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2 definitions found
 for Burma
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a mountainous republic in southeastern Asia on the Bay of
           Bengal; "much opium is grown in Myanmar" [syn: Myanmar,
           Union of Burma, Burma]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Burma
                              Background: Despite multiparty elections in 1990
                                          that resulted in the main opposition
                                          party winning a decisive victory,
                                          the ruling military junta refused to
                                          hand over power. Key opposition
                                          leader and Nobel Peace Prize
                                          recipient AUNG SAN SUU KYI, under
                                          house arrest from 1989 to 1995, was
                                          again placed under house detention
                                          in September 2000; her supporters
                                          are routinely harassed or jailed.
     Geography Burma
                                Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the
                                          Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal,
                                          between Bangladesh and Thailand
                  Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E
                          Map references: Southeast Asia
                                    Area: total: 678,500 sq km
                                          land: 657,740 sq km
                                          water: 20,760 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas
                         Land boundaries: total: 5,876 km
                                          border countries: Bangladesh 193 km,
                                          China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos
                                          235 km, Thailand 1,800 km
                               Coastline: 1,930 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                          continental shelf: 200 NM or to the
                                          edge of the continental margin
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                 Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy,
                                          hot, humid summers (southwest
                                          monsoon, June to September); less
                                          cloudy, scant rainfall, mild
                                          temperatures, lower humidity during
                                          winter (northeast monsoon, December
                                          to April)
                                 Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep,
                                          rugged highlands
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony,
                                          zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal,
                                          some marble, limestone, precious
                                          stones, natural gas, hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 14.53%
                                          permanent crops: 0.9%
                                          other: 84.56% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 15,920 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and
                                          cyclones; flooding and landslides
                                          common during rainy season (June to
                                          September); periodic droughts
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution
                                          of air, soil, and water; inadequate
                                          sanitation and water treatment
                                          contribute to disease
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
                                          Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian
                                          Ocean shipping lanes
     People Burma
                              Population: 42,238,224
                                          note: estimates for this country
                                          explicitly take into account the
                                          effects of excess mortality due to
                                          AIDS; this can result in lower life
                                          expectancy, higher infant mortality
                                          and death rates, lower population
                                          and growth rates, and changes in the
                                          distribution of population by age
                                          and sex than would otherwise be
                                          expected (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.6% (male 6,158,039;
                                          female 5,905,314)
                                          15-64 years: 66.6% (male 13,976,047;
                                          female 14,162,467)
                                          65 years and over: 4.8% (male
                                          905,476; female 1,130,881) (2002
                  Population growth rate: 0.56% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 19.65 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 12.25 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -1.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.99 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 72.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.41 years
                                          female: 57.07 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 53.85 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.99% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 530,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 48,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
                                          adjective: Burmese
                           Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%,
                                          Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%,
                                          Mon 2%, other 5%
                               Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist
                                          3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%,
                                          animist 1%, other 2%
                               Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have
                                          their own languages
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 83.1%
                                          male: 88.7%
                                          female: 77.7% (1995 est.)
                                          note: these are official statistics;
                                          estimates of functional literacy are
                                          likely closer to 30% (1999 est.)
