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2 definitions found
 for Cameroon
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: an inactive volcano in western Cameroon; highest peak on
           the West African coast
      2: a republic on the western coast of central Africa; was under
         French and British control until 1960 [syn: Cameroon,
         Republic of Cameroon, Cameroun]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Cameroon
                              Background: The former French Cameroon and part
                                          of British Cameroon merged in 1961
                                          to form the present country.
                                          Cameroon has generally enjoyed
                                          stability, which has permitted the
                                          development of agriculture, roads,
                                          and railways, as well as a petroleum
                                          industry. Despite movement toward
                                          democratic reform, political power
                                          remains firmly in the hands of an
                                          ethnic oligarchy.
     Geography Cameroon
                                Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight
                                          of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea
                                          and Nigeria
                  Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 475,440 sq km
                                          water: 6,000 sq km
                                          land: 469,440 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly larger than California
                         Land boundaries: total: 4,591 km
                                          border countries: Central African
                                          Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
                                          Republic of the Congo 523 km,
                                          Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298
                                          km, Nigeria 1,690 km
                               Coastline: 402 km
                         Maritime claims: territorial sea: 50 NM
                                 Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical
                                          along coast to semiarid and hot in
                                 Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in
                                          southwest, dissected plateau in
                                          center, mountains in west, plains in
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
                                          highest point: Fako (on Cameroon
                                          Mountain) 4,095 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore,
                                          timber, hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 12.81%
                                          permanent crops: 2.58%
                                          other: 84.62% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 330 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: volcanic activity with periodic
                                          releases of poisonous gases from
                                          Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes
            Environment - current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent;
                                          deforestation; overgrazing;
                                          desertification; poaching;
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
                                          the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
                                          signed, but not ratified: Nuclear
                                          Test Ban
                        Geography - note: sometimes referred to as the hinge
                                          of Africa; throughout the country
                                          there are areas of thermal springs
                                          and indications of current or prior
                                          volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon,
                                          the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan
                                          west Africa, is an active volcano
     People Cameroon
                              Population: 16,184,748
                                          note: estimates for this country
                                          explicitly take into account the
                                          effects of excess mortality due to
                                          AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                          expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                          and death rates, lower population
                                          and growth rates, and changes in the
                                          distribution of population by age
                                          and sex than would otherwise be
                                          expected (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.1% (male 3,443,505;
                                          female 3,367,571)
                                          15-64 years: 54.5% (male 4,431,524;
                                          female 4,392,155)
                                          65 years and over: 3.4% (male
                                          253,242; female 296,751) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.36% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 35.66 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 12.08 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1.01 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 68.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.36 years
                                          female: 55.23 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 53.51 years
                    Total fertility rate: 4.72 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 7.73% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 540,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 52,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Cameroonian(s)
                                          adjective: Cameroonian
                           Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial
                                          Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%,
                                          Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern
                                          Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-
                                          African less than 1%
                               Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian
                                          40%, Muslim 20%
                               Languages: 24 major African language groups,
                                          English (official), French
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 63.4%
                                          male: 75%
                                          female: 52.1% (1995 est.)
     Government Cameroon
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Cameroon
                                          former: French Cameroon
                         Government type: unitary republic; multiparty
                                          presidential regime (opposition
                                          parties legalized in 1990)
                                          note: preponderance of power remains
                                          with the president
                                 Capital: Yaounde
                Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
                                          Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-
                                          Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
                            Independence: 1 January 1960 (from French-
                                          administered UN trusteeship)
                        National holiday: Republic Day (National Day), 20 May
                            Constitution: 20 May 1972 approved by referendum;
                                          2 June 1972 formally adopted;
                                          revised January 1996
                            Legal system: based on French civil law system,
                                          with common law influence; has not
                                          accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
                                Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Paul BIYA
                                          (since 6 November 1982)
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a seven-year term;
                                          election last held 12 October 1997
                                          (next to be held NA October 2004);
                                          prime minister appointed by the
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19
                                          September 1996)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
                                          president from proposals submitted
                                          by the prime minister
                                          election results: President Paul
                                          BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
                                          Paul BIYA 92.6%; note - supporters
                                          of the opposition candidates
                                          boycotted the elections, making a
                                          comparison of vote shares relatively
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Assemblee Nationale (180 seats;
                                          members are elected by direct
                                          popular vote to serve five-year
                                          terms; note - the president can
                                          either lengthen or shorten the term
                                          of the legislature)
                                          elections: last held 17 May 1997
                                          (next to be held NA 2002)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - RDCP
                                          109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-
                                          K 1, MDR 1, MLDC 1; note - results
                                          from seven contested seats were
                                          canceled by the Supreme Court,
                                          further elections on 3 August 1997
                                          gave these seats to the RDCP
                                          note: the constitution calls for an
                                          upper chamber for the legislature,
                                          to be called a Senate, but it has
                                          yet to be established
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed
                                          by the president); High Court of
                                          Justice (consists of nine judges and
                                          6 substitute judges, elected by the
                                          National Assembly)
           Political parties and leaders: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC
                                          [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic
