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 for Bosnia and Herzegovina
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  Bosnia and Herzegovina
      n 1: a mountainous republic of south-central Europe; formerly
           part of the Ottoman Empire and then a part of Yugoslavia;
           voted for independence in 1992 but the mostly Serbian army
           of Yugoslavia refused to accept the vote and began ethnic
           cleansing in order to rid Bosnia of its Croats and Muslims
           [syn: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Bosnia and
           Herzegovina, Bosna i Hercegovina, Bosnia-Herzegovina,

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

  Bosnia and Herzegovina
     Introduction Bosnia and Herzegovina
                              Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration
                                          of sovereignty in October 1991, was
                                          followed by a declaration of
                                          independence from the former
                                          Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a
                                          referendum boycotted by ethnic
                                          Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported
                                          by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro
                                          - responded with armed resistance
                                          aimed at partitioning the republic
                                          along ethnic lines and joining Serb-
                                          held areas to form a "greater
                                          Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and
                                          Croats reduced the number of warring
                                          factions from three to two by
                                          signing an agreement creating a
                                          joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of
                                          Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21
                                          November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the
                                          warring parties signed a peace
                                          agreement that brought to a halt the
                                          three years of interethnic civil
                                          strife (the final agreement was
                                          signed in Paris on 14 December
                                          1995). The Dayton Agreement retained
                                          Bosnia and Herzegovina's
                                          international boundaries and created
                                          a joint multi-ethnic and democratic
                                          government. This national government
                                          was charged with conducting foreign,
                                          economic, and fiscal policy. Also
                                          recognized was a second tier of
                                          government comprised of two entities
                                          roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/
                                          Croat Federation of Bosnia and
                                          Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led
                                          Republika Srpska (RS). The
                                          Federation and RS governments were
                                          charged with overseeing internal
                                          functions. In 1995-96, a NATO-led
                                          international peacekeeping force
                                          (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in
                                          Bosnia to implement and monitor the
                                          military aspects of the agreement.
                                          IFOR was succeeded by a smaller,
                                          NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR)
                                          whose mission is to deter renewed
                                          hostilities. SFOR remains in place
                                          at the January 2002 level of
                                          approximately 18,000 troops, though
                                          further reductions may take place
                                          later in the year.
     Geography Bosnia and Herzegovina
                                Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the
                                          Adriatic Sea and Croatia
                  Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 51,129 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 51,129 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia
                         Land boundaries: total: 1,459 km
                                          border countries: Croatia 932 km,
                                          Yugoslavia 527 km
                               Coastline: 20 km
                         Maritime claims: NA
                                 Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas
                                          of high elevation have short, cool
                                          summers and long, severe winters;
                                          mild, rainy winters along coast
                                 Terrain: mountains and valleys
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
                       Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese,
                                          forests, copper, chromium, lead,
                                          zinc, hydropower
                                Land use: arable land: 9.8%
                                          permanent crops: 2.94%
                                          other: 87.25% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
            Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical
                                          plants; sites for disposing of urban
                                          waste are limited; water shortages
                                          and destruction of infrastructure
                                          because of the 1992-95 civil strife
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
                                          Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
                                          Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's
                                          recognized borders, the country is
                                          divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat
                                          Federation (about 51% of the
                                          territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led
                                          Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of
                                          the territory); the region called
                                          Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia
                                          and the Federal Republic of
                                          Yugoslavia (Montenegro), and
                                          traditionally has been settled by an
                                          ethnic Croat majority in the west
                                          and an ethnic Serb majority in the
     People Bosnia and Herzegovina
                              Population: 3,964,388
                                          note: all data dealing with
                                          population are subject to
                                          considerable error because of the
