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6 definitions found
 for Chad
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Shad \Shad\ (sh[a^]d), n. sing. & pl. [AS. sceadda a kind of
     fish, akin to Prov. G. schade; cf. Ir. & Gael. sgadan a
     herring, W. ysgadan herrings; all perhaps akin to E. skate a
     fish.] (Zool.)
     Any one of several species of food fishes of the Herring
     family. The American species ({Alosa sapidissima formerly
     Clupea sapidissima), which is abundant on the Atlantic
     coast and ascends the larger rivers in spring to spawn, is an
     important market fish. The European allice shad, or alose
     ({Alosa alosa formerly Clupea alosa), and the twaite shad
     ({Alosa finta formerly Clupea finta), are less important
     species. [Written also chad.]
     [1913 Webster]
     Note: The name is loosely applied, also, to several other
           fishes, as the gizzard shad (see under Gizzard),
           called also mud shad, white-eyed shad, and winter
           [1913 Webster]
     Hardboaded shad, or Yellow-tailed shad, the menhaden.
     Hickory shad, or Tailor shad, the mattowacca.
     Long-boned shad, one of several species of important food
        fishes of the Bermudas and the West Indies, of the genus
     Shad bush (Bot.), a name given to the North American shrubs
        or small trees of the rosaceous genus Amelanchier
        ({Amelanchier Canadensis, and Amelanchier alnifolia).
        Their white racemose blossoms open in April or May, when
        the shad appear, and the edible berries (pomes) ripen in
        June or July, whence they are called Juneberries. The
        plant is also called service tree, and Juneberry.
     Shad+frog,+an+American+spotted+frog+({Rana+halecina">Shad frog, an American spotted frog ({Rana halecina); --
        so called because it usually appears at the time when the
        shad begin to run in the rivers.
     Trout shad, the squeteague.
     White shad, the common shad.
        [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Chad \Chad\, n.
     See Shad. [Obs.]
     [1913 Webster]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a small piece of paper that is supposed to be removed when
           a hole is punched in a card or paper tape
      2: a lake in north central Africa; fed by the Shari river [syn:
         Lake Chad, Chad]
      3: a landlocked desert republic in north-central Africa; was
         under French control until 1960 [syn: Chad, Republic of
         Chad, Tchad]
      4: a family of Afroasiatic tonal languages (mostly two tones)
         spoken in the regions west and south of Lake Chad in north
         central Africa [syn: Chad, Chadic, Chadic language]

From The Jargon File (version 4.4.7, 29 Dec 2003) :

   /chad/, n.
      1. [common] The perforated edge strips on printer paper, after they have
      been separated from the printed portion. Also called selvage, perf, and
      2. The confetti-like paper bits punched out of cards or paper tape; this
      has also been called chaff, computer confetti, and keypunch droppings. It's
      reported that this was very old Army slang (associated with teletypewriters
      before the computer era), and has been occasionally sighted in directions
      for punched-card vote tabulators long after it passed out of live use among
      computer programmers in the late 1970s. This sense of ?chad? returned to
      the mainstream during the finale of the hotly disputed U.S. presidential
      election in 2000 via stories about the Florida vote recounts. Note however
      that in the revived mainstream usage chad is not a mass noun and ?a chad?
      is a single piece of the stuff.
      There is an urban legend that chad (sense 2) derives from the Chadless
      keypunch (named for its inventor), which cut little u-shaped tabs in the
      card to make a hole when the tab folded back, rather than punching out a
      circle/rectangle; it was clear that if the Chadless keypunch didn't make
      them, then the stuff that other keypunches made had to be ?chad?. However,
      serious attempts to track down ?Chadless? as a personal name or U.S.
      trademark have failed, casting doubt on this etymology ? and the U.S.
      Patent Classification System uses ?chadless? (small c) as an adjective,
      suggesting that ?chadless? derives from ?chad? and not the other way
      around. There is another legend that the word was originally acronymic,
      standing for ?Card Hole Aggregate Debris?, but this has all the earmarks of
      a backronym. It has also been noted that the word ?chad? is Scots dialect
      for gravel, but nobody has proposed any plausible reason that card chaff
      should be thought of as gravel. None of these etymologies is really
      This is one way to be chadless.

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018) :

