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6 definitions found
 for Egypt
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Egypt \Egypt\ n.
     a country at the northeastern corner of Africa. At one time
     it was joined with Syria to form the United Arab Republic.
     Syn: United Arab Republic.
          [WordNet 1.5]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in northeastern Africa known as the United Arab
           Republic until 1971; site of an ancient civilization that
           flourished from 2600 to 30 BC [syn: Egypt, Arab Republic
           of Egypt, United Arab Republic]
      2: an ancient empire to the west of Israel; centered on the Nile
         River and ruled by a Pharaoh; figured in many events
         described in the Old Testament [syn: Egyptian Empire,

From Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary :

     the land of the Nile and the pyramids, the oldest kingdom of
     which we have any record, holds a place of great significance in
       The Egyptians belonged to the white race, and their original
     home is still a matter of dispute. Many scholars believe that it
     was in Southern Arabia, and recent excavations have shown that
     the valley of the Nile was originally inhabited by a low-class
     population, perhaps belonging to the Nigritian stock, before the
     Egyptians of history entered it. The ancient Egyptian language,
     of which the latest form is Coptic, is distantly connected with
     the Semitic family of speech.
       Egypt consists geographically of two halves, the northern
     being the Delta, and the southern Upper Egypt, between Cairo and
     the First Cataract. In the Old Testament, Northern or Lower
     Egypt is called Mazor, "the fortified land" (Isa. 19:6; 37: 25,
     where the A.V. mistranslates "defence" and "besieged places");
     while Southern or Upper Egypt is Pathros, the Egyptian
     Pa-to-Res, or "the land of the south" (Isa. 11:11). But the
     whole country is generally mentioned under the dual name of
     Mizraim, "the two Mazors."
       The civilization of Egypt goes back to a very remote
     antiquity. The two kingdoms of the north and south were united
     by Menes, the founder of the first historical dynasty of kings.
     The first six dynasties constitute what is known as the Old
     Empire, which had its capital at Memphis, south of Cairo, called
     in the Old Testament Moph (Hos. 9:6) and Noph. The native name
     was Mennofer, "the good place."
       The Pyramids were tombs of the monarchs of the Old Empire,
     those of Gizeh being erected in the time of the Fourth Dynasty.
     After the fall of the Old Empire came a period of decline and
     obscurity. This was followed by the Middle Empire, the most
     powerful dynasty of which was the Twelfth. The Fayyum was
     rescued for agriculture by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty; and
     two obelisks were erected in front of the temple of the sun-god
     at On or Heliopolis (near Cairo), one of which is still
     standing. The capital of the Middle Empire was Thebes, in Upper
       The Middle Empire was overthrown by the invasion of the
     Hyksos, or shepherd princes from Asia, who ruled over Egypt,
     more especially in the north, for several centuries, and of whom
     there were three dynasties of kings. They had their capital at
     Zoan or Tanis (now San), in the north-eastern part of the Delta.
     It was in the time of the Hyksos that Abraham, Jacob, and Joseph
     entered Egypt. The Hyksos were finally expelled about B.C. 1600,
     by the hereditary princes of Thebes, who founded the Eighteenth
     Dynasty, and carried the war into Asia. Canaan and Syria were
     subdued, as well as Cyprus, and the boundaries of the Egyptian
     Empire were fixed at the Euphrates. The Soudan, which had been
     conquered by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty, was again annexed
     to Egypt, and the eldest son of the Pharaoh took the title of
     "Prince of Cush."
       One of the later kings of the dynasty, Amenophis IV., or
     Khu-n-Aten, endeavoured to supplant the ancient state religion
     of Egypt by a new faith derived from Asia, which was a sort of
     pantheistic monotheism, the one supreme god being adored under
     the image of the solar disk. The attempt led to religious and
     civil war, and the Pharaoh retreated from Thebes to Central
     Egypt, where he built a new capital, on the site of the present
     Tell-el-Amarna. The cuneiform tablets that have been found there
     represent his foreign correspondence (about B.C. 1400). He
     surrounded himself with officials and courtiers of Asiatic, and
     more especially Canaanitish, extraction; but the native party
     succeeded eventually in overthrowing the government, the capital
     of Khu-n-Aten was destroyed, and the foreigners were driven out
     of the country, those that remained being reduced to serfdom.
