                         Government type: ecclesiastical
                                 Capital: Vatican City
                Administrative divisions: none
                            Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)
                        National holiday: Coronation Day of Pope JOHN PAUL II,
                                          22 October (1978)
                            Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967
                                          (effective 1 March 1968)
                            Legal system: NA
                                Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80
                                          years old
                        Executive branch: chief of state: Pope JOHN PAUL II
                                          (since 16 October 1978)
                                          head of government: Secretary of
                                          State Cardinal Angelo SODANO (since
                                          2 December 1990)
                                          cabinet: Pontifical Commission
                                          appointed by the pope
                                          elections: pope elected for life by
                                          the College of Cardinals; election
                                          last held 16 October 1978 (next to
                                          be held after the death of the
                                          current pope); secretary of state
                                          appointed by the pope
                                          election results: Karol WOJTYLA
                                          elected pope
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission
                         Judicial branch: there are three tribunals
                                          responsible for civil and criminal
                                          matters within Vatican City; three
                                          other tribunals rule on issues
                                          pertaining to the Holy See
                                          note: judicial duties were
                                          established by the Motu Proprio of
                                          Pius XII on 1 May 1946
           Political parties and leaders: none
            Political pressure groups and none (exclusive of influence
                                 leaders: exercised by church officers)
               International organization CE (observer), IAEA, ICFTU, IOM
                           participation: (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OAS
                                          (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN
                                          (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WHO
                                          (observer), WIPO, WToO (observer),
                                          WTrO (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Apostolic Nuncio
                                          Archbishop Gabriel MONTALVO
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 333-7121
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 337-4036
                                          chancery: 3339 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador R.
                                      US: James "Jim" NICHOLSON
                                          embassy: Villa Domiziana, Via delle
                                          Terme Deciane 26, 00162 Rome
                                          mailing address: PSC 59, Box F, APO
                                          AE 09624
                                          telephone: [39] (06) 4674-3428
                                          FAX: [39] (06) 5758346
                        Flag description: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist
                                          side) and white with the crossed
                                          keys of Saint Peter and the papal
                                          miter centered in the white band
     Economy Holy See (Vatican City)
                      Economy - overview: This unique, noncommercial economy
                                          is supported financially by
                                          contributions (known as Peter's
                                          Pence) from Roman Catholics
                                          throughout the world, the sale of
                                          postage stamps and tourist mementos,
                                          fees for admission to museums, and
                                          the sale of publications. The
                                          incomes and living standards of lay
                                          workers are comparable to, or
                                          somewhat better than, those of
                                          counterparts who work in the city of
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
                             Labor force: NA
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%,
                                          services NA%; note - dignitaries,
                                          priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay
                                          workers live outside the Vatican
                                  Budget: revenues: $209.6 million
                                          expenditures: $198.5 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1997)
                              Industries: printing and production of a small
                                          amount of mosaics and staff
                                          uniforms; worldwide banking and
                                          financial activities
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA%
                                          hydro: NA%
                                          nuclear: NA%
                                          other: NA%
               Electricity - consumption: NA kWh
                   Electricity - imports: NA kWh; note - electricity supplied
                                          by Italy
                Economic aid - recipient: none
                                Currency: euro (EUR); Italian lira (ITL)
                           Currency code: EUR; ITL
                          Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324
                                          (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001),
                                          1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999);
                                          Vatican lire per US dollar - 2,099
                                          (2000), 1817.2 (1999), 1,736.2
                                          (1998), 1,703.1 (1997); note - the
                                          Vatican lira is at par with the
                                          Italian lira; the Vatican started
                                          using euros in 2002 in conjunction
                                          with Italy at a fixed rate of
                                          1,936.17 lire per euro
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Holy See (Vatican City)
           Telephones - main lines in use: NA
             Telephones - mobile cellular: NA
                         Telephone system: general assessment: automatic
                                           domestic: tied into Italian system
                                           international: uses Italian system
                 Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 2 (1998)
                                   Radios: NA
            Television broadcast stations: 1 (1996)
                              Televisions: NA
                    Internet country code: .va
        Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
                           Internet users: NA
     Transportation Holy See (Vatican City)
                                Railways: total: 0.86 km
                                          standard gauge: 0.86 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge
                                          note: a spur of the Italian Railways
                                          system, serving Rome's Saint Peter's
                                          station (2001 est.)
                                Highways: none; all city streets
                               Waterways: none
                       Ports and harbors: none
                                Airports: none (2001)
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
     Military Holy See (Vatican City)
                       Military branches: Swiss Guards Corps (Corpo della
                                          Guardia Svizzera)
                         Military - note: defense is the responsibility of
                                          Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted
                                          at entrances to the Vatican City to
                                          provide security and protect the
     Transnational Issues Holy See (Vatican City)
                                                Disputes - international: none

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