                                          dislocations caused by military
                                          action and ethnic cleansing (July
                                          2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.8% (male 403,391;
                                          female 382,037)
                                          15-64 years: 70.6% (male 1,432,559;
                                          female 1,366,224)
                                          65 years and over: 9.6% (male
                                          161,659; female 218,518) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 0.76% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 12.76 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 2.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1.02 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 23.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.02 years
                                          female: 74.93 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 69.3 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Bosnian(s)
                                          adjective: Bosnian
                           Ethnic groups: Serb 31%, Bosniak 44%, Croat 17%,
                                          Yugoslav 5.5%, other 2.5% (1991)
                                          note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as
                                          an ethnic term in part to avoid
                                          confusion with the religious term
                                          Muslim - an adherent of Islam
                               Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman
                                          Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other
                               Languages: Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian
                                Literacy: definition: NA
                                          total population: NA%
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
     Government Bosnia and Herzegovina
                            Country name: conventional long form: none
                                          conventional short form: Bosnia and
                                          local long form: none
                                          local short form: Bosna i
                         Government type: emerging federal democratic republic
                                 Capital: Sarajevo
                Administrative divisions: there are two first-order
                                          administrative divisions and one
                                          internationally supervised district*
                                          - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*,
                                          the Bosniak/Croat Federation of
                                          Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija
                                          Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian
                                          Serb-led Republika Srpska; note -
                                          Brcko district is in northeastern
                                          Bosnia and is an administrative unit
                                          under the sovereignty of Bosnia and
                                          Herzegovina; it is not part of
                                          either Republika Srpska or the
                                          Federation of Bosnia and
                                          Herzegovina; the district remains
                                          under international supervision
                            Independence: 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia;
                                          referendum for independence was
                                          completed 1 March 1992; independence
                                          was declared 3 March 1992)
                        National holiday: National Day, 25 November (1943)
                            Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14
                                          December 1995, included a new
                                          constitution now in force; note -
                                          each of the entities also has its
                                          own constitution
                            Legal system: based on civil law system
                                Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18
                                          years of age, universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: Chairman of the
                                          Presidency Beriz BELKIC (chairman
                                          since 14 February 2002, presidency
                                          member since 30 March 2001 -
                                          Bosniak); other members of the
                                          three-member rotating (every eight
                                          months) presidency: Zivko RADISIC
                                          (since 13 October 1998 - Serb) and
                                          Jozo KRIZANOVIC (since 30 March 2001
                                          - Croat)
                                          elections: the three members of the
                                          presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat,
                                          one Serb) are elected by popular
                                          vote for a four-year term; the
                                          member with the most votes becomes
                                          the chairman unless he or she was
                                          the incumbent chairman at the time
                                          of the election, but the
                                          chairmanship rotates every eight
                                          months; election last held 12-13
                                          September 1998 (next to be held NA
                                          October 2002); the chairman of the
                                          Council of Ministers is appointed by
                                          the presidency and confirmed by the
                                          National House of Representatives
                                          head of government: Chairman of the
                                          Council of Ministers Dragan
                                          MIKEREVIC (since 15 March 2002),
                                          position rotates every eight months
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          nominated by the council chairman;
                                          approved by the National House of
                                          election results: percent of vote -
                                          Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb
                                          vote was elected chairman of the
                                          collective presidency for the first
                                          eight months; Ante JELAVIC with 52%
                                          of the Croat vote followed RADISIC
                                          in the rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC
                                          with 87% of the Bosniak vote won the
                                          highest number of votes in the
                                          election but was ineligible to serve
                                          a second term until RADISIC and
                                          JELAVIC had each served a first term
                                          as Chairman of the Presidency;
                                          IZETBEGOVIC retired from the
                                          presidency 14 October 2000 and was
                                          replaced first temporarily by Halid