       The national triumph was marked by the rise of the Nineteenth
     Dynasty, in the founder of which, Rameses I., we must see the
     "new king, who knew not Joseph." His grandson, Rameses II.,
     reigned sixty-seven years (B.C. 1348-1281), and was an
     indefatigable builder. As Pithom, excavated by Dr. Naville in
     1883, was one of the cities he built, he must have been the
     Pharaoh of the Oppression. The Pharaoh of the Exodus may have
     been one of his immediate successors, whose reigns were short.
     Under them Egypt lost its empire in Asia, and was itself
     attacked by barbarians from Libya and the north.
       The Nineteenth Dynasty soon afterwards came to an end; Egypt
     was distracted by civil war; and for a short time a Canaanite,
     Arisu, ruled over it.
       Then came the Twentieth Dynasty, the second Pharaoh of which,
     Rameses III., restored the power of his country. In one of his
     campaigns he overran the southern part of Palestine, where the
     Israelites had not yet settled. They must at the time have been
     still in the wilderness. But it was during the reign of Rameses
     III. that Egypt finally lost Gaza and the adjoining cities,
     which were seized by the Pulista, or Philistines.
       After Rameses III., Egypt fell into decay. Solomon married the
     daughter of one of the last kings of the Twenty-first Dynasty,
     which was overthrown by Shishak I., the general of the Libyan
     mercenaries, who founded the Twenty-second Dynasty (1 Kings
     11:40; 14:25, 26). A list of the places he captured in Palestine
     is engraved on the outside of the south wall of the temple of
       In the time of Hezekiah, Egypt was conquered by Ethiopians
     from the Soudan, who constituted the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. The
     third of them was Tirhakah (2 Kings 19:9). In B.C. 674 it was
     conquered by the Assyrians, who divided it into twenty
     satrapies, and Tirhakah was driven back to his ancestral
     dominions. Fourteen years later it successfully revolted under
     Psammetichus I. of Sais, the founder of the Twenty-sixth
     Dynasty. Among his successors were Necho (2 Kings 23:29) and
     Hophra, or Apries (Jer. 37:5, 7, 11). The dynasty came to an end
     in B.C. 525, when the country was subjugated by Cambyses. Soon
     afterwards it was organized into a Persian satrapy.
       The title of Pharaoh, given to the Egyptian kings, is the
     Egyptian Per-aa, or "Great House," which may be compared to that
     of "Sublime Porte." It is found in very early Egyptian texts.
       The Egyptian religion was a strange mixture of pantheism and
     animal worship, the gods being adored in the form of animals.
     While the educated classes resolved their manifold deities into
     manifestations of one omnipresent and omnipotent divine power,
     the lower classes regarded the animals as incarnations of the
       Under the Old Empire, Ptah, the Creator, the god of Memphis,
     was at the head of the Pantheon; afterwards Amon, the god of
     Thebes, took his place. Amon, like most of the other gods, was
     identified with Ra, the sun-god of Heliopolis.
       The Egyptians believed in a resurrection and future life, as
     well as in a state of rewards and punishments dependent on our
     conduct in this world. The judge of the dead was Osiris, who had
     been slain by Set, the representative of evil, and afterwards
     restored to life. His death was avenged by his son Horus, whom
     the Egyptians invoked as their "Redeemer." Osiris and Horus,
     along with Isis, formed a trinity, who were regarded as
     representing the sun-god under different forms.
