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2 definitions found
 for Finland
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: republic in northern Europe; achieved independence from
           Russia in 1917 [syn: Finland, Republic of Finland,

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Finland
                              Background: Ruled by Sweden from the 12th to the
                                          19th centuries and by Russia from
                                          1809, Finland finally won its
                                          independence in 1917. During World
                                          War II, it was able to successfully
                                          defend its freedom and fend off
                                          invasions by the Soviet Union and
                                          Germany. In the subsequent half
                                          century, the Finns have made a
                                          remarkable transformation from a
                                          farm/forest economy to a diversified
                                          modern industrial economy; per
                                          capita income is now on par with
                                          Western Europe. As a member of the
                                          European Union, Finland was the only
                                          Nordic state to join the euro system
                                          at its initiation in January 1999.
     Geography Finland
                                Location: Northern Europe, bordering the
                                          Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and
                                          Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and
                  Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 337,030 sq km
                                          water: 31,560 sq km
                                          land: 305,470 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,628 km
                                          border countries: Norway 729 km,
                                          Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km
                               Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and
                                          coastal indentations)
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM;
                                          extends to continental shelf
                                          boundary with Sweden
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM (in the Gulf
                                          of Finland - 3 NM)
                                 Climate: cold temperate; potentially
                                          subarctic, but comparatively mild
                                          because of moderating influence of
                                          the North Atlantic Current, Baltic
                                          Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
                                 Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains
                                          interspersed with lakes and low
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Halti 1,328 m
                       Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore,
                                Land use: arable land: 6.98%
                                          permanent crops: 0.01%
                                          other: 93.01% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and
                                          power plants contributing to acid
                                          rain; water pollution from
                                          industrial wastes, agricultural
                                          chemicals; habitat loss threatens
                                          wildlife populations
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                              agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-
                                          Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
                                          Organic Compounds, Antarctic-
                                          Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-
                                          Marine Living Resources, Antarctic
                                          Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
                                          Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Marine Dumping, Marine Life
                                          Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
                                          signed, but not ratified: Air
                                          Pollution-Persistent Organic
                                          Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto
                        Geography - note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki
                                          is northernmost national capital on
                                          European continent; population
                                          concentrated on small southwestern
                                          coastal plain
     People Finland
                              Population: 5,183,545 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.9% (male 471,920;
                                          female 454,082)
                                          15-64 years: 66.9% (male 1,752,493;
                                          female 1,717,544)
                                          65 years and over: 15.2% (male
                                          306,216; female 481,290) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.14% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 10.6 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 9.78 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.95 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.75 years
                                          female: 81.52 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 74.1 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.05% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 1,100 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Finn(s)
                                          adjective: Finnish
                           Ethnic groups: Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Sami 0.11%, Roma
                                          0.12%, Tatar 0.02%
                               Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Russian
                                          Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
                               Languages: Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish
                                          5.9% (official), small Lapp- and
                                          Russian-speaking minorities
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 100% (1980 est.)
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
     Government Finland
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Finland
                                          local short form: Suomi
                                          local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Helsinki
                Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (laanit, singular -
                                          laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani,
                                          Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen
                                          Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani
                            Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
                            Constitution: 17 July 1919
                            Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish
                                          law; Supreme Court may request
                                          legislation interpreting or
                                          modifying laws; accepts compulsory
                                          ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Tarja
                                          HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April 1995)
                                          and Deputy Prime Minister Ville
                                          ITALA (since 31 August 2001)
                                          cabinet: Council of State or
                                          Valtioneuvosto appointed by the
                                          president, responsible to Parliament
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a six-year term;
                                          election last held 6 February 2000
                                          (next to be held NA February 2006);
                                          prime minister and deputy prime
                                          minister appointed from the majority
                                          party by the president after
                                          parliamentary elections
                                          note: government coalition - SDP,
                                          Kok, Leftist Alliance (People's
                                          Democratic Union and Democratic
                                          Alternative), SFP, and Green League
                                          election results: Tarja HALONEN
                                          elected president; percent of vote -
                                          Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 51.6%, Esko AHO
                                          (Kesk) 48.4%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta
                                          (200 seats; members are elected by
                                          popular vote on a proportional basis
                                          to serve four-year terms)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - SDP 22.9%, Kesk 22.5%, Kok
                                          21.0%, Leftist Alliance (Communist)
                                          10.9%, SFP 5.1%, Green League 7.2%,
                                          SKL 4.2%; seats by party - SDP 51,
                                          Kesk 48, Kok 46, Leftist Alliance
                                          (Communist) 20, SFP 11, Green League
                                          11, SKL 10, other 3
                                          elections: last held 21 March 1999
                                          (next to be held NA March 2003)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus
                                          (judges appointed by the president)
           Political parties and leaders: Center Party or Kesk [Esko AHO];
                                          Finnish Christian Democratic Party
                                          or SKL [C. P. Bjarne KALLIS]; Green
                                          League [Osmo SOININVAARA]; Leftist
                                          Alliance (Communist) composed of
                                          People's Democratic League and
                                          Democratic Alternative [Suvi-Anne
                                          SIIMES]; National Coalition
                                          (conservative) Party or Kok [Ville
                                          ITALA]; Social Democratic Party or
                                          SDP [Paavo LIPPONEN]; Swedish
                                          People's Party or SFP [Jan-Erik
                                          ENESTAM]; True Finns [Timo SOINI]
               International organization AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS,
                           participation: CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD,
                                          ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9,
                                          IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
                                          IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NC, NEA,
                                          NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,
                                          OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
                                          UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH,
                                          UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNMOVIC,
                                          UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU,
                                          WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jukka
                                          Robert VALTASAARI
                                          consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
                                          and New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
                                          chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Bonnie
                                      US: McELVEEN-HUNTER
                                          embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, FIN-
                                          00140, Helsinki
                                          mailing address: APO AE 09723
                                          telephone: [358] (9) 171931
                                          FAX: [358] (9) 174681
                        Flag description: white with a blue cross extending to
                                          the edges of the flag; the vertical
                                          part of the cross is shifted to the
                                          hoist side in the style of the
                                          Dannebrog (Danish flag)
     Economy Finland
                      Economy - overview: Finland has a highly industrialized,
                                          largely free-market economy, with
                                          per capita output roughly that of
                                          the UK, France, Germany, and Italy.