                                          Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP
                                          [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the
                                          Defense of the Republic or MDR
                                          [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the
                                          Liberation and Development of
                                          Cameroon or MLDC [leader Marcel
                                          YONDO]; Movement for the Youth of
                                          Cameroon or MYC [Dieudonne TINA];
                                          National Union for Democracy and
                                          Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO
                                          BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic
                                          Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union
                                          of Cameroonian Populations or UPC
                                          [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]
            Political pressure groups and Southern Cameroon National Council
                                 leaders: [Frederick Ebong ALOBWEDE]; Human
                                          Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG,
               International organization ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C, CCC,
                           participation: CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-
                                          77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO
                                          (correspondent), ITU, MONUC, NAM,
                                          OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security
                                          Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIK, UPU, WCL,
                                          WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome
                                          chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador George
                                      US: McDade STAPLES
                                          embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
                                          mailing address: P. O. Box 817,
                                          Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy,
                                          Department of State, Washington, DC
                                          telephone: [237] 23-40-14, 22-17-94
                                          FAX: [237] 23-07-53
                                          branch office(s): Douala
                        Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green
                                          (hoist side), red, and yellow with a
                                          yellow five-pointed star centered in
                                          the red band; uses the popular pan-
                                          African colors of Ethiopia
     Economy Cameroon
                      Economy - overview: Because of its oil resources and
                                          favorable agricultural conditions,
                                          Cameroon has one of the best-endowed
                                          primary commodity economies in sub-
                                          Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many
                                          of the serious problems facing other
                                          underdeveloped countries, such as a
                                          top-heavy civil service and a
                                          generally unfavorable climate for
                                          business enterprise. Since 1990, the
                                          government has embarked on various
                                          IMF and World Bank programs designed
                                          to spur business investment,
                                          increase efficiency in agriculture,
                                          improve trade, and recapitalize the
                                          nation's banks. In June 2000, the
                                          government completed an IMF-
                                          sponsored, three-year structural
                                          adjustment program; however, the IMF
                                          is pressing for more reforms,
                                          including increased budget
                                          transparency and privatization.
                                          International oil and cocoa prices
                                          have considerable impact on the
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.4
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 44%
                                          industry: 20%
                                          services: 36% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 48% (2000 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2000 est.)
                             Labor force: NA
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry and
                                          commerce 13%, other 17%
                       Unemployment rate: 30% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $2.2 billion
                                          expenditures: $2.1 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (FY00/01 est.)
                              Industries: petroleum production and refining,
                                          food processing, light consumer
                                          goods, textiles, lumber
       Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1999 est.)
                Electricity - production: 3.623 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.57%
                                          hydro: 97.43%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 3.369 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber,
                                          bananas, oilseed, grains, root
                                          starches; livestock; timber
                                 Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products,
                                          lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum,
                                          coffee, cotton
                      Exports - partners: Italy 24%, France 18%, Netherlands
                                          10% (2000 est.)
                                 Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery, electrical equipment,
                                          transport equipment, fuel, food
                      Imports - partners: France 29%, Germany 7%, US 6%, Japan
                                          6% (2000 est.)
                         Debt - external: $10.9 billion (2000 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club
                                          agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt of
                                          $1.3 billion by $900 million; total
                                          debt relief now amounts to $1.26
                                Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          franc (XAF); note - responsible
                                          authority is the Bank of the Central
                                          African States
                           Currency code: XAF
                          Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          francs (XAF) per US dollar - 742.79
                                          (January 2002), 733.04 (2001),
                                          711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
                                          (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1
                                          January 1999, the XAF is pegged to
                                          the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF
                                          per euro
                             Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
     Communications Cameroon
          Telephones - main lines in use: 95,000 (2001)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 300,000 (2002)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: available only
                                          to business and government
                                          domestic: cable, microwave radio
                                          relay, and tropospheric scatter
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)
                                  Radios: 2.27 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 (1998)
                             Televisions: 450,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .cm
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 29 (2002)
                          Internet users: 20,000 (2000)
                                          note: in 2000, Cameroon also had 112
     Transportation Cameroon
                                Railways: total: 1,104 km
                                          narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge
                                          (1995 est.)
                                Highways: total: 34,300 km
                                          paved: 4,288 km
                                          unpaved: 30,012 km (1995)
                               Waterways: 2,090 km (of decreasing importance)
                       Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi,
                                Airports: 49 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 11
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 38
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 21
                                          under 914 m: 10 (2001)
     Military Cameroon
                         Military branches: Army, Navy (includes naval
                                            infantry), Air Force, National
                                            Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard
          Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
          Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 3,872,965 (2002
       Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,959,357 (2002
                                   service: est.)
               Military manpower - reaching males: 174,308 (2002 est.)
                     military age annually:
             Military expenditures - dollar $118.6 million (FY00/01)
         Military expenditures - percent of 1.4% (FY98/99)
     Transnational Issues Cameroon
                Disputes - international: oral arguments on the land and
                                          maritime boundary disputes between
                                          Cameroon and Nigeria were presented
                                          to the ICJ; disputes center around
                                          Bakasi Peninsula, where armed
                                          clashes continue, Bouram Island on
                                          Lake Chad, and the maritime boundary
                                          and economic zone dispute in the
                                          Gulf of Guinea, which also involves
                                          Equatorial Guinea; Lake Chad Basin
                                          Commission urges signatories
                                          Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
                                          to ratify delimitation treaty over
                                          lake region, the site of continuing
                                          armed clashes

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