       Even in the time of Abraham, Egypt was a flourishing and
     settled monarchy. Its oldest capital, within the historic
     period, was Memphis, the ruins of which may still be seen near
     the Pyramids and the Sphinx. When the Old Empire of Menes came
     to an end, the seat of empire was shifted to Thebes, some 300
     miles farther up the Nile. A short time after that, the Delta
     was conquered by the Hyksos, or shepherd kings, who fixed their
     capital at Zoan, the Greek Tanis, now San, on the Tanic arm of
     the Nile. All this occurred before the time of the new king
     "which knew not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8). In later times Egypt was
     conquered by the Persians (B.C. 525), and by the Greeks under
     Alexander the Great (B.C. 332), after whom the Ptolemies ruled
     the country for three centuries. Subsequently it was for a time
     a province of the Roman Empire; and at last, in A.D. 1517, it
     fell into the hands of the Turks, of whose empire it still forms
     nominally a part. Abraham and Sarah went to Egypt in the time of
     the shepherd kings. The exile of Joseph and the migration of
     Jacob to "the land of Goshen" occurred about 200 years later. On
     the death of Solomon, Shishak, king of Egypt, invaded Palestine
     (1 Kings 14:25). He left a list of the cities he conquered.
       A number of remarkable clay tablets, discovered at
     Tell-el-Amarna in Upper Egypt, are the most important historical
     records ever found in connection with the Bible. They most fully
     confirm the historical statements of the Book of Joshua, and
     prove the antiquity of civilization in Syria and Palestine. As
     the clay in different parts of Palestine differs, it has been
     found possible by the clay alone to decide where the tablets
     come from when the name of the writer is lost. The inscriptions
     are cuneiform, and in the Aramaic language, resembling Assyrian.
     The writers are Phoenicians, Amorites, and Philistines, but in
     no instance Hittites, though Hittites are mentioned. The tablets
     consist of official dispatches and letters, dating from B.C.
     1480, addressed to the two Pharaohs, Amenophis III. and IV., the
     last of this dynasty, from the kings and governors of Phoenicia
     and Palestine. There occur the names of three kings killed by
     Joshua, Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem, Japhia, king of Lachish
     (Josh. 10:3), and Jabin, king of Hazor (11:1); also the Hebrews
     (Abiri) are said to have come from the desert.
       The principal prophecies of Scripture regarding Egypt are
     these, Isa. 19; Jer. 43: 8-13; 44:30; 46; Ezek. 29-32; and it
     might be easily shown that they have all been remarkably
     fulfilled. For example, the singular disappearance of Noph
     (i.e., Memphis) is a fulfilment of Jer. 46:19, Ezek. 30:13.

From Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary (late 1800's) :

  Egypt, that troubles or oppresses; anguish

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Egypt
                              Background: Nominally independent from the UK in
                                          1922, Egypt acquired full
                                          sovereignty following World War II.
                                          The completion of the Aswan High Dam
                                          in 1971 and the resultant Lake
                                          Nasser have altered the time-honored
                                          place of the Nile river in the
                                          agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A
                                          rapidly growing population (the
                                          largest in the Arab world), limited
                                          arable land, and dependence on the
                                          Nile all continue to overtax
                                          resources and stress society. The
                                          government has struggled to ready
                                          the economy for the new millennium
                                          through economic reform and massive
                                          investment in communications and
                                          physical infrastructure.
