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2 definitions found
 for Ecuador
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in northwestern South America; became
           independent from Spain in 1822; the landscape is dominated
           by the Andes [syn: Ecuador, Republic of Ecuador]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Ecuador
                              Background: The "Republic of the Equator" was
                                          one of three countries that emerged
                                          from the collapse of Gran Colombia
                                          in 1830 (the others being Colombia
                                          and Venezuela). Between 1904 and
                                          1942, Ecuador lost territories in a
                                          series of conflicts with its
                                          neighbors. A border war with Peru
                                          that flared in 1995 was resolved in
     Geography Ecuador
                                Location: Western South America, bordering the
                                          Pacific Ocean at the Equator,
                                          between Colombia and Peru
                  Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W
                          Map references: South America
                                    Area: total: 283,560 sq km
                                          note: includes Galapagos Islands
                                          water: 6,720 sq km
                                          land: 276,840 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,010 km
                                          border countries: Colombia 590 km,
                                          Peru 1,420 km
                               Coastline: 2,237 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: claims
                                          continental shelf between mainland
                                          and Galapagos Islands
                                          territorial sea: 200 NM
                                 Climate: tropical along coast, becoming
                                          cooler inland at higher elevations;
                                          tropical in Amazonian jungle
                                 Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean
                                          central highlands (sierra), and flat
                                          to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 5.69%
                                          permanent crops: 5.15%
                                          other: 89.16% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 8,650 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides,
                                          volcanic activity; floods; periodic
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
                                          desertification; water pollution;
                                          pollution from oil production wastes
                                          in ecologically sensitive areas of
                                          the Galapagos Islands
              Environment - international party to: Antarctic-Environmental
                              agreements: Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
                                          Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active
                                          volcano in world
     People Ecuador
                              Population: 13,447,494 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.4% (male 2,415,764;
                                          female 2,337,095)
                                          15-64 years: 60.2% (male 4,007,495;
                                          female 4,090,957)
                                          65 years and over: 4.4% (male
                                          276,482; female 319,701) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.96% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 25.47 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 5.36 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.99 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 33.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.61 years
                                          female: 74.57 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 68.79 years
                    Total fertility rate: 3.05 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2001)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 20,000 (2001 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 232 (2001)
                             Nationality: noun: Ecuadorian(s)
                                          adjective: Ecuadorian
                           Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white)
                                          65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and
                                          others 7%, black 3%
                               Religions: Roman Catholic 95%
                               Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian
                                          languages (especially Quechua)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 90.1%
                                          male: 92%
                                          female: 88.2% (1995 est.)
     Government Ecuador
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Ecuador
                                          local long form: Republica del
                                          local short form: Ecuador
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Quito
                Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias, singular -
                                          provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar,
                                          Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
                                          Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas,
                                          Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi,
                                          Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana,
                                          Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios,
                                          Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
                            Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)
                        National holiday: Independence Day (independence of
                                          Quito), 10 August (1809)
                            Constitution: 10 August 1998
                            Legal system: based on civil law system; has not
                                          accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal,
                                          compulsory for literate persons ages
                                          18-65, optional for other eligible
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Gustavo
                                          NOBOA Bejarano (since 22 January
                                          2000) selected president following
                                          coup that deposed President Jamil
                                          MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro PINTO
                                          Rubianes (since 28 January 2000)
                                          elected by National Congress from a
                                          slate of candidates submitted by
                                          President NOBOA; note - the
                                          president is both the chief of state
                                          and head of government
                                          elections: formerly, the president
                                          and vice president were elected on
                                          the same ticket by popular vote for
                                          four-year term (no reelection);
                                          election last held 31 May 1998;
                                          runoff election held 12 July 1998
                                          (next to be held 20 October 2002)
                                          head of government: President
                                          Gustavo NOBOA Bejarano (since 22
                                          January 2000) selected president
                                          following coup that deposed
                                          President Jamil MAHUAD; Vice
                                          President Pedro PINTO Rubianes
                                          (since 28 January 2000) elected by