     Government Burma
                            Country name: conventional long form: Union of
                                          conventional short form: Burma
                                          local short form: Myanma
                                          local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma
                                          Naingngandaw (translated by the US
                                          Government as Union of Myanma and by
                                          the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
                                          former: Socialist Republic of the
                                          Union of Burma
                                          note: since 1989 the military
                                          authorities in Burma have promoted
                                          the name Myanmar as a conventional
                                          name for their state; this decision
                                          was not approved by any sitting
                                          legislature in Burma, and the US
                                          Government did not adopt the name,
                                          which is a derivative of the Burmese
                                          short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw
                         Government type: military regime
                                 Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the
                                          capital as Yangon)
                Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular -
                                          yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya,
                                          singular - pyine); Chin State,
                                          Ayeyarwady*, Bago*, Kachin State,
                                          Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*,
                                          Mandalay*, Mon State, Rakhine State,
                                          Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*,
                            Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)
                            Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18
                                          September 1988); national convention
                                          started on 9 January 1993 to draft a
                                          new constitution; progress has since
                                          been stalled
                            Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: Prime Minister and
                                          Chairman of the State Peace and
                                          Development Council Sr. Gen. THAN
                                          SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note -
                                          the prime minister is both the chief
                                          of state and head of government
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          and Chairman of the State Peace and
                                          Development Council Sr. Gen. THAN
                                          SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note -
                                          the prime minister is both the chief
                                          of state and head of government
                                          cabinet: State Peace and Development
                                          Council (SPDC); military junta, so
                                          named 15 November 1997, which
                                          initially assumed power 18 September
                                          1988 under the name State Law and
                                          Order Restoration Council; the SPDC
                                          oversees the cabinet
                                          elections: none; the prime minister
                                          assumed power upon resignation of
                                          the former prime minister
                      Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or
                                          Pyithu Hluttaw (485 seats; members
                                          elected by popular vote to serve
                                          four-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 27 May 1990,
                                          but Assembly never convened
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - NLD
                                          392, SNLD 23, NUP 10, other 60
                         Judicial branch: remnants of the British-era legal
                                          system are in place, but there is no
                                          guarantee of a fair public trial;
                                          the judiciary is not independent of
                                          the executive
           Political parties and leaders: National League for Democracy or NLD
                                          [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU
                                          KYI, general secretary]; National
                                          Unity Party or NUP (proregime) [THA
                                          KYAW]; Shan Nationalities League for
                                          Democracy or SNLD [U KHUN TUN OO];
                                          Union Solidarity and Development
                                          Association or USDA (proregime, a
                                          social and political organization)
                                          [THAN AUNG, general secretary]; and
                                          other smaller parties
            Political pressure groups and All Burma Student Democratic Front
                                 leaders: or ABSDF; Kachin Independence Army
                                          or KIA; Karen National Union or KNU;
                                          National Coalition Government of the
                                          Union of Burma or NCGUB [Dr. SEIN
                                          WIN] consists of individuals
                                          legitimately elected to the People's
                                          Assembly but not recognized by the
                                          military regime (the group fled to a
                                          border area and joined with
                                          insurgents in December 1990 to form
                                          a parallel government); several Shan
                                          factions; United Wa State Army or
               International organization ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
                           participation: FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM,
                                          IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
                                          IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW
                                          (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador U LINN
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 332-9046
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044
                                          chancery: 2300 S Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Permanent Charge
                                      US: d'Affaires Priscilla A. CLAPP
                                          embassy: 581 Merchant Street,
                                          Rangoon (GPO 521)
                                          mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
                                          telephone: [95] (1) 282055, 282182
                                          FAX: [95] (1) 280409
                        Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the
                                          upper hoist-side corner bearing, all
                                          in white, 14 five-pointed stars
                                          encircling a cogwheel containing a
                                          stalk of rice; the 14 stars
                                          represent the 14 administrative
     Economy Burma
                      Economy - overview: Burma is a resource-rich country
                                          that suffers from abject rural
                                          poverty. The military regime took
                                          steps in the early 1990s to
                                          liberalize the economy after decades
                                          of failure under the "Burmese Way to
                                          Socialism", but those efforts have
                                          since stalled. Burma has been unable
                                          to achieve monetary or fiscal
                                          stability, resulting in an economy
                                          that suffers from serious
                                          macroeconomic imbalances - including
                                          an official exchange rate that
                                          overvalues the Burmese kyat by more
                                          than 100 times the market rate. In
                                          addition, most overseas development
                                          assistance ceased after the junta
                                          suppressed the democracy movement in
                                          1988 and subsequently ignored the
                                          results of the 1990 election. Burma
                                          is data poor, and official
                                          statistics are often dated and
                                          inaccurate. Published estimates of
                                          Burma's foreign trade are greatly
                                          understated because of the size of
                                          the black market and border trade -
                                          often estimated to be one to two
                                          times the official economy.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $63
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,500
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 42%
                                          industry: 17%
                                          services: 41% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 25% (2000 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.8%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 23.7 million (1999 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 10%,
                                          services 25% (1999 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 5.1% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $7.9 billion
                                          expenditures: $12.2 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $5.7 billion (FY96/97)
                              Industries: agricultural processing; knit and
                                          woven apparel; wood and wood
                                          products; copper, tin, tungsten,
                                          iron; construction materials;
                                          pharmaceuticals; fertilizer
       Industrial production growth rate: NA%
                Electricity - production: 4.766 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 83.3%
                                          hydro: 16.7%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 4.432 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: rice, pulses, beans, sesame,
                                          groundnuts, sugarcane; hardwood;
                                          fish and fish products
                                 Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: apparel 55%, foodstuffs 18%, wood
                                          products 13%, precious stones 2%
                      Exports - partners: US 27%, India 16%, China 7%, Japan
                                          6%, Singapore 6% (2000 est.)
