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 for Gambia, The
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Gambia, The
     Introduction Gambia, The
                              Background: The Gambia gained its independence
                                          from the UK in 1965; it formed a
                                          short-lived federation of Senegambia
                                          with Senegal between 1982 and 1989.
                                          In 1991 the two nations signed a
                                          friendship and cooperation treaty. A
                                          military coup in 1994 overthrew the
                                          president and banned political
                                          activity, but a new 1996
                                          constitution and presidential
                                          elections, followed by parliamentary
                                          balloting in 1997, completed a
                                          nominal return to civilian rule. The
                                          country undertook another round of
                                          presidential and legislative
                                          elections in late 2001 and early
     Geography Gambia, The
                                Location: Western Africa, bordering the North
                                          Atlantic Ocean and Senegal
                  Geographic coordinates: 13 28 N, 16 34 W
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 11,300 sq km
                                          land: 10,000 sq km
                                          water: 1,300 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of
                         Land boundaries: total: 740 km
                                          border countries: Senegal 740 km
                               Coastline: 80 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 18 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          continental shelf: not specified
                                          exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to
                                          November); cooler, dry season
                                          (November to May)
                                 Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia river
                                          flanked by some low hills
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: unnamed location 53 m
                       Natural resources: fish
                                Land use: arable land: 19.5%
                                          permanent crops: 0.5%
                                          other: 80% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: drought (rainfall has dropped by 30%
                                          in the last 30 years)
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; desertification;
                                          water-borne diseases prevalent
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
                                          Protocol, Desertification,
                                          Endangered Species, Hazardous
                                          Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
                                          Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: almost an enclave of Senegal;
                                          smallest country on the continent of
     People Gambia, The
                              Population: 1,455,842 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.1% (male 329,530;
                                          female 326,627)
                                          15-64 years: 52.3% (male 377,357;
                                          female 383,548)
                                          65 years and over: 2.6% (male
                                          20,237; female 18,543) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 3.09% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 41.25 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 12.63 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 1.09 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1 male(s)/female
                                          (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 76.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.98 years
                                          female: 56.01 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 52.02 years
                    Total fertility rate: 5.61 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.95% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 13,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,400 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Gambian(s)
                                          adjective: Gambian
                           Ethnic groups: African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%,
                                          Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%,
                                          other 4%), non-African 1%
                               Religions: Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous
                                          beliefs 1%
                               Languages: English (official), Mandinka, Wolof,
                                          Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 47.5%
                                          male: 58.4%
                                          female: 37.1% (2001 est.)
     Government Gambia, The
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          The Gambia
                                          conventional short form: The Gambia
                         Government type: republic under multiparty democratic
                                 Capital: Banjul
                Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*,
                                          Central River, Lower River, North
                                          Bank, Upper River, Western
                            Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
                            Constitution: 24 April 1970; suspended July 1994;
                                          rewritten and approved by national
                                          referendum 8 August 1996;
                                          reestablished in January 1997
                            Legal system: based on a composite of English
                                          common law, Koranic law, and
                                          customary law; accepts compulsory
                                          ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Yahya A.
                                          J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October 1996;
                                          note - from 1994 to 1996 was
                                          Chairman of the Junta); Vice
                                          President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since
                                          20 March 1997); note - the president
                                          is both the chief of state and head
                                          of government
                                          head of government: President Yahya
                                          A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October
                                          1996; note - from 1994 to 1996 was
                                          Chairman of the Junta); Vice
                                          President Isatou Njie SAIDY (since
                                          20 March 1997); note - the president
                                          is both the chief of state and head
                                          of government
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          the number of terms is not
                                          restricted; election last held 18
                                          October 2001 (next to be held NA
                                          October 2006)
                                          election results: Yahya A. J. J.
                                          JAMMEH reelected president; percent
                                          of vote - Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH
                                          52.9%, Ousainou DARBOE 32.7%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (53
                                          seats; 48 elected by popular vote,
                                          five appointed by the president;
                                          members serve five-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 17 January 2002
                                          (next to be held NA January 2007)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - APRC
                                          45, PDOIS 2, NRP 1,
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court
           Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation
                                          and Construction or APRC [Yahya A.
                                          J. J. JAMMEH]; Gambian People's
                                          Party-Progressive People's Party-
                                          United Democratic Party or GPP-PPP-
                                          UDP Coalition [Ousainou DARBOE];
                                          National Convention Party or NCP
                                          [Sheriff DIBBA]; National
                                          Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat
                                          N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic
                                          Organization for Independence and
                                          Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]
                                          note: in August 2001, an independent
                                          electoral commission allowed the
                                          reregistration of the GPP, NCP, and
                                          PPP, three parties banned since 1996
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO,
                           participation: G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
                                          IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
                                          IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM,
                                          OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UPU,
                                          WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John P.
