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3 definitions found
 for Eritrea
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Eritrea \Eritrea\ n.
     1. a province of N Ethiopia on the Red Sea.
        [WordNet 1.5]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: an African country to the north of Ethiopia on the Red Sea;
           achieved independence from Ethiopia in 1993 [syn:
           Eritrea, State of Eritrea]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Eritrea
                              Background: Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in
                                          1952 as part of a federation.
                                          Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as
                                          a province 10 years later sparked a
                                          30-year struggle for independence
                                          that ended in 1991 with Eritrean
                                          rebels defeating governmental
                                          forces; independence was
                                          overwhelmingly approved in a 1993
                                          referendum. A two and a half year
                                          border war with Ethiopia that
                                          erupted in 1998 ended under UN
                                          auspices on 12 December 2000.
                                          Eritrea currently hosts a UN
                                          peacekeeping operation that will
                                          monitor the border region until an
                                          international commission determines
                                          and demarcates the boundary between
                                          the two countries.
     Geography Eritrea
                                Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red
                                          Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan
                  Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 121,320 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 121,320 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,626 km
                                          border countries: Djibouti 109 km,
                                          Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km
                               Coastline: 2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea
                                          1,151 km, islands in Red Sea 1,083
                         Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea
                                          coast; cooler and wetter in the
                                          central highlands (up to 61 cm of
                                          rainfall annually); semiarid in
                                          western hills and lowlands; rainfall
                                          heaviest during June-September
                                          except in coastal desert
                                 Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian
                                          north-south trending highlands,
                                          descending on the east to a coastal
                                          desert plain, on the northwest to
                                          hilly terrain and on the southwest
                                          to flat-to-rolling plains
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: near Kulul within the
                                          Denakil depression -75 m
                                          highest point: Soira 3,018 m
                       Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt,
                                          possibly oil and natural gas, fish
                                Land use: arable land: 3.87%
                                          permanent crops: 0.02%
                                          other: 96.11% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 220 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: frequent droughts; locust swarms
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; desertification; soil
                                          erosion; overgrazing; loss of
                                          infrastructure from civil warfare
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: strategic geopolitical position
                                          along world's busiest shipping
                                          lanes; Eritrea retained the entire
                                          coastline of Ethiopia along the Red
                                          Sea upon de jure independence from
                                          Ethiopia on 24 May 1993
     People Eritrea
                              Population: 4,465,651 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.9% (male 958,564;
                                          female 955,625)
                                          15-64 years: 53.9% (male 1,192,454;
                                          female 1,213,313)
                                          65 years and over: 3.2% (male
                                          73,017; female 72,678) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 3.8% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 42.25 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 11.82 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 7.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          note: UNHCR began repatriating about
                                          150,000 Eritrean refugees from Sudan
                                          in 2001 following the restoration of
                                          diplomatic relations between the two
                                          countries in 2000 (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
                                          total population: 0.99 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 73.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.57 years
                                          female: 59.13 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 54.09 years
                    Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.87% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Eritrean(s)
                                          adjective: Eritrean
                           Ethnic groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and
                                          Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea
                                          coast dwellers) 3%, other 3%
                               Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman
                                          Catholic, Protestant
                               Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and
                                          Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic
                                Literacy: definition: NA
                                          total population: 25%
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
     Government Eritrea
                            Country name: conventional long form: State of
                                          conventional short form: Eritrea
                                          local long form: Hagere Ertra
                                          former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in
                                          local short form: Ertra
                         Government type: transitional government
                                          note: following a successful
                                          referendum on independence for the
                                          Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-
                                          25 April 1993, a National Assembly,
                                          composed entirely of the People's
                                          Front for Democracy and Justice or
                                          PFDJ, was established as a
                                          transitional legislature; a
                                          Constitutional Commission was also
                                          established to draft a constitution;
                                          Afworki ISAIAS was elected president
                                          by the transitional legislature; the
                                          constitution, ratified in May 1997,
                                          did not enter into effect, pending
                                          parliamentary and presidential
                                          elections; parliamentary elections
                                          had been scheduled to take place in
                                          December 2001, but were postponed;
                                          currently the sole legal party is
                                          the People's Front for Democracy and
                                          Justice (PFDJ), though a draft
                                          political parties law is under
                                 Capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)
                Administrative divisions: 6 regions (regions, singular -
                                          region); Central, Anelba, Southern
                                          Red Sea, Northern Red Sea, Southern,
                            Independence: 24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 24 May (1993)
                            Constitution: the transitional constitution,
                                          decreed on 19 May 1993, was replaced
                                          by a new constitution adopted on 23
                                          May 1997, but not yet implemented
                            Legal system: primary basis is the Ethiopian legal
                                          code of 1957, with revisions; new
                                          civil, commercial, and penal codes
                                          have not yet been promulgated; also
                                          relies on customary and post-