                                          GENJAC and subsequently by Beriz
                                          BELKIC; Ante JELAVIC was replaced by
                                          Jozo KRIZANOVIC in March 2001 when
                                          the High Representative barred him
                                          from public office
                                          note: President of the Federation of
                                          Bosnia and Herzegovina: Safet
                                          HALILOVIC (since 1 January 2002);
                                          Vice President Karlo FILIPOVIC
                                          (since 1 January 2002); note -
                                          president and vice president rotate
                                          every year; President of the
                                          Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC
                                          (since 11 November 2000); Vice
                                          President of the Republika Srpska:
                                          Dragan CAVIZ (since NA)
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or
                                          Skupstina consists of the National
                                          House of Representatives or
                                          Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats - 14
                                          Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Bosniak;
                                          members elected by popular vote to
                                          serve four-year terms) and the House
                                          of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats -
                                          5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members
                                          elected by the Bosniak/Croat
                                          Federation's House of
                                          Representatives and the Republika
                                          Srpska's National Assembly to serve
                                          four-year terms); note - Bosnia's
                                          election law specifies four-year
                                          terms for the state and first-order
                                          administrative division entity
                                          legislatures; officials elected in
                                          2000 and previously were elected to
                                          two-year terms on the presumption
                                          that a permanent law would be in
                                          place before 2002
                                          election results: National House of
                                          Representatives - percent of vote by
                                          party/coalition - SDP 22%, SDA 20%,
                                          SDS 15%, HDZ-BiH 12%, SBH 12%, PDP
                                          5%, NHI 2%, BPS 2%, DPS 2%, SNS 2%
                                          SNSD-DSP 2%, DNZ 2%, SPRS 2%; seats
                                          by party/coalition - SDP 9, SDA 8,
                                          SDS 6, HDZ-BiH 5, SBH 5, PDP 2, NHI
                                          1, BPS 1, DPS 1, SNS 1, SNSD-DSP 1,
                                          DNZ 1, SPRS 1; House of Peoples -
                                          percent of vote by party/coalition -
                                          NA%; seats by party/coalition - NA
                                          elections: National House of
                                          Representatives - elections last
                                          held 11 November 2000 (next to be
                                          held in NA October 2002); House of
                                          Peoples - last constituted after the
                                          11 November 2000 elections (next to
                                          be constituted in the fall of 2002)
                                          note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation
                                          has a bicameral legislature that
                                          consists of a House of
                                          Representatives (140 seats; members
                                          elected by popular vote to serve
                                          four-year terms); elections last
                                          held 11 November 2000 (next to be
                                          held NA October 2002); percent of
                                          vote by party - NA%; seats by party/
                                          coalition - SDA 38, SDP 37, HDZ-BiH
                                          25, SBH 21, DNZ 3, NHI 2, BPS 2, DPS
                                          2, BOSS 2, GDS 1, RP 1, HSS 1, LDS
                                          1, Pensioners' Party of FBiH 1,
                                          SNSD-DSP 1, HKDU 1, HSP 1; and a
                                          House of Peoples (74 seats - 30
                                          Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 14 others);
                                          last constituted November 2000; the
                                          Republika Srpska has a National
                                          Assembly (83 seats; members elected
                                          by popular vote to serve four-year
                                          terms); elections last held 11
                                          November 2000 (next to be held in
                                          the fall of 2002); percent of vote
                                          by party - NA%; seats by party/
                                          coalition - SDS 31, PDP 11, SNSD 11,
                                          SDA 6, DSP 4, SDP 4, SPRS 4, SBH 4,
                                          DNS 3, SNS 2, NHI 1, DSRS 1,
                                          Pensioners' Party 1; Bosnia's
                                          election law specifies four-year
                                          terms for the state and first-order
                                          administrative division entity
                                          legislatures; officials elected in
                                          2000 and prior were elected to two-
                                          year terms on the presumption that a
                                          permanent law would be in place
                                          before 2002
                         Judicial branch: BiH Constitutional Court (consists
                                          of nine members: four members are
                                          selected by the Bosniak/Croat
                                          Federation's House of
                                          Representatives, two members by the
                                          Republika Srpska's National
                                          Assembly, and three non-Bosnian
                                          members by the president of the
                                          European Court of Human Rights)
                                          note: a new state court, mandated in
                                          November 2000, has jurisdiction over
                                          cases related to state-level law and
                                          appellate jurisdiction over cases
                                          initiated in the entities; the
                                          entities each have a Supreme Court;
                                          each entity also has a number of
                                          lower courts; there are 10 cantonal