     Geography Egypt
                                Location: Northern Africa, bordering the
                                          Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and
                                          the Gaza Strip
                  Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km
                                          land: 995,450 sq km
                                          water: 6,000 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the
                                          size of New Mexico
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,665 km
                                          border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km,
                                          Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan
                                          1,273 km
                               Coastline: 2,450 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with
                                          moderate winters
                                 Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by
                                          Nile valley and delta
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -
                                          133 m
                                          highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629
                       Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore,
                                          phosphates, manganese, limestone,
                                          gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
                                Land use: arable land: 2.85%
                                          permanent crops: 0.47%
                                          other: 96.68% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 33,000 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent
                                          earthquakes, flash floods,
                                          landslides; hot, driving windstorm
                                          called khamsin occurs in spring;
                                          dust storms, sandstorms
            Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to
                                          urbanization and windblown sands;
                                          increasing soil salination below
                                          Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil
                                          pollution threatening coral reefs,
                                          beaches, and marine habitats; other
                                          water pollution from agricultural
                                          pesticides, raw sewage, and
                                          industrial effluents; very limited
                                          natural fresh water resources away
                                          from the Nile which is the only
                                          perennial water source; rapid growth
                                          in population overstraining the Nile
                                          and natural resources
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol
                        Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land
                                          bridge between Africa and remainder
                                          of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez
                                          Canal, shortest sea link between
                                          Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea;
                                          size, and juxtaposition to Israel,
                                          establish its major role in Middle
                                          Eastern geopolitics; dependence on
                                          upstream neighbors; dominance of
                                          Nile basin issues; prone to influxes
                                          of refugees
     People Egypt
                              Population: 70,712,345 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.96% (male 12,292,185;
                                          female 11,721,469)
                                          15-64 years: 62.18% (male
                                          22,190,637; female 21,775,504)
                                          65 years and over: 3.86% (male
                                          1,191,091; female 1,541,459) (2002
                  Population growth rate: 1.66% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 24.41 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1.02 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 58.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.05 years
                                          female: 66.24 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 61.96 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.99 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s)
                                          adjective: Egyptian
                           Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians,
                                          Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek,
                                          Nubian, Armenian, other European
                                          (primarily Italian and French) 1%
                               Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic
                                          Christian and other 6%
                               Languages: Arabic (official), English and
                                          French widely understood by educated
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 51.4%
                                          male: 63.6%
                                          female: 38.8% (1995 est.)
     Government Egypt
                            Country name: conventional long form: Arab
                                          Republic of Egypt
                                          conventional short form: Egypt
                                          local short form: Misr
                                          former: United Arab Republic (with
                                          local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Cairo
                Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular
                                          - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr
                                          al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al
                                          Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al
                                          Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah,
                                          Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah,
                                          Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As
                                          Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf,
                                          Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr
                                          ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal
                                          Sina', Suhaj
                            Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)
                        National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
                            Constitution: 11 September 1971
                            Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic
                                          law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial
                                          review by Supreme Court and Council
                                          of State (oversees validity of
                                          administrative decisions); accepts
                                          compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohammed
                                          Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Atef Mohammed ABEID (since 5 October
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          elections: president nominated by
                                          the People's Assembly for a six-year
                                          term, the nomination must then be
                                          validated by a national, popular
                                          referendum; national referendum last
                                          held 26 September 1999 (next to be
                                          held NA October 2005); prime
                                          minister appointed by the president
                                          election results: national
                                          referendum validated President
                                          MUBARAK's nomination by the People's
                                          Assembly to a fourth term
                      Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the
                                          People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b
                                          (454 seats; 444 elected by popular
                                          vote, 10 appointed by the president;
                                          members serve five-year terms) and
                                          the Advisory Council or Majlis al-
                                          Shura - which functions only in a
                                          consultative role (264 seats; 176
                                          elected by popular vote, 88
                                          appointed by the president; members
                                          serve NA-year terms)
                                          elections: People's Assembly -
                                          three-phase voting - last held 19
                                          October, 29 October, 8 November 2000
                                          (next to be held NA November 2005);
                                          Advisory Council - last held 7 June
                                          1995 (next to be held NA)
                                          election results: People's Assembly
                                          - percent of vote by party - NDP
                                          88%, independents 8%, opposition 4%;
                                          seats by party - NDP 398, NWP 7,
                                          Tagammu 6, Nasserists 2, LSP 1,
                                          independents 38, undecided 2;
                                          Advisory Council - percent of vote
                                          by party - NDP 99%, independents 1%;
                                          seats by party - NA
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court
           Political parties and leaders: Nasserist Arab Democratic Party or
                                          Nasserists [Dia' al-din DAWUD];
                                          National Democratic Party or NDP
                                          [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK] -
                                          governing party; National
                                          Progressive Unionist Grouping or
                                          Tagammu [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; New
                                          Wafd Party or NWP [No'man GOMA];
                                          Socialist Liberal Party or LSP
                                          [leader NA]
                                          note: formation of political parties
                                          must be approved by the government
            Political pressure groups and despite a constitutional ban against
                                 leaders: religious-based parties, the
                                          technically illegal Muslim
                                          Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's
                                          potentially most significant
                                          political opposition; MUBARAK
                                          tolerated limited political activity
                                          by the Brotherhood for his first two
                                          terms, but moved more aggressively
                                          since then to block its influence;
                                          civic society groups are sanctioned,
                                          but constrained in practical terms;
                                          trade unions and professional
                                          associations are officially
               International organization ABEDA, ACC, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
                           participation: AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC,
                                          EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19,
                                          G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
                                          IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM,
                                          OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC,
                                          OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR,
                                          UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNRWA,
                                          UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador M.
