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 for Congo, Republic of the
From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Congo, Republic of the
     Introduction Congo, Republic of the
                              Background: Upon independence in 1960, the
                                          former French region of Middle Congo
                                          became the Republic of the Congo. A
                                          quarter century of experimentation
                                          with Marxism was abandoned in 1990
                                          and a democratically elected
                                          government installed in 1992. A
                                          brief civil war in 1997 restored
                                          former Marxist President SASSOU-
     Geography Congo, Republic of the
                                Location: Western Africa, bordering the South
                                          Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and
                  Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 342,000 sq km
                                          water: 500 sq km
                                          land: 341,500 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana
                         Land boundaries: total: 5,504 km
                                          border countries: Angola 201 km,
                                          Cameroon 523 km, Central African
                                          Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic
                                          of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903
                               Coastline: 169 km
                         Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 NM
                                 Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to
                                          June); dry season (June to October);
                                          constantly high temperatures and
                                          humidity; particularly enervating
                                          climate astride the Equator
                                 Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin,
                                          central plateau, northern basin
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead,
                                          zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates,
                                          natural gas, hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 0.5%
                                          permanent crops: 0.13%
                                          other: 99.37% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: seasonal flooding
            Environment - current issues: air pollution from vehicle
                                          emissions; water pollution from the
                                          dumping of raw sewage; tap water is
                                          not potable; deforestation
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
                                          94, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Law of the
                        Geography - note: about 70% of the population lives in
                                          Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along
                                          the railroad between them
     People Congo, Republic of the
                              Population: 2,958,448
                                          note: estimates for this country
                                          explicitly take into account the
                                          effects of excess mortality due to
                                          AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                          expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                          and death rates, lower population
                                          and growth rates, and changes in the
                                          distribution of population by age
                                          and sex than would otherwise be
                                          expected (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.4% (male 630,985;
                                          female 622,024)
                                          15-64 years: 54.3% (male 783,238;
                                          female 823,882)
                                          65 years and over: 3.3% (male
                                          39,369; female 58,950) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.18% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 37.91 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 16.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.97 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 97.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.71 years
                                          female: 51.24 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 44.27 years
                    Total fertility rate: 4.94 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 6.43% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 86,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 8,600 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and
                                          adjective: Congolese or Congo
                           Ethnic groups: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%,
                                          Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%
                                          note: Europeans estimated at 8,500,
                                          mostly French, before the 1997 civil
                                          war; may be half that in 1998,
                                          following the widespread destruction
                                          of foreign businesses in 1997
                               Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim
                               Languages: French (official), Lingala and
                                          Monokutuba (lingua franca trade
                                          languages), many local languages and
                                          dialects (of which Kikongo has the
                                          most users)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 74.9%
                                          male: 83.1%
                                          female: 67.2% (1995 est.)
     Government Congo, Republic of the
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          the Congo
                                          conventional short form: Congo
                                          local short form: none
                                          former: Middle Congo, Congo/
                                          Brazzaville, Congo
                                          local long form: Republique du Congo
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Brazzaville
                Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular -
                                          region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza,
                                          Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou,
                                          Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux,
                                          Pool, Sangha
                            Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
                            Constitution: constitution approved by referendum
                                          in January 2002
                            Legal system: based on French civil law system and
                                          customary law
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Denis
                                          SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October
                                          1997, following the civil war in
                                          which he toppled elected president
                                          Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the
                                          president is both the chief of state
                                          and head of government
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a seven-year term
                                          (eligible for a second seven-year
                                          term); election last held 10 March
                                          2002 (next to be held NA 2009)
                                          head of government: President Denis
                                          SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October
                                          1997, following the civil war in
                                          which he toppled elected president
                                          Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the
                                          president is both the chief of state
                                          and head of government
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                                          election results: Denis SASSOU-
                                          NGUESSO reelected president; percent
                                          of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO
                                          89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Transitional
                                          Council (75 seats, members elected
                                          by reconciliation forum of 1,420
                                          delegates in January 1998); note -
                                          the National Transitional Council
                                          will be replaced by a bicameral
                                          Parliament, with a National Assembly
                                          and Senate, following elections in
                                          elections: National Transitional
                                          Council - last held NA January 1998
                                          (next to be held in 2002); note - at
                                          that election the National
                                          Transitional Council is to be
                                          replaced by a bicameral legislature
                                          election results: National
                                          Transitional Council - percent of
                                          vote by party - NA%; seats by party
                                          - NA
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
           Political parties and leaders: the most important of the many
                                          parties are the Democratic and
                                          Patriotic Forces or FDP (an alliance
                                          of Convention for Alternative
                                          Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or
                                          PCT, Liberal Republican Party,
                                          National Union for Democracy and
                                          Progress, Patriotic Union for the
                                          National Reconstruction, and Union
                                          for the National Renewal) [Denis
                                          SASSOU-NGUESSO, president];
                                          Congolese Movement for Democracy and
                                          Integral Development or MCDDI
                                          [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union
                                          for Social Development or UPADS
                                          [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy
                                          and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-
                                          Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA,
                                          president]; Rally for Democracy and
