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 for Colombia
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in northwestern South America with a coastline
           on the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; achieved
           independence from Spain in 1821 under the leadership of
           Simon Bolivar; Spanish is the official language [syn:
           Colombia, Republic of Colombia]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Colombia
                              Background: Colombia was one of the three
                                          countries that emerged from the
                                          collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830
                                          (the others being Ecuador and
                                          Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent
                                          campaign to overthrow the Colombian
                                          Government escalated during the
                                          1990s, undergirded in part by funds
                                          from the drug trade. Although the
                                          violence is deadly and large swaths
                                          of the countryside are under
                                          guerrilla influence, the movement
                                          lacks the military strength or
                                          popular support necessary to
                                          overthrow the government. An anti-
                                          insurgent army of paramilitaries has
                                          grown to be several thousand strong
                                          in recent years, challenging the
                                          insurgents for control of territory
                                          and illicit industries such as the
                                          drug trade and the government's
                                          ability to exert its dominion over
                                          rural areas. While Bogota continues
                                          to try to negotiate a settlement,
                                          neighboring countries worry about
                                          the violence spilling over their
     Geography Colombia
                                Location: Northern South America, bordering
                                          the Caribbean Sea, between Panama
                                          and Venezuela, and bordering the
                                          North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador
                                          and Panama
                  Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W
                          Map references: South America
                                    Area: total: 1,138,910 sq km
                                          land: 1,038,700 sq km
                                          note: includes Isla de Malpelo,
                                          Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
                                          Serranilla Bank
                                          water: 100,210 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the
                                          size of Montana
                         Land boundaries: total: 6,004 km
                                          border countries: Brazil 1,643 km,
                                          Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru
                                          1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km
                               Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km,
                                          North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: tropical along coast and eastern
                                          plains; cooler in highlands
                                 Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central
                                          highlands, high Andes Mountains,
                                          eastern lowland plains
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon
                                          5,775 m
                                          note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also
                                          has the same elevation
                       Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron
                                          ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds,
                                Land use: arable land: 1.9%
                                          other: 96.14% (1998 est.)
                                          permanent crops: 1.96%
                          Irrigated land: 8,500 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic
                                          eruptions; occasional earthquakes;
                                          periodic droughts
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil and water
                                          quality damage from overuse of
                                          pesticides; air pollution,
                                          especially in Bogota, from vehicle
              Environment - international party to: Antarctic Treaty,
                              agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
                                          Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-
                                          Environmental Protocol, Law of the
                                          Sea, Marine Dumping
                        Geography - note: only South American country with
                                          coastlines on both North Pacific
                                          Ocean and Caribbean Sea
     People Colombia
                              Population: 41,008,227 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.6% (male 6,552,961;
                                          female 6,399,666)
                                          15-64 years: 63.6% (male 12,694,293;
                                          female 13,375,425)
                                          65 years and over: 4.8% (male
                                          886,921; female 1,098,961) (2002
                  Population growth rate: 1.6% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 21.99 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 5.66 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.97 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 23.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.85 years
                                          female: 74.83 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 67 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.31% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 71,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,700 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Colombian(s)
                                          adjective: Colombian
                           Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%,
                                          black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%,
                                          Amerindian 1%
                               Religions: Roman Catholic 90%
                               Languages: Spanish
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 91.3%
                                          male: 91.2%
                                          female: 91.4% (1995 est.)
