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2 definitions found
 for Estonia
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in northeastern Europe on the Baltic Sea [syn:
           Estonia, Esthonia, Republic of Estonia]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Estonia
                              Background: After centuries of Danish, Swedish,
                                          German, and Russian rule, Estonia
                                          attained independence in 1918.
                                          Forcibly incorporated into the USSR
                                          in 1940, it regained its freedom in
                                          1991 with the collapse of the Soviet
                                          Union. Since the last Russian troops
                                          left in 1994, Estonia has been free
                                          to promote economic and political
                                          ties with Western Europe.
     Geography Estonia
                                Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic
                                          Sea and Gulf of Finland, between
                                          Latvia and Russia
                  Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 45,226 sq km
                                          note: includes 1,520 islands in the
                                          Baltic Sea
                                          water: 2,015 sq km
                                          land: 43,211 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire
                                          and Vermont combined
                         Land boundaries: total: 633 km
                                          border countries: Latvia 339 km,
                                          Russia 294 km
                               Coastline: 3,794 km
                         Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: limits
                                          fixed in coordination with
                                          neighboring states
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters,
                                          cool summers
                                 Terrain: marshy, lowlands; flat in the north,
                                          hilly in the south
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
                       Natural resources: oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay,
                                          limestone, sand, dolomite, arable
                                          land, sea mud
                                Land use: arable land: 26.5%
                                          permanent crops: 0.35%
                                          other: 73.15% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: sometimes flooding occurs in the
            Environment - current issues: air polluted with sulfur dioxide
                                          from oil-shale burning power plants
                                          in northeast; however, the amount of
                                          pollutants emitted to the air have
                                          fallen steadily, the emissions of
                                          2000 were 4.6 times smaller than in
                                          1980; the amount of unpurified
                                          wastewater discharged to water
                                          bodies fell 20 times in 2000
                                          compared to 1980; in connection with
                                          the start-up of new water
                                          purification plants, the pollution
                                          load of wastewater decreased;
                                          Estonia has more than 1,400 natural
                                          and manmade lakes, the smaller of
                                          which in agricultural areas need to
                                          be monitored; coastal seawater is
                                          polluted in certain locations
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                              agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-
                                          Volatile Organic Compounds,
                                          Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
                                          Climate Change, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol
                        Geography - note: the mainland terrain is flat, boggy,
                                          and partly wooded; offshore lie more
                                          than 1,500 islands
     People Estonia
                              Population: 1,415,681 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.4% (male 118,603;
                                          female 114,102)
                                          15-64 years: 68.5% (male 466,882;
                                          female 502,343)
                                          65 years and over: 15.1% (male
                                          70,085; female 143,666) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: -0.52% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 8.96 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 13.44 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.86 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 12.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.02 years
                                          female: 76.31 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 64.03 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.24 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 500 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Estonian(s)
                                          adjective: Estonian
                           Ethnic groups: Estonian 65.3%, Russian 28.1%,
                                          Ukrainian 2.5%, Belarusian 1.5%,
                                          Finn 1%, other 1.6% (1998)
                               Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, Russian
                                          Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox,
                                          Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day
                                          Adventist, Roman Catholic,
                                          Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish
                               Languages: Estonian (official), Russian,
                                          Ukrainian, Finnish, other
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 100%
                                          male: 100%
                                          female: 100% (1998 est.)