                                          Its key economic sector is
                                          manufacturing - principally the
                                          wood, metals, engineering,
                                          telecommunications, and electronics
                                          industries. Trade is important, with
                                          exports equaling almost one-third of
                                          GDP. Except for timber and several
                                          minerals, Finland depends on imports
                                          of raw materials, energy, and some
                                          components for manufactured goods.
                                          Because of the climate, agricultural
                                          development is limited to
                                          maintaining self-sufficiency in
                                          basic products. Forestry, an
                                          important export earner, provides a
                                          secondary occupation for the rural
                                          population. Rapidly increasing
                                          integration with Western Europe -
                                          Finland was one of the 11 countries
                                          joining the euro monetary system
                                          (EMU) on 1 January 1999 - will
                                          dominate the economic picture over
                                          the next several years. Growth in
                                          2001 was held back by the global
                                          slowdown and will likely be anemic
                                          again in 2002.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $133.5
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,800
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3%
                                          industry: 28%
                                          services: 69% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.2%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 25.6 (1991)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 2.6 million (2000 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: public services 32%, industry 22%,
                                          commerce 14%, finance, insurance,
                                          and business services 10%,
                                          agriculture and forestry 8%,
                                          transport and communications 8%,
                                          construction 6%
                       Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $36.1 billion
                                          expenditures: $31 billion, including
                                          capital expenditures of $NA (2000
                              Industries: metal products, electronics,
                                          shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper
                                          refining, foodstuffs, chemicals,
                                          textiles, clothing
       Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2001)
                Electricity - production: 75.356 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 40.86%
                                          hydro: 19.22%
                                          other: 11.6% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 28.32%
               Electricity - consumption: 81.961 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 326 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 12.206 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, sugar beets,
                                          potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
                                 Exports: $40.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals,
                                          metals; timber, paper, pulp
                      Exports - partners: Germany 12.5%, Sweden 9.3%, UK 9.1%,
                                          US 7.4%, France 5.2%, Italy 4.4%
                                 Imports: $31.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum
                                          products, chemicals, transport
                                          equipment, iron and steel,
                                          machinery, textile yarn and fabrics,
                      Imports - partners: Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.3%, Russia
                                          9.4%, US 7.1%, UK 6.4%, Japan 5.3%
                         Debt - external: $30 billion (December 1993)
                    Economic aid - donor: ODA, $379 million (1997)
                                Currency: markka (FIM); euro (EUR)
                                          note: on 1 January 1999, the
                                          European Monetary Union introduced
                                          the euro as a common currency to be
                                          used by financial institutions of
                                          member countries; on 1 January 2002,
                                          the euro became the sole currency
                                          for everyday transactions within the
                                          member countries
                           Currency code: FIM; EUR
                          Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324
                                          (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001),
                                          1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999);
                                          markkaa per US dollar - 5.3441
                                          (1998), 5.1914 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Finland
          Telephones - main lines in use: 2.861 million (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,162,574 (1997)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: modern system
                                          with excellent service
                                          domestic: cable, microwave radio
                                          relay, and an extensive cellular net
                                          provide domestic needs
                                          international: 1 submarine cable;
                                          satellite earth stations - access to
                                          Intelsat transmission service via a
                                          Swedish satellite earth station, 1
                                          Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean
                                          regions); note - Finland shares the
                                          Inmarsat earth station with the
                                          other Nordic countries (Denmark,
                                          Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)
                                  Radios: 7.7 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 130 (plus 385 repeaters) (1995)
                             Televisions: 3.2 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .fi
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 23 (2000)
                          Internet users: 2.27 million (2000)
     Transportation Finland
                                Railways: total: 5,865 km
                                          broad gauge: 5,865 km 1.524-m gauge
                                          (2,234 km electrified; 480 km
                                          double- or multiple-track) (2000
                                Highways: total: 77,831 km
                                          paved: 49,789 km (including 444 km
                                          of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 28,042 km (1999)
                               Waterways: 6,675 km
                                          note: includes Saimaa Canal; 3,700
                                          km suitable for large ships
                               Pipelines: natural gas 580 km
                       Ports and harbors: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka,
                                          Loviisa, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku,
                                          Uusikaupunki, Varkaus
                         Merchant marine: total: 98 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 1,172,404 GRT/1,144,139 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 26,
                                          chemical tanker 5, passenger 1,
                                          petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll
                                          off 36, short-sea passenger 10
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Germany 1, Sweden 1
                                          (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 160 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 73
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 22
                                          under 914 m: 12 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 87
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 5
                                          under 914 m: 82 (2001)
     Military Finland
                         Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier
                                            Guard (including Sea Guard)
          Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2002 est.)
          Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,240,762 (2002
       Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,024,379 (2002
                                   service: est.)
               Military manpower - reaching males: 33,883 (2002 est.)
                     military age annually:
             Military expenditures - dollar $1.8 billion (FY98/99)
         Military expenditures - percent of 2% (FY98/99)
     Transnational Issues Finland
                                                Disputes - international: none

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