     Government Colombia
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Colombia
                                          local short form: Colombia
                                          local long form: Republica de
                         Government type: republic; executive branch dominates
                                          government structure
                                 Capital: Bogota
                Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos,
                                          singular - departamento) and 1
                                          capital district* (distrito
                                          capital); Amazonas, Antioquia,
                                          Arauca, Atlantico, Distrito Capital
                                          de Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas,
                                          Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar,
                                          Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca,
                                          Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La
                                          Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino,
                                          Norte de Santander, Putumayo,
                                          Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
                                          Providencia, Santander, Sucre,
                                          Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes,
                            Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
                            Constitution: 5 July 1991
                            Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal
                                          code modeled after US procedures was
                                          enacted in 1992-93; judicial review
                                          of executive and legislative acts;
                                          accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
                                          with reservations
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Andres
                                          PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice
                                          President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since
                                          7 August 1998); note - the president
                                          is both the chief of state and head
                                          of government
                                          head of government: President Andres
                                          PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice
                                          President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since
                                          7 August 1998); note - the president
                                          is both the chief of state and head
                                          of government
                                          cabinet: Cabinet consists of a
                                          coalition of the two dominant
                                          parties - the PL and PSC - and
                                          elections: president and vice
                                          president elected by popular vote
                                          for a four-year term; election last
                                          held 26 May 2002 (next to be held NA
                                          May 2006)
                                          election results: on 26 May 2002,
                                          President-elect Alvaro URIBE Velez
                                          received 53% of the vote; Vice
                                          President-elect Francisco SANTOS was
                                          elected on the same ticket; they
                                          will take office in August 2002
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso
                                          consists of the Senate or Senado
                                          (102 seats; members are elected by
                                          popular vote to serve four-year
                                          terms) and the House of
                                          Representatives or Camara de
                                          Representantes (166 seats; members
                                          are elected by popular vote to serve
                                          four-year terms)
                                          elections: Senate - last held 10
                                          March 2002 (next to be held NA March
                                          2006); House of Representatives -
                                          last held 10 March 2002 (next to be
                                          held NA March 2006)
                                          election results: Senate - percent
                                          of vote by party - NA%; seats by
                                          party - PL 28, PSC 13, independents
                                          and smaller parties (many aligned
                                          with conservatives) 61; House of
                                          Representatives - percent of vote by
                                          party - NA; seats by party - PL 54,
                                          PSC 21, independents and other
                                          parties 91
                         Judicial branch: four, coequal, supreme judicial
                                          organs; Supreme Court of Justice or
                                          Corte Suprema de Justical (highest
                                          court of criminal law; judges are
                                          selected from the nominees of the
                                          Higher Council of Justice for eight-
                                          year terms); Council of State
                                          (highest court of administrative
                                          law, judges are selected from the
                                          nominees of the Higher Council of
                                          Justice for eight-year terms);
                                          Constitutional Court (guards
                                          integrity and supremacy of the
                                          constitution, rules on
                                          constitutionality of laws,
                                          amendments to the constitution, and
                                          international treaties); Higher
                                          Council of Justice (administers and
                                          disciplines the civilian judiciary;
                                          members of the disciplinary chamber
                                          resolve jurisdictional conflicts
                                          arising between other courts;
                                          members are elected by three sister
                                          courts and Congress for eight-year
           Political parties and leaders: Conservative Party or PSC [Carlos
                                          HOLGUIN Sardi]; Liberal Party or PL
                                          [Horatio SERPA Uribe]; Patriotic
                                          Union or UP is a legal political
                                          party formed by Revolutionary Armed
                                          Forces of Colombia or FARC and
                                          Colombian Communist Party or PCC
                                          [Jaime CAICEDO]; 19 of April
                                          Movement or M-19 [Antonio NAVARRO
                                          note: Colombia has about 60 formally
                                          recognized political parties, most
                                          of which do not have a presence in
                                          either house of Congress
            Political pressure groups and two largest insurgent groups active
                                 leaders: in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed
                                          Forces of Colombia or FARC and
                                          National Liberation Army or ELN;
                                          largest anti-insurgent paramilitary
                                          group is United Self-Defense Groups
                                          of Colombia or AUC
               International organization BCIE, CAN, Caricom (observer), CCC,
                           participation: CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77,
                                          IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
                                          ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS,
                                          OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN
                                          Security Council (temporary),
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU,
                                          UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Luis
                                          Alberto MORENO Mejia
                                          chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
                                          consulate(s) general: Boston,
                                          Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
                                          Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
                                          Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico),
                                          and Washington, DC
                                          consulate(s): Atlanta
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W.
                                      US: PATTERSON
                                          embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-
                                          51, Apartado Aereo 3831
                                          mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45,
                                          Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038
                                          telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811
                                          FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197
                        Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow
                                          (top, double-width), blue, and red;
                                          similar to the flag of Ecuador,
                                          which is longer and bears the
                                          Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed
                                          in the center
     Economy Colombia
                      Economy - overview: Colombia's economy suffered from
                                          weak domestic demand, austere
                                          government budgets, and a difficult
                                          security situation. A new president
                                          takes office in 2002 and will face
                                          economic challenges ranging from
                                          pension reform to reduction of
                                          unemployment. Two of Colombia's
                                          leading exports, oil and coffee,
                                          face an uncertain future; new
                                          exploration is needed to offset
                                          declining oil production, while
                                          coffee harvests and prices are
                                          depressed. Problems in public
                                          security are a concern for Colombian
                                          business leaders, who are calling
                                          for progress in the government's
                                          peace negotiations with insurgent
                                          groups. Colombia is looking for
                                          continued support from the
                                          international community to boost
                                          economic and peace prospects.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $255
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,300
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19%
                                          industry: 26%
                                          services: 55% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 55% (2001)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 44% (1999)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 57.1 (1996)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.6% (2001)
                             Labor force: 18.3 million (1999 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%,
                                          industry 24% (1990)
                       Unemployment rate: 17% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $24 billion
                                          expenditures: $25.6 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2001 est.)