                                          note: official trade statistics do
                                          not include trade in illicit goods -
                                          such as narcotics, teak, and gems -
                                          or the largely unrecorded border
                                          trade with China and Thailand
                                 Imports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment,
                                          construction materials, food
                                          products, textile fabrics, petroleum
                      Imports - partners: China 26%, Singapore 23%, South
                                          Korea 15%, Japan 10%, Taiwan 10%
                                          (2000 est.)
                         Debt - external: $6 billion (FY99/00 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $99 million (FY98/99)
                                Currency: kyat (MMK)
                           Currency code: MMK
                          Exchange rates: kyats per US dollar - official rate
                                          - 6.8581 (January 2002), 6.7489
                                          (2001), 6.5167 (2000), 6.2858
                                          (1999), 6.3432 (1998), 6.2418
                                          (1997); kyats per US dollar - black
                                          market exchange rate - 435 (yearend
                             Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
     Communications Burma
          Telephones - main lines in use: 250,000 (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,492 (1997)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: meets minimum
                                          requirements for local and intercity
                                          service for business and government;
                                          international service is good
                                          domestic: NA
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)
                                  Radios: 4.2 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 2 (1998)
                             Televisions: 320,000 (2000)
                   Internet country code: .mm
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1
                                          note: as of September 2000, Internet
                                          connections were legal only for the
                                          government, tourist offices, and a
                                          few large businesses (2000)
                          Internet users: 500 (2000)
     Transportation Burma
                                Railways: total: 3,991 km
                                          narrow gauge: 3,991 km 1.000-m gauge
                                          (2000 est.)
                                Highways: total: 28,200 km
                                          paved: 3,440 km
                                          unpaved: 24,760 km (1996)
                               Waterways: 12,800 km
                                          note: 3,200 km navigable by large
                                          commercial vessels
                               Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330
                       Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay,
                                          Moulmein, Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab
                                          (Sittwe), Tavoy
                         Merchant marine: total: 35 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 382,386 GRT/582,084 DWT
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Germany 5, Japan 4
                                          (2002 est.)
                                          ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 21,
                                          container 1, passenger/cargo 3,
                                          petroleum tanker 1
                                Airports: 80 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 8
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 72
                                          under 914 m: 33 (2001)
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 21
                               Heliports: 2 (2001)
     Military Burma
                       Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 12,211,144
                                          note: both sexes liable for military
                                          service (2002 est.)
                                          females age 15-49: 12,223,069
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 6,502,013
                                 service: females age 15-49: 6,491,732 (2002
             Military manpower - reaching males: 486,432
                   military age annually: females: 470,667 (2002 est.)
           Military expenditures - dollar $39 million (FY97/98)
       Military expenditures - percent of 2.1% (FY97/98)
     Transnational Issues Burma
                Disputes - international: despite renewed border committee
                                          talks, significant differences
                                          remain with Thailand over boundary
                                          alignment and the handling of ethnic
                                          guerrilla rebels, refugees,
                                          smuggling, and drug trafficking in
                                          cross-border region; Burmese
                                          attempts to construct a dam on
                                          border stream with Bangladesh in
                                          2001 prompted an armed response
                                          halting construction; Burmese Muslim
                                          migration into Bangladesh strains
                                          Bangladesh's meager resources
                           Illicit drugs: world's largest producer of illicit
                                          opium, surpassing Afghanistan
                                          (potential production in 2001 - 865
                                          metric tons, down 21% due to
                                          drought, and to a lesser extent,
                                          eradication; cultivation in 2002 -
                                          105,000 hectares, a 3% decline from
                                          2000); surrender of drug warlord
                                          KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January
                                          1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a
                                          major counternarcotics success, but
                                          lack of government will and ability
                                          to take on major narcotrafficking
                                          groups and lack of serious
                                          commitment against money laundering
                                          continues to hinder the overall
                                          antidrug effort; major source of
                                          methamphetamine and heroin for
                                          regional consumption

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