                                          Nabil FAHMY
                                          chancery: 3521 International Court
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
                                          consulate(s) general: Chicago,
                                          Houston, New York, and San Francisco
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 895-5440
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador C.
                                      US: David WELCH (since 3 Aug. 2001)
                                          embassy: 5 Latin America St., Garden
                                          City, Cairo
                                          mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE
                                          telephone: [20] (2) 797-3300
                                          FAX: [20] (2) 797-3200
                        Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red
                                          (top), white, and black with the
                                          national emblem (a shield
                                          superimposed on a golden eagle
                                          facing the hoist side above a scroll
                                          bearing the name of the country in
                                          Arabic) centered in the white band;
                                          similar to the flag of Yemen, which
                                          has a plain white band; also similar
                                          to the flag of Syria, which has two
                                          green stars, and to the flag of
                                          Iraq, which has three green stars
                                          (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
                                          horizontal line centered in the
                                          white band
     Economy Egypt
                      Economy - overview: Egypt improved its macroeconomic
                                          performance throughout most of the
                                          last decade by following IMF advice
                                          on fiscal, monetary, and structural
                                          reform policies. As a result, Cairo
                                          managed to tame inflation, slash
                                          budget deficits, and attract more
                                          foreign investment. In the past
                                          three years, however, the pace of
                                          reform has slackened, and excessive
                                          spending on national infrastructure
                                          projects has widened budget deficits
                                          again. Lower foreign exchange
                                          earnings since 1998 resulted in
                                          pressure on the Egyptian pound and
                                          periodic dollar shortages. Monetary
                                          pressures have increased since 11
                                          September 2001 because of declines
                                          in tourism, Suez canal tolls, and
                                          exports, and Cairo has devalued the
                                          pound several times in the past
                                          year. The development of a gas
                                          export market is a major bright spot
                                          for future growth prospects.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $258
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,700
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14%
                                          industry: 30%
                                          services: 56% (2001)
           Population below poverty line: 22.9% (FY95/96 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.4%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 25% (1995)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 28.9 (1995)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2001)
                             Labor force: 20.6 million (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 29%, industry 22%,
                                          services 49% (2000 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 12% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $21.5 billion
                                          expenditures: $26.2 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $5.9 billion (2001)
                              Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism,
                                          chemicals, hydrocarbons,
                                          construction, cement, metals
       Industrial production growth rate: 1.8% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 69.592 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 77.1%
                                          hydro: 22.9%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 64.721 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans,
                                          fruits, vegetables; cattle, water
                                          buffalo, sheep, goats
                                 Exports: $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products,
                                          cotton, textiles, metal products,
                      Exports - partners: EU 43% (Italy 18%, Germany 4%, UK
                                          3.2%), US 15%, Middle East 11%,
                                          Asian countries 9%, (2000)
                                 Imports: $164 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs,
                                          chemicals, wood products, fuels
                      Imports - partners: EU 36% (Germany 8%, Italy 8%, France
                                          6%), US 18%, Asian countries 13%, ,
                                          Middle East 6% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $29 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $2.25 billion (1999)
                                Currency: Egyptian pound (EGP)
                           Currency code: EGP
                          Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US dollar -
                                          market rate - 4.5000 (January 2002),
                                          4.4900 (2001), 3.6900 (2000), 3.4050
                                          (1999), 3.3880 (1998), 3.3880 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
     Communications Egypt