                                          the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge
                                          NGOLLO]; Union for Democracy and
                                          Republic [leader NA]; Union of
                                          Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian
            Political pressure groups and Congolese Trade Union Congress or
                                 leaders: CSC; General Union of Congolese
                                          Pupils and Students or UGEEC;
                                          Revolutionary Union of Congolese
                                          Women or URFC; Union of Congolese
                                          Socialist Youth or UJSC
               International organization ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC,
                           participation: CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
                                          IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
                                          IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW
                                          (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Serge
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
                                          chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20011
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador David
                                      US: H. KAEUPER
                                          embassy: NA
                                          mailing address: NA
                                          telephone: [243] (88) 05176
                                          FAX: [243] (88) 41036
                                          note: the embassy is temporarily
                                          collocated with the US Embassy in
                                          the Democratic Republic of the Congo
                                          (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310 Avenue des
                                          Aviateurs, Kinshasa)
                        Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower
                                          hoist side by a yellow band; the
                                          upper triangle (hoist side) is green
                                          and the lower triangle is red; uses
                                          the popular pan-African colors of
     Economy Congo, Republic of the
                      Economy - overview: The economy is a mixture of village
                                          agriculture and handicrafts, an
                                          industrial sector based largely on
                                          oil, support services, and a
                                          government characterized by budget
                                          problems and overstaffing. Oil has
                                          supplanted forestry as the mainstay
                                          of the economy, providing a major
                                          share of government revenues and
                                          exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly
                                          rising oil revenues enabled the
                                          government to finance large-scale
                                          development projects with GDP growth
                                          averaging 5% annually, one of the
                                          highest rates in Africa. The
                                          government has mortgaged a
                                          substantial portion of its oil
                                          earnings, contributing to a shortage
                                          of revenues. The 12 January 1994
                                          devaluation of Franc Zone currencies
                                          by 50% resulted in inflation of 61%
                                          in 1994, but inflation has subsided
                                          since. Economic reform efforts
                                          continued with the support of
                                          international organizations, notably
                                          the World Bank and the IMF. The
                                          reform program came to a halt in
                                          June 1997 when civil war erupted.
                                          Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned
                                          to power when the war ended in
                                          October 1997, publicly expressed
                                          interest in moving forward on
                                          economic reforms and privatization
                                          and in renewing cooperation with
                                          international financial
                                          institutions. However, economic
                                          progress was badly hurt by slumping
                                          oil prices and the resumption of
                                          armed conflict in December 1998,
                                          which worsened the republic's budget
                                          deficit. Given a fragile peace,
                                          agreements with the IMF and the
                                          World Bank, and general
                                          international support for
                                          reconstruction and development,
                                          prospects for structural reform and
                                          4% growth in 2002-03 appear strong.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4.2% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $900 (2001
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10%
                                          industry: 48%
                                          services: 42% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: NA
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $870 million
                                          expenditures: $970 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1997 est.)
                              Industries: petroleum extraction, cement,
                                          lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil,
                                          soap, flour, cigarettes
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 302 million kWh (1999)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.66%
                                          hydro: 99.34%
                                          other: 0% (1999)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 406.9 million kWh (1999)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
                   Electricity - imports: 126 million kWh (1999)
                  Agriculture - products: cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice,
                                          corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee,
                                          cocoa; forest products
                                 Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: petroleum 90%, lumber, plywood,
                                          sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
                      Exports - partners: US 20.9%, South Korea 15.5%, China
                                          6.7%, Germany 3.2% (2000)
                                 Imports: $725 million (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: petroleum products, capital
                                          equipment, construction materials,
                      Imports - partners: France 20.5%, US 9.8%, Italy 7.5%,
                                          Belgium 3.8% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $5 billion (1999 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $159.1 million (1995)
                                Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          franc (XAF); note - responsible
                                          authority is the Bank of the Central
                                          African States
                           Currency code: XAF
                          Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          francs (XAF) per US dollar - 742.79
                                          (January 2002), 733.04 (2001),
                                          711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
                                          (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1
                                          January 1999, the XAF is pegged to
                                          the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF
                                          per euro
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Congo, Republic of the
          Telephones - main lines in use: 22,000 (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 250,000 (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: services barely
                                          adequate for government use; key
                                          exchanges are in Brazzaville,
                                          Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity
                                          lines frequently out-of-order
                                          domestic: primary network consists
                                          of microwave radio relay and coaxial
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2001)
                                  Radios: 341,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 (2002)
                             Televisions: 33,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .cg
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
                          Internet users: 500 (2000)
     Transportation Congo, Republic of the
                                Railways: total: 894 km
                                          narrow gauge: 894 km 1.067-m gauge
                                          (2000 est.)
                                Highways: total: 12,800 km
                                          paved: 1,242 km
                                          unpaved: 11,558 km (1996)
                               Waterways: 1,120 km
                                          note: the Congo and Ubangi
                                          (Oubangui) rivers provide 1,120 km
                                          of commercially navigable water
                                          transport; other rivers are used for
                                          local traffic only
                               Pipelines: crude oil 25 km
                       Ports and harbors: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo,
                                Airports: 33 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 4
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 29
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 10
                                          under 914 m: 12 (2001)
     Military Congo, Republic of the
                       Military branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Gendarmerie,
                                          National Police
        Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 702,048 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 356,388 (2002 est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 32,350 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $84 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 2.8% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Congo, Republic of the
                Disputes - international: most of the Congo River boundary
                                          with the Democratic Republic of the
                                          Congo is indefinite (no agreement
                                          has been reached on the division of
                                          the river or its islands, except in
                                          the Stanley Pool/Pool Malebo area)

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