     Government Estonia
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Estonia
                                          local short form: Eesti
                                          former: Estonian Soviet Socialist
                                          local long form: Eesti Vabariik
                         Government type: parliamentary republic
                                 Capital: Tallinn
                Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular -
                                          maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn),
                                          Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa
                                          (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa
                                          (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu),
                                          Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa
                                          (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa
                                          (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare),
                                          Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga),
                                          Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa
                                          note: counties have the
                                          administrative center name following
                                          in parentheses
                            Independence: regained on 20 August 1991 (from
                                          Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February
                                          (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was
                                          the date of independence from Soviet
                                          Russia, 20 August 1991 was the date
                                          of reindependence from the Soviet
                            Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992
                            Legal system: based on civil law system; no
                                          judicial review of legislative acts
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all
                                          Estonian citizens
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Arnold
                                          RUUTEL (since 8 October 2001)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Siim KALLAS (since 28 January 2002)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the prime minister,
                                          approved by Parliament
                                          election results: Arnold RUUTEL
                                          elected president on 21 September
                                          2001 by a 367-member electoral
                                          assembly that convened following
                                          Parliament's failure in August to
                                          elect then-President MERI's
                                          successor; on the second ballot of
                                          voting, RUUTEL received 188 votes to
                                          Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's
                                          155; the remaining 24 ballots were
                                          either left blank or invalid
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          Parliament for a five-year term; if
                                          he or she does not secure two-thirds
                                          of the votes after three rounds of
                                          balloting in the Parliament, then an
                                          electoral assembly (made up of
                                          Parliament plus members of local
                                          governments) elects the president,
                                          choosing between the two candidates
                                          with the largest percentage of
                                          votes; election last held 21
                                          September 2001 (next to be held in
                                          the fall of 2006); prime minister
                                          nominated by the president and
                                          approved by Parliament
                      Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu
                                          (101 seats; members are elected by
                                          popular vote to serve four-year
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - Center
                                          Party 28, Union of Pro Patria
                                          (Fatherland League) 18, Reform Party
                                          18, Moderates 17, Country People's
                                          Party (Agrarians) 7, Coalition Party
                                          7, UPPE 6
                                          elections: last held 7 March 1999
                                          (next to be held NA March 2003)
                         Judicial branch: National Court (chairman appointed
                                          by Parliament for life)
           Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party [Mart SIIMANN,
                                          chairman]; Estonian Center Party or
                                          K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman];
                                          Estonian Christian People's Party
                                          [Aldo VINKEL]; Estonian Democratic
                                          Party [Jean LAAS]; Estonian
                                          Independence Party [Vello LEITO];
                                          Estonian People's Union [Villu
                                          REILJAN]; note - includes Estonian
                                          Country People's Party and two small
                                          parties; Estonian Reform Party [Siim
                                          KALLAS]; Estonian Social Democratic
                                          Labor Party [Tiit TOOMSALU];
                                          Estonian United People's Party or
                                          UPPE [Viktor ANDREJEV]; Estonian
                                          Unity Party [Igor PISSAREV];
                                          Moderates [Andres TARAND]; New
                                          Estonia Party [Ulo NUGIS]; Pro
                                          Patria Union [Mart LAAR, chairman];
                                          Republican Party [Kristian-Olari
                                          LEPING]; Res Publica [Rein
                                          TAAGEPERA]; Russian Baltic Party
                                          [Sergei IVANOV]; Russian Party in
                                          Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV]
                                          note: Country People's Party,
                                          formerly under Estonian Rural
                                          People's Union, has probably
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM
                                          (observer), ISO (correspondent),
                                          ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU,
                                          WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sven
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
                                          chancery: 1730 M Street NW, Suite
                                          503, Washington, DC 20036
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph
                                      US: M. DeTHOMAS (designate)
                                          embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          telephone: [372] 668-8100
                                          FAX: [372] 668-8134
                        Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme
                                          Soviet in May 1990 - three equal
                                          horizontal bands of blue (top),
                                          black, and white
     Economy Estonia
                      Economy - overview: Estonia, as a new member of the
                                          World Trade Organization, is
                                          steadily moving toward a modern
                                          market economy with increasing ties
                                          to the West, including the pegging
                                          of its currency to the euro. A major
                                          goal is accession to the EU,
                                          possibly by 2004. The state of the
                                          economy is greatly influenced by
                                          developments in Finland and Sweden,
                                          two major trading partners.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $14.3
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6%
                                          industry: 28%
                                          services: 66% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: 25% of households (2000)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 29.8% (1998)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 37 (1999)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (2001)
                             Labor force: 608,600 (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: industry 20%, agriculture 11%,
                                          services 69% (1999 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 12.4% (2001)
                                  Budget: revenues: $1.89 billion
                                          expenditures: $1.89 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2002 est.)