                                          chancery: Suite 1000, 1155 15th
                                          Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 785-1399
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Jackson
                                      US: McDONALD
                                          embassy: Fajara, Kairaba Avenue,
                                          mailing address: P. M. B. No. 19,
                                          telephone: [220] 392856, 392858,
                                          391970, 391971
                                          FAX: [220] 392475
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red
                                          (top), blue with white edges, and
     Economy Gambia, The
                      Economy - overview: The Gambia has no important mineral
                                          or other natural resources and has a
                                          limited agricultural base. About 75%
                                          of the population depends on crops
                                          and livestock for its livelihood.
                                          Small-scale manufacturing activity
                                          features the processing of peanuts,
                                          fish, and hides. Reexport trade
                                          normally constitutes a major segment
                                          of economic activity, but a 1999
                                          government-imposed preshipment
                                          inspection plan, and instability of
                                          the Gambian dalasi (currency) have
                                          drawn some of the reexport trade
                                          away from Banjul. The government's
                                          1998 seizure of the private peanut
                                          firm Alimenta eliminated the largest
                                          purchaser of Gambian groundnuts; the
                                          following two marketing seasons have
                                          seen substantially lower prices and
                                          sales. A decline in tourism in 2000
                                          has also held back growth.
                                          Unemployment and underemployment
                                          rates are extremely high. Shortrun
                                          economic progress remains highly
                                          dependent on sustained bilateral and
                                          multilateral aid, on responsible
                                          government economic management as
                                          forwarded by IMF technical help and
                                          advice, and on expected growth in
                                          the construction sector. Record
                                          crops undergirded sturdy growth in
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 5.7% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,770
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 21%
                                          industry: 12%
                                          services: 67% (1998 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 400,000
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry, commerce,
                                          and services 19%, government 6%
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $90.5 million
                                          expenditures: $80.9 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $4.1 million (2001 est.)
                              Industries: processing peanuts, fish, and hides;
                                          tourism; beverages; agricultural
                                          machinery assembly, woodworking,
                                          metalworking; clothing
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 75 million kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%
                                          hydro: 0%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 69.75 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, sorghum, rice,
                                          corn, sesame, cassava (tapioca),
                                          palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats;
                                          forest and fishery resources not
                                          fully exploited
                                 Exports: $139.2 million (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: peanuts and peanut products, fish,
                                          cotton lint, palm kernels
                      Exports - partners: Benelux 26%, Japan 15%, UK 14%,
                                          Brazil 7% (2000)
                                 Imports: $200.3 million (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel,
                                          machinery and transport equipment
                      Imports - partners: China (including Hong Kong) 18%, UK
                                          10%, Netherlands 8%, France 6%,
                                          Brazil 6% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $440 million (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $45.4 million (1995)
                                Currency: dalasi (GMD)
                           Currency code: GMD
                          Exchange rates: dalasi per US dollar - 15.000
                                          (January 2001), 12.788 (2000),
                                          11.395 (1999), 10.643 (1998), 10.200
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Gambia, The
          Telephones - main lines in use: 31,900 (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 5,624 (2000)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: adequate; a
                                          packet switched data network is
                                          domestic: adequate network of
                                          microwave radio relay and open wire
                                          international: microwave radio relay
                                          links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau;
                                          satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
                                          (Atlantic Ocean)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2001)
                                  Radios: 196,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 (government-owned) (1997)
                             Televisions: 5,000 (2000)
                   Internet country code: .gm
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2001)
                          Internet users: 5,000 (2001)
     Transportation Gambia, The
                                            Railways: 0 km
                                            Highways: total: 2,700 km
                                                      paved: 956 km
                                                      unpaved: 1,744 km (1996)
                                           Waterways: 400 km
                                   Ports and harbors: Banjul
                                     Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)
                                            Airports: 1 (2001)
                       Airports - with paved runways: total: 1
                                                      over 3,047 m: 1 (2001)
     Military Gambia, The
                       Military branches: Gambian National Army (GNA)
                                          (includes marine unit), National
                                          Police, Presidential Guard
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 327,677 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 165,249 (2002 est.)
           Military expenditures - dollar $1.2 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 0.3% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Gambia, The
                                                Disputes - international: none

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