                              Industries: textiles, food processing, oil,
                                          clothing and footwear, beverages,
                                          chemicals, cement; gold, coal,
       Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 43.342 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 25.93%
                                          hydro: 73.09%
                                          other: 0.98% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 40.348 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 37 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 77 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice,
                                          tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa
                                          beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest
                                          products; shrimp
                                 Exports: $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel,
                                          bananas, cut flowers
                      Exports - partners: US 43%, Andean Community of Nations
                                          22%, EU 14%, (2001 est.)
                                 Imports: $12.7 billion (c.i.f., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: industrial equipment, transportation
                                          equipment, consumer goods,
                                          chemicals, paper products, fuels,
                      Imports - partners: US 35%, EU 16%, Andean Community of
                                          Nations 15%, Japan 5% (2001 est.)
                         Debt - external: $39 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $NA
                                Currency: Colombian peso (COP)
                           Currency code: COP
                          Exchange rates: Colombian pesos per US dollar -
                                          2,275.89 (January 2002), 2,299.63
                                          (2001), 2,087.90 (2000), 1,756.23
                                          (1999), 1,426.04 (1998), 1,140.96
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Colombia
          Telephones - main lines in use: 5,433,565 (December 1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,800,229 (December 1998)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: modern system in
                                          many respects
                                          domestic: nationwide microwave radio
                                          relay system; domestic satellite
                                          system with 41 earth stations;
                                          fiber-optic network linking 50
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3
                                          fully digitalized international
                                          switching centers; 8 submarine
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)
                                  Radios: 21 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 60 (includes seven low-power
                                          stations) (1997)
                             Televisions: 4.59 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .co
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 18 (2000)
                          Internet users: 878,000 (2001)
     Transportation Colombia
                                Railways: total: 3,304 km
                                          standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
                                          (connects Cerrejon coal mines to
                                          maritime port at Bahia de Portete)
                                          narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge
                                          (major sections not in use) (2000
                                Highways: total: 110,000 km
                                          paved: 26,000 km
                                          unpaved: 84,000 km (2000)
                               Waterways: 18,140 km (navigable by river boats)
                                          (April 1996)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum
                                          products 1,350 km; natural gas 830
                                          km; natural gas liquids 125 km
                       Ports and harbors: Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla,
                                          Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia,
                                          Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa
                                          Marta, Tumaco, Turbo
                         Merchant marine: total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 32,438 GRT/43,126 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 3,
                                          container 1, petroleum tanker 2
                                          note: includes a foreign-owned ship
                                          registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Germany 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 1,066 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 93
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 36
                                          under 914 m: 9 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 37
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 973
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 58
                                          under 914 m: 602 (2001)
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 312
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
     Military Colombia
                        Military branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy
                                           (Armada Nacional, including Marines
                                           and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza
                                           Aerea Colombiana), National Police
                                           (Policia Nacional)
         Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 10,946,932 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 7,308,703 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 379,295 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $3.3 billion (FY01)
        Military expenditures - percent of 3.4% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Colombia
                Disputes - international: Nicaragua filed a claim against
                                          Honduras in 1999 and against
                                          Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over
                                          disputed maritime boundary involving
                                          50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea,
                                          including the Archipelago de San
                                          Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno
                                          Bank; maritime boundary dispute with
                                          Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela;
                                          Colombian drug activities penetrate
                                          Peruvian border area
                           Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium
                                          poppies, and cannabis; world's
                                          leading coca cultivator (cultivation
                                          of coca in 2000 - 136,200 hectares,
                                          an 11% increase over 1999);
                                          potential production of opium since
                                          1995 has remained relatively stable
                                          at 66 metric tons; potential
                                          production of heroin has averaged
                                          6.5 metric tons; the world's largest
                                          processor of coca derivatives into
                                          cocaine; supplier of about 90% of
                                          the cocaine to the US and the great
                                          majority of cocaine to other
                                          international drug markets, and an
                                          important supplier of heroin to the
                                          US market; active aerial eradication

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