                                          independence-enacted laws and, for
                                          civil cases involving Muslims,
                                          Sharia law
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Afworki
                                          ISAIAS (since 8 June 1993); note -
                                          the president is both the chief of
                                          state and head of government and is
                                          head of the State Council and
                                          National Assembly
                                          head of government: President
                                          Afworki ISAIAS (since 8 June 1993);
                                          note - the president is both the
                                          chief of state and head of
                                          government and is head of the State
                                          Council and National Assembly
                                          cabinet: State Council is the
                                          collective executive authority;
                                          members appointed by the president
                                          elections: president elected by the
                                          National Assembly; election last
                                          held 8 June 1993 (next election date
                                          uncertain as the National Assembly
                                          did not hold a presidential election
                                          in December 2001 as anticipated)
                                          election results: ISAIAS Afworki
                                          elected president; percent of
                                          National Assembly vote - ISAIAS
                                          Afworki 95%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150
                                          seats; term limits not established)
                                          elections: in May 1997, following
                                          the adoption of the new
                                          constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ
                                          Central Committee (the old Central
                                          Committee of the EPLF), 60 members
                                          of the 527-member Constituent
                                          Assembly which had been established
                                          in 1997 to discuss and ratify the
                                          new constitution, and 15
                                          representatives of Eritreans living
                                          abroad were formed into a
                                          Transitional National Assembly to
                                          serve as the country's legislative
                                          body until countrywide elections to
                                          a National Assembly were held;
                                          although only 75 of 150 members of
                                          the Transitional National Assembly
                                          were elected, the constitution
                                          stipulates that once past the
                                          transition stage, all members of the
                                          National Assembly will be elected by
                                          secret ballot of all eligible
                                          voters; National Assembly elections
                                          scheduled for December 2001 were
                                          postponed indefinately
                         Judicial branch: High court, regional, subregional,
                                          and village courts; also have
                                          military and special courts
           Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
                                          Justice or PFDJ, the only party
                                          recognized by the government
                                          [Afworki ISAIAS]; note - a National
                                          Assembly committee drafted a law on
                                          political parties in January 2001,
                                          but the full National Assembly had
                                          not yet debated or voted on it as of
                                          December 2001
            Political pressure groups and Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ;
                                 leaders: Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF
                                          [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean
                                          Liberation Front-Revolutionary
                                          Council or ELF-RC [Ahmed NASSER];
                                          Eritrean Liberation Front-United
                                          Organization or ELF-UO [Mohammed
                                          Said NAWD]; Eritrean Public Forum or
                                          EPF [ARADOM Iyob]
               International organization ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, IBRD,
                           participation: ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS
                                          (associate), IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW,
                                          PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
                                          WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304
                                          chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20009
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Donald
                                      US: J. McCONNELL
                                          embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt
                                          Street, Asmara
                                          mailing address: P. O. Box 211,
                                          telephone: [291] (1) 120004
                                          FAX: [291] (1) 127584
                        Flag description: red isosceles triangle (based on the
                                          hoist side) dividing the flag into
                                          two right triangles; the upper
                                          triangle is green, the lower one is
                                          blue; a gold wreath encircling a
                                          gold olive branch is centered on the
                                          hoist side of the red triangle
     Economy Eritrea
                      Economy - overview: Since independence from Ethiopia on
                                          24 May 1993, Eritrea has faced the
                                          economic problems of a small,
                                          desperately poor country. Like the
                                          economies of many African nations,
                                          the economy is largely based on
                                          subsistence agriculture, with 80% of
                                          the population involved in farming
                                          and herding. The Ethiopian-Eritrea
                                          war in 1998-2000 severely hurt
                                          Eritrea's economy. GDP growth in
                                          1999 fell to less than 1%, and GDP
                                          decreased by 8.2% in 2000. The May
                                          2000 Ethiopian offensive into
                                          northern Eritrea caused some $600
                                          million in property damage and loss,
                                          including losses of $225 million in
                                          livestock and 55,000 homes. The
                                          attack prevented planting of crops
                                          in Eritrea's most productive region,
                                          causing food production to drop by
                                          62%. Even during the war, Eritrea
                                          developed its transportation
                                          infrastructure, asphalting new
                                          roads, improving its ports, and
                                          repairing war damaged roads and
                                          bridges. Eritrea's economic future
                                          remains mixed. The cessation of
                                          Ethiopian trade, which mainly used
                                          Eritrean ports before the war,
                                          leaves Eritrea with a large economic
                                          hole to fill. Eritrea's economic
                                          future depends upon its ability to
                                          master fundamental social problems
                                          like illiteracy, unemployment, and
                                          low skills, and to convert the
                                          diaspora's money and expertise into
                                          economic growth.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.2
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 7% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $740 (2001
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 17%
                                          industry: 29%
                                          services: 54% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: NA
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and
                                          services 20%
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $206.4 million
                                          expenditures: $615.7 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2000 est.)