                                          courts in the Federation, plus a
                                          number of municipal courts; the
                                          Republika Srpska has five municipal
           Political parties and leaders: Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes
                                          AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party
                                          or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic
                                          Democratic Party of BiH or GDS
                                          [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian
                                          Democratic Union or HKDU BiH [Ante
                                          PASALIC]; Croatian Democratic Union
                                          of BiH or HDZ-BiH [Ante JELAVIC;
                                          note - not recognized by the
                                          international community]; Croatian
                                          Party of Rights of BiH or HSP-BiH
                                          [Zdravko HRSTIC]; Croatian Peasants
                                          Party of BiH or HSS-BiH [Ilija
                                          SIMIC]; Democratic National Alliance
                                          or DNS [Dragan KOSTIC]; Democratic
                                          Party of Pensioners or DPS [Alojz
                                          KNEZOVIC]; Democratic Party of RS or
                                          DSRS [Dragomir DUMIC]; Democratic
                                          Peoples Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC];
                                          Democratic Socialist Party or DSP
                                          [Nebojsa RADMANOVIC]; Liberal
                                          Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim
                                          KADIC]; New Croatian Initiative or
                                          NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for
                                          Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH [Safet
                                          HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic
                                          Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC];
                                          Party of Democratic Progress or PDP
                                          [Mladen IVANIC]; Party of
                                          Independent Social Democrats or SNSD
                                          [Milorad DODIK]; Pensioners' Party
                                          of FBiH [Husein VOJNIKOVIC];
                                          Pensioners' Party of SR [Stojan
                                          BOGOSAVAC]; People's Party-Working
                                          for Progress or NS-RZB [Mladen
                                          IVANKOVIC]; Republican Party of BiH
                                          or RP [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb
                                          Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan
                                          KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance
                                          (Serb People's Alliance) or SNS
                                          [Branislav LULIC]; Social Democratic
                                          Party of BIH or SDP-BiH [Zlatko
                                          LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of
                                          Republika Srpska or SPRS [Zivko
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization BIS, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
                                          IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
                                          ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer),
                                          OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU,
                                          WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Igor
                                          chancery: 2109 E Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20037
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
                                      US: Clifford J. BOND
                                          embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000
                                          mailing address: use street address
                                          telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
                                          FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
                                          branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
                        Flag description: a wide medium blue vertical band on
                                          the fly side with a yellow isosceles
                                          triangle abutting the band and the
                                          top of the flag; the remainder of
                                          the flag is medium blue with seven
                                          full five-pointed white stars and
                                          two half stars top and bottom along
                                          the hypotenuse of the triangle
                       Government - note: The Dayton Agreement, signed in
                                          Paris on 14 December 1995, retained
                                          Bosnia and Herzegovina's exterior
                                          border and created a joint multi-
                                          ethnic and democratic government.
                                          This national government - based on
                                          proportional representation similar
                                          to that which existed in the former
                                          socialist regime - is charged with
                                          conducting foreign, economic, and
                                          fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement
                                          also recognized a second tier of
                                          government, comprised of two
                                          entities - a joint Bosniak/Croat
                                          Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
                                          and the Bosnian Serb Republika
                                          Srpska (RS) - each presiding over
                                          roughly one-half the territory. The
                                          Federation and RS governments are
                                          charged with overseeing internal
                                          functions. The Bosniak/Croat
                                          Federation is further divided into
                                          10 cantons. The Dayton Agreement
                                          established the Office of the High
                                          Representative (OHR) to oversee the
                                          implementation of the civilian
                                          aspects of the agreement. About 250
                                          international and 450 local staff
                                          members are employed by the OHR.
     Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina
                      Economy - overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next
                                          to The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                                          Macedonia as the poorest republic in
                                          the old Yugoslav federation.
                                          