          Telephones - main lines in use: 3,971,500 (December 1998)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 380,000 (1999)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: large system;
                                          underwent extensive upgrading during
                                          1990s and is reasonably modern;
                                          Internet access and cellular service
                                          are available
                                          domestic: principal centers at
                                          Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
                                          Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are
                                          connected by coaxial cable and
                                          microwave radio relay
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
                                          Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat,
                                          and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine
                                          cables; tropospheric scatter to
                                          Sudan; microwave radio relay to
                                          Israel; a participant in Medarabtel
                                          and a signatory to Project Oxygen (a
                                          global submarine fiber-optic cable
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14,
                                          shortwave 3 (1999)
                                  Radios: 20.5 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 98 (September 1995)
                             Televisions: 7.7 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .eg
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000)
                          Internet users: 560,000 (2001)
     Transportation Egypt
                                Railways: total: 4,955 km
                                          standard gauge: 4,955 km 1,435-
                                          m gauge (42 km electrified; 1,560 km
                                          double-track) (2000 est.)
                                Highways: total: 64,000 km
                                          paved: 50,000 km
                                          unpaved: 14,000 km (1996)
                               Waterways: 3,500 km
                                          note: including the Nile, Lake
                                          Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway,
                                          and numerous smaller canals in the
                                          delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km
                                          including approaches), used by
                                          oceangoing vessels drawing up to
                                          16.1 m of water
                               Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum
                                          products 596 km; natural gas 460 km
                       Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan,
                                          Asyut, Bur Safajah, Damietta, Marsa
                                          Matruh, Port Said, Suez
                         Merchant marine: total: 175 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 1,331,186 GRT/1,987,964 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 23, cargo 58,
                                          container 2, liquefied gas 1,
                                          passenger 61, petroleum tanker 14,
                                          roll on/roll off 13, short-sea
                                          passenger 3
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience:, Denmark 1, Germany 1,
                                          Greece 6, Lebanon 3, Monaco 1,
                                          Ukraine 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 92 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 72
                                          over 3,047 m: 13
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 37
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 2
                                          under 914 m: 3 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 20
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
                                          under 914 m: 10 (2001)
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 7
                               Heliports: 2 (2001)
     Military Egypt
                         Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense
          Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)
          Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 19,030,030 (2002
       Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 12,320,902 (2002
                                   service: est.)
      Military manpower - reaching military males: 712,983 (2002 est.)
                              age annually:
     Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.04 billion (FY99/00)
         Military expenditures - percent of 4.1% (FY99/00)
     Transnational Issues Egypt
                Disputes - international: Egypt and Sudan each claim to
                                          administer triangular areas which
                                          extend north and south of the 1899
                                          Treaty boundary along the 22nd
                                          Parallel (in the north, the "Hala'ib
                                          Triangle", is the largest with
                                          20,580 sq km); in 2001, the two
                                          states agreed to discuss an "area of
                                          integration" and withdraw military
                                          forces in the overlapping areas
                           Illicit drugs: transit point for Southwest Asian
                                          and Southeast Asian heroin and opium
                                          moving to Europe, Africa, and the
                                          US; transit stop for Nigerian

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  Egypt, AR -- U.S. town in Arkansas
     Population (2000):    101
     Housing Units (2000): 51
     Land area (2000):     0.368005 sq. miles (0.953129 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    0.368005 sq. miles (0.953129 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            20920
     Located within:       Arkansas (AR), FIPS 05
     Location:             35.867472 N, 90.945372 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):    
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
      Egypt, AR

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