                              Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing
                                          and textiles
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 210 million kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%
                                          hydro: 0%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 195.3 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh NA kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh NA kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn,
                                          cotton, tobacco, coffee, sisal;
                                          livestock, goats; fish
                                 Exports: $34.8 million (f.o.b., 2000)
                   Exports - commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles, food,
                                          small manufactures
                      Exports - partners: Sudan 27.2%, Ethiopia 26.5%, Japan
                                          13.2%, UAE 7.3%, Italy 5.3% (1998)
                                 Imports: $470.5 million (c.i.f., 2000)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum products, food,
                                          manufactured goods
                      Imports - partners: Italy 17.4%, UAE 16.2%, Germany
                                          5.7%, UK 4.5%, Korea 4.4% (1998)
                         Debt - external: $281 million (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $77 million (1999)
                                Currency: nakfa (ERN)
                           Currency code: ERN
                          Exchange rates: nakfa (ERN) per US dollar - 9.5
                                          (January 2000), 7.6 (January 1999),
                                          7.2 (March 1998 est.)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Eritrea
          Telephones - main lines in use: 30,000 (2001)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: NA; note - mobile cellular service
                                          was introduced in May 2001
                        Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate
                                          domestic: very inadequate; most
                                          telephones are in Asmara; government
                                          is seeking international tenders to
                                          improve the system (2002)
                                          international: NA; note -
                                          international connections exist
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM NA, shortwave 2 (2000)
                                  Radios: 345,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 (2000)
                             Televisions: 1,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .er
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001)
                          Internet users: 12,000 (2001)
     Transportation Eritrea
                                Railways: total: 317 km
                                          narrow gauge: 317 km 0.950-m gauge
                                          note: links Ak'ordat and Asmara with
                                          the port of Massawa; nonoperational
                                          since 1978 except for about a 5 km
                                          stretch that was reopened in Massawa
                                          in 1994; rehabilitation of the
                                          remainder and of the rolling stock
                                          is under way (2001 est.)
                                Highways: total: 3,850 km
                                          paved: 810 km
                                          unpaved: 3,040 km (2000)
                               Waterways: none
                       Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)
                         Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 19,100 GRT/23,399 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 2,
                                          liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1,
                                          roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 21 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 4
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 17
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 7
                                          under 914 m: 2 (2001)
     Military Eritrea
                                      Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force
                  Military expenditures - dollar figure: $138.3 million (FY01)
                 Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 19.8% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Eritrea
                Disputes - international: Eritrea and Ethiopia have expressed
                                          general approval of the April 2002
                                          arbitration commission ruling re-
                                          delimiting the boundary, the focus
                                          of their 1998-2000 war; United
                                          Nations Mission in Ethiopia and
                                          Eritrea (UNMEE) will monitor
                                          activities within the 25-km wide
                                          temporary security zone in Eritrea
                                          until demarcation and de-mining are
                                          complete; Yemen has asserted
                                          traditional fishing rights to
                                          islands ceded to Eritrea in ICJ

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