                              Industries: engineering, electronics, wood and
                                          wood products, textile; services;
                                          transit, information technology,
       Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 7.056 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.77%
                                          hydro: 0.06%
                                          other: 0.17% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 5.362 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: potatoes, vegetables; livestock and
                                          dairy products; fish
                                 Exports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment 24%, wood
                                          products 20%, textiles 17%, food
                                          products 9%, metals, chemical
                                          products (1999)
                      Exports - partners: Finland 27.6%, Sweden 11%, Russia
                                          8%, Latvia 7%, Germany 6%, US 2.0%
                                          (1999) (2001)
                                 Imports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 38.5%,
                                          chemical products 11.2%, textiles
                                          9.5%, foodstuffs 8.6%, metals 8.1%
                      Imports - partners: Finland 27%, Russia 10%, Germany
                                          10%, Sweden 8% (2001)
                         Debt - external: $0 (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $108 million (2000)
                                Currency: Estonian kroon (EEK)
                           Currency code: EEK
                          Exchange rates: krooni per US dollar - 17.518
                                          (January 2002), 17.538 (2001),
                                          16.969 (2000), 14.678 (1999), 14.075
                                          (1998), 13.882 (1997); note - the
                                          kroon is tied to the euro at a fixed
                                          rate of 15.65 krooni per euro
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Estonia
          Telephones - main lines in use: 501,691 (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 711,000 (yearend 2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: foreign
                                          investment in the form of joint
                                          business ventures greatly improved
                                          telephone service; substantial
                                          fiber-optic cable systems carry
                                          telephone, TV, and radio traffic in
                                          the digital mode; internet services
                                          are available throughout most of the
                                          country - only about 11,000
                                          subscriber requests were unfilled by
                                          September 2000
                                          domestic: a wide range of high
                                          quality voice, data, and internet
                                          services is available throughout the
                                          international: fiber-optic cables to
                                          Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia
                                          provide worldwide packet-switched
                                          service; two international switches
                                          are located in Tallinn (2001)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
                                  Radios: 1.01 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 3 (2001)
                             Televisions: 605,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .ee
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 38 (2001)
                          Internet users: 540,000 (2001)
     Transportation Estonia
                                Railways: total: 968 km common carrier lines
                                          only; does not include dedicated
                                          industrial lines
                                          broad gauge: 968 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          (132 km electrified) (2001)
                                Highways: total: 30,300 km
                                          paved: 29,200 km (including 75 km of
                                          expressways); note - these roads are
                                          said to be hard-surfaced, and
                                          include, in addition to
                                          conventionally paved roads, some
                                          that are surfaced with gravel or
                                          other coarse aggregate, making them
                                          trafficable in all weather
                                          unpaved: 1,100 km (2000)
                               Waterways: 320 km (perennially navigable)
                               Pipelines: natural gas 2,000 km (2002)
                       Ports and harbors: Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski,
                                          Parnu, Tallinn
                         Merchant marine: total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 245,958 GRT/193,042 DWT
                                          note: includes a foreign-owned ship
                                          registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Liberia 1 (2002 est.)
                                          ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 13,
                                          container 5, petroleum tanker 2,
                                          roll on/roll off 9, short-sea
                                          passenger 6
                                Airports: 32 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 8
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 24
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 5
                                          under 914 m: 6 (2001)
     Military Estonia
                       Military branches: Estonia Defense Forces (including
                                          Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force),
                                          Republic Security Forces (internal
                                          and border troops), Volunteer
                                          Defense League (Kaitseliit),
                                          Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard
                                          note: Border Guards and Ministry of
                                          Internal Affairs become part of the
                                          Estonian Defense Forces in wartime;
                                          the Coast Guard is subordinate to
                                          the Ministry of Defense in peacetime
                                          and the Estonian Navy in wartime
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 359,902 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 282,716 (2002 est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 11,164 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $155 million (2002 est.)
       Military expenditures - percent of 2% (2002 est.)
     Transnational Issues Estonia
                Disputes - international: Russia continues to reject signing
                                          and ratifying the joint December
                                          1996 technical border agreement with
                           Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and
                                          cannabis from Southwest Asia and the
                                          Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from
                                          Latin America to Western Europe and
                                          Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs
                                          from Western Europe to Scandinavia;
                                          increasing domestic drug abuse
                                          problem; possible precursor
                                          manufacturing and/or trafficking

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