      /chad/ (Or "selvage" /sel'v*j/ (sewing and
     weaving), "{perf", "perfory", "snaf").  1. The perforated
     edge strips on paper for sprocket feed printers, after they
     have been separated from the printed portion.
     The term perf may also refer to the perforations themselves,
     rather than the chad they produce when torn.
     [Why "snaf"?]
     2. (Or "chaff", "computer confetti", "keypunch droppings") The
     confetti-like bits punched out of punched cards or paper
     tape which collected in the chad box.
     One of the Jargon File's correspondents believed that "chad"
     derived from the chadless keypunch.
     [{Jargon File]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Chad
                              Background: Chad, part of France's African
                                          holdings until 1960, endured three
                                          decades of ethnic warfare as well as
                                          invasions by Libya before a
                                          semblance of peace was finally
                                          restored in 1990. The government
                                          eventually suppressed or came to
                                          terms with most political-military
                                          groups, settled a territorial
                                          dispute with Libya on terms
                                          favorable to Chad, drafted a
                                          democratic constitution, and held
                                          multiparty presidential and National
                                          Assembly elections in 1996 and 1997
                                          respectively. In 1998 a new
                                          rebellion broke out in northern
                                          Chad, which continued to escalate
                                          throughout 2000. A peace agreement,
                                          signed in January 2002 between the
                                          government and the rebels, provides
                                          for the demobilization of the rebels
                                          and their reintegration into the
                                          political system. Despite movement
                                          toward democratic reform, power
                                          remains in the hands of a northern
                                          ethnic oligarchy.
     Geography Chad
                                Location: Central Africa, south of Libya
                  Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 1.284 million sq km
                                          water: 24,800 sq km
                                          land: 1,259,200 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the
                                          size of California
                         Land boundaries: total: 5,968 km
                                          border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km,
                                          Central African Republic 1,197 km,
                                          Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km,
                                          Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: tropical in south, desert in north
                                 Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert
                                          in north, mountains in northwest,
                                          lowlands in south
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab Depression 160
                                          highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but
                                          exploration under way), uranium,
                                          natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
                                Land use: arable land: 2.78%
                                          permanent crops: 0.02%
                                          other: 97.2% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds
                                          occur in north; periodic droughts;
                                          locust plagues
            Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable
                                          water; improper waste disposal in
                                          rural areas contributes to soil and
                                          water pollution; desertification
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
                                          Layer Protection, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Law of the
                                          Sea, Marine Dumping
                        Geography - note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most
                                          significant water body in the Sahel
     People Chad
                              Population: 8,997,237 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.8% (male 2,162,732;
                                          female 2,135,354)
                                          15-64 years: 49.4% (male 2,108,134;
                                          female 2,340,189)
                                          65 years and over: 2.8% (male
                                          103,683; female 147,145) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 3.27% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 47.74 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 15.06 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.95 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 93.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.27 years
                                          female: 53.4 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 49.22 years
                    Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5%-7% (2001)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 300,000 (2001)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 14,000 (confirmed AIDS cases, actual
                                          number far higher but difficult to
                                          estimate) (2001)
                             Nationality: noun: Chadian(s)
                                          adjective: Chadian
                           Ethnic groups: 200 distinct groups; in the north
                                          and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou,
                                          Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou,
                                          Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe,
                                          Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba,
                                          most of whom are Muslim; in the
                                          south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye,
                                          Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa,
                                          most of whom are Christian or
                                          animist; about 1,000 French citizens
                                          live in Chad
                               Religions: Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist
                                          7%, other 7%
                               Languages: French (official), Arabic
                                          (official), Sara (in south), more
                                          than 120 different languages and
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write French or Arabic
                                          total population: 40%
                                          male: 49%
                                          female: 31% (1998)
     Government Chad
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Chad
                                          local long form: Republique du Tchad
                                          local short form: Tchad
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: N'Djamena
                Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures,
                                          singular - prefecture); Batha,
                                          Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti,
                                          Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac,
                                          Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental,
                                          Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai,
                                          Salamat, Tandjile
                                          note: instead of 14 prefectures,
                                          there may be a new administrative
                                          structure of 28 departments
                                          (departments, singular -
                                          department), and 1 city*; Assongha,
                                          Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh,
                                          Batha Oriental, Batha Occidental,
                                          Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi,
                                          Guera, Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem,
                                          Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental,
                                          Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-
                                          Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam,
                                          N'djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila,
                                          Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile
                                          Occidental, Tibesti
                            Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
                            Constitution: passed by referendum 31 March 1996
                            Legal system: based on French civil law system and
                                          Chadian customary law; has not
                                          accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Lt. Gen.
                                          Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Nagoum YAMASSOUM (since 13 December
                                          cabinet: Council of State, members
                                          appointed by the president on the
                                          recommendation of the prime minister
                                          election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss
                                          DEBY reelected president; percent of
                                          vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%,
                                          Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO
                                          note: government coalition - MPS,
                                          UNDR, and URD
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote to serve five-year
                                          term; if no candidate receives at
                                          least 50% of the total vote, the two
                                          candidates receiving the most votes
                                          must stand for a second round of
                                          voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next
                                          to be held NA 2006); prime minister
                                          appointed by the president
                      Legislative branch: bicameral according to constitution,
                                          consists of a National Assembly (155
                                          seats; members elected by popular
                                          vote to serve four-year terms) and a
                                          Senate (not yet created and size
                                          unspecified, members to serve six-
                                          year terms, one-third of membership