                                          National Congress from a slate of
                                          candidates submitted by President
                                          NOBOA; note - the president is both
                                          the chief of state and head of
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          election results: results of the
                                          last election prior to the coup
                                          were: Jamil MAHUAD elected
                                          president; percent of vote - 51%
                                          note: a military-indigenous coup
                                          toppled democratically-elected
                                          President Jamil MAHAUD on 21 January
                                          2000; the military quickly handed
                                          power over to Vice President Gustavo
                                          NOBOA on 22 January 2000; National
                                          Congress then elected a new vice
                                          president from a slate of candidates
                                          submitted by NOBOA; the new
                                          administration is scheduled to
                                          complete the remainder of MAHAUD's
                                          term, due to expire in January 2003
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or
                                          Congreso Nacional (123 seats; 20
                                          members are popularly elected at-
                                          large nationally to serve four-year
                                          terms; 103 members are popularly
                                          elected by province to serve four-
                                          year terms)
                                          elections: last held 31 May 1998
                                          (next to be held 20 October 2002)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - DP 32,
                                          PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA
                                          5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note -
                                          defections by members of National
                                          Congress are commonplace, resulting
                                          in frequent changes in the numbers
                                          of seats held by the various parties
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (new
                                          justices are elected by the full
                                          Supreme Court)
           Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces or
                                          CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic
                                          Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos];
                                          Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE
                                          [Jacinto JIJON Y CAMANO];
                                          Independent National Movement or MIN
                                          [Eliseo AZUERO]; Pachakutik-New
                                          Country or P-NP [Miguel LLUCO];
                                          Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan
                                          Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic
                                          Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN
                                          Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or
                                          FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director];
                                          Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala
                                          BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social
                                          Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL
            Political pressure groups and Confederation of Indigenous
                                 leaders: Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE
                                          [Leonidas IZA, president];
                                          Coordinator of Social Movements or
                                          CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation
                                          of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador
                                          or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president];
                                          National Federation of Indigenous
                                          Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or
                                          FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ,
                                          president]; Popular Front or FP
                                          [Luis VILLACIS]
               International organization CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB,
                           participation: IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
                                          IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
                                          IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
                                          ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL,
                                          OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne
                                          consulate(s) general: Chicago,
                                          Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
                                          Orleans, New York, Newark,
                                          Philadelphia, and San Francisco
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
                                          chancery: 2535 15th Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20009
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
                                      US: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Larry L.
                                          embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y
                                          Avenida Patria, Quito
                                          mailing address: APO AA 34039
                                          telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890
                                          FAX: [593] (2) 502-052
                                          consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
                        Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow
                                          (top, double width), blue, and red
                                          with the coat of arms superimposed
                                          at the center of the flag; similar
                                          to the flag of Colombia which is
                                          shorter and does not bear a coat of
     Economy Ecuador
                      Economy - overview: Ecuador has substantial oil
                                          resources and rich agricultural
                                          areas. Because the country exports
                                          primary products such as oil,
                                          bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in
                                          world market prices can have a
                                          substantial domestic impact. Ecuador
                                          joined the World Trade Organization
                                          in 1996, but has failed to comply
                                          with many of its accession
                                          commitments. The aftermath of El
                                          Nino and depressed oil market of
                                          1997-98 drove Ecuador's economy into
                                          a free-fall in 1999. The beginning
                                          of 1999 saw the banking sector
                                          collapse, which helped precipitate
                                          an unprecedented default on external
                                          loans later that year. Continued
                                          economic instability drove a 70%
                                          depreciation of the currency
                                          throughout 1999, which forced a
                                          desperate government to "dollarize"
                                          the currency regime in 2000. The
                                          move stabilized the currency, but
                                          did not stave off the ouster of the
                                          government. Gustavo NOBOA, who
                                          assumed the presidency in January
                                          2000, has managed to pass
                                          substantial economic reforms and
                                          mend relations with international
                                          financial institutions. Ecuador
                                          completed its first standby
                                          agreement since 1986 when the IMF
                                          Board approved a 10 December 2001
                                          disbursement of $96 million, the
                                          final installment of a $300 million
                                          standby credit agreement.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $39.6
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11%
                                          industry: 25%
                                          services: 64% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 70% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.2%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 33.8% (1995)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 43.7 (1995)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 3.7 million (urban)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%,
                                          services 45% (2001 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 14%; note - widespread
                                          underemployment (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $5.6 billion
                                          expenditures: planned $5.6 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: petroleum, food processing,
                                          textiles, metal work, paper
                                          products, wood products, chemicals,
                                          plastics, fishing, lumber
       Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 10.395 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 25.01%
                                          hydro: 74.99%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 9.667 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice,
                                          potatoes, manioc (tapioca),
                                          plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep,
                                          pigs, beef, pork, dairy products;
                                          balsa wood; fish, shrimp
                                 Exports: $4.8 billion (2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: petroleum, bananas, shrimp, coffee,
                                          cocoa, cut flowers, fish
                      Exports - partners: US 38%, Peru 6%, Chile 5%, Colombia
                                          5%, Italy 3% (2000)
                                 Imports: $4.8 billion (2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals,
                                          raw materials, fuels; consumer goods
                      Imports - partners: US 25%, Colombia 13%, Japan 8%,
                                          Venezuela 8%, Brazil 4% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $14 billion (2001)
                Economic aid - recipient: $120 million (2001)
                                Currency: US dollar (USD)
                           Currency code: USD
                          Exchange rates: sucres per US dollar - 25,000.0
                                          (January 2002), 25,000.0 (2001),
                                          24,988.4 (2000), 11,786.8 (1999),
                                          5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997)
                                          note: on 13 March 2000, the National
                                          Congress approved a new exchange
                                          system whereby the US dollar was
                                          adopted as the main legal tender in
                                          Ecuador for all purposes; on 20
                                          March 2000, the Central Bank of
                                          Ecuador started to exchange sucres
                                          for US dollars at a fixed rate of
                                          25,000 sucres per US dollar; since
                                          30 April 2000, all transactions are
                                          denominated in US dollars
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Ecuador
           Telephones - main lines in use: 1,115,272 (1999)
             Telephones - mobile cellular: 384,000 (1999)
                         Telephone system: general assessment: generally
                                           elementary but being expanded
                                           domestic: facilities generally
                                           inadequate and unreliable
                                           international: satellite earth
                                           station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
                 Radio broadcast stations: AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
                                   Radios: 5 million (2001)
            Television broadcast stations: 7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)
                              Televisions: 2.5 million (2001)
                    Internet country code: .ec
        Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 31 (2001)
                           Internet users: 180,000 (2001)
     Transportation Ecuador
                                Railways: total: 965 km
                                          narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge
                                          (2000 est.)
                                Highways: total: 43,197 km
                                          paved: 8,165 km
                                          unpaved: 35,032 km (2001)
                               Waterways: 1,500 km
                               Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products
                                          1,358 km
                       Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad,
                                          Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San Lorenzo
                         Merchant marine: total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 239,876 GRT/393,680 DWT
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Chile 1, Greece 1 (2002
                                          ships by type: cargo 2, chemical
                                          tanker 3, liquefied gas 1, passenger
                                          3, petroleum tanker 23, specialized
                                          tanker 1
                                Airports: 205 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 61
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 17
                                          under 914 m: 19 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 144
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 31
                                          under 914 m: 113 (2001)
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
     Military Ecuador
                        Military branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air
                                           Force, National Police
         Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,468,678 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 2,337,944 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 132,978 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $720 million (FY98)
        Military expenditures - percent of 3.4% (FY98)
     Transnational Issues Ecuador
                Disputes - international: none
                           Illicit drugs: significant transit country for
                                          cocaine originating in Colombia and
                                          Peru; importer of precursor
                                          chemicals used in production of
                                          illicit narcotics; important money-
                                          laundering hub; increased activity
                                          on the northern frontier by
                                          trafficking groups and Colombian

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