                                          renewable every two years)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - MPS
                                          110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5,
                                          UNDR 3, others 11
                                          elections: National Assembly - last
                                          held 25 April 2002 (next to be held
                                          in NA April 2006)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal;
                                          Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
           Political parties and leaders: Federation Action for the Republic
                                          or FAR [Ngarlejy YORONGAR]; National
                                          Rally for Development and Progress
                                          or RNDP [Mamadou BISSO]; National
                                          Union for Development and Renewal or
                                          UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; National Union
                                          for Renewal and Democracy or UNRD
                                          [leader NA]; Party for Liberty and
                                          Democracy or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat
                                          SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement
                                          or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT,
                                          chairman] (originally in opposition
                                          but now the party in power and the
                                          party of the president); Rally for
                                          Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal
                                          Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Democracy
                                          and the Republic or UDR [Jean
                                          Bawoyeu ALINGUE]; Union for Renewal
                                          and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal
                                          Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]; Viva Rally for
                                          Development and Progress or Viva
                                          RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC,
                           participation: CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD,
                                          ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
                                          IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC,
                                          ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW
                                          (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
                                          WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
                                          Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE
                                          chancery: 2002 R Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20009
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
                                      US: Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT
                                          embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue,
                                          mailing address: B. P. 413,
                                          telephone: [235] (51) 70-09
                                          FAX: [235] (51) 56-54
                        Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue
                                          (hoist side), yellow, and red;
                                          similar to the flag of Romania; also
                                          similar to the flags of Andorra and
                                          Moldova, both of which have a
                                          national coat of arms centered in
                                          the yellow band; design was based on
                                          the flag of France
     Economy Chad
                      Economy - overview: Chad's primarily agricultural
                                          economy will be boosted by major
                                          oilfield and pipeline projects that
                                          began in 2000. Over 80% of Chad's
                                          population relies on subsistence
                                          farming and stock raising for their
                                          livelihood. Cotton, cattle, and gum
                                          arabic provide the bulk of Chad's
                                          export earnings, but Chad will begin
                                          to export oil in 2004. Chad's
                                          economy has long been handicapped by
                                          its land-locked position, high
                                          energy costs, and a history of
                                          instability. Chad relies on foreign
                                          assistance and foreign capital for
                                          most public and private sector
                                          investment projects. A consortium
                                          led by two US companies is investing
                                          $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves
                                          estimated at 1 billion barrels in
                                          southern Chad.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.9
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,030
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 38%
                                          industry: 13%
                                          services: 49% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2000 est.)
                             Labor force: NA
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture more than 80%
                                          (subsistence farming, herding, and
                       Unemployment rate: NA%
                                  Budget: revenues: $198 million
                                          expenditures: $218 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $146 million (1998 est.)
                              Industries: cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer
                                          brewing, natron (sodium carbonate),
                                          soap, cigarettes, construction
       Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995)
                Electricity - production: 92 million kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%
                                          hydro: 0%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 85.56 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts,
                                          rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca);
                                          cattle, sheep, goats, camels
                                 Exports: $172 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: cotton, cattle, gum arabic
                      Exports - partners: Portugal 38%, Germany 12%, Thailand,
                                          Costa Rica, South Africa, France,
                                          Nigeria (2001)
                                 Imports: $223 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation
                                          equipment, industrial goods,
                                          petroleum products, foodstuffs,
                      Imports - partners: France 40%, Cameroon 13%, Nigeria
                                          12%, India 5% (1999)
                         Debt - external: $1.1 billion (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $238.3 million (1995); note - $125
                                          million committed by Taiwan (August
                                          1997); $30 million committed by
                                          African Development Bank
                                Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          franc (XAF); note - responsible
                                          authority is the Bank of the Central
                                          African States
                           Currency code: XAF
                          Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          francs (XAF) per US dollar - 742.79
                                          (January 2002), 733.04 (2001),
                                          711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
                                          (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1
                                          January 1999, the XAF is pegged to
                                          the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF
                                          per euro
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Chad
          Telephones - main lines in use: 10,260 (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 20,000 (2002)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: primitive system
                                          domestic: fair system of
                                          radiotelephone communication
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 5 (1998)
                                  Radios: 1.67 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
                             Televisions: 10,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .td
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
                          Internet users: 1,000 (2000)
     Transportation Chad
                                Railways: 0 km
                                Highways: total: 33,400 km
                                          paved: 450 km
                                          note: probably no more than 8,000 km
                                          of the total receive maintenance,
                                          the remainder being desert tracks
                                          unpaved: 32,950 km
                               Waterways: 2,000 km
                       Ports and harbors: none
                                Airports: 49 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 7
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 42
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 20
                                          under 914 m: 10 (2001)
     Military Chad
                       Military branches: Armed Forces (including National
                                          Army, Air Force, and Gendarmerie),
                                          Rapid Intervention Force, National
                                          and Nomadic Guard (GNNT),
                                          Presidential Security Guard, Police
        Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,881,769 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 985,094 (2002 est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 82,003 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $31 million (FY01)
       Military expenditures - percent of 1.9% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Chad
                Disputes - international: Lake Chad Commission urges
                                          signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger,
                                          and Nigeria to ratify delimitation
                                          treaty over lake region, the site of
                                          continuing armed clashes; Nigeria
                                          requests and Chad rejects
                                          redemarcation of boundary, which
                                          lacks clear demarcation in sections
                                          and has caused several cross-border
                                          incidents; Chadian rebels from Aozou
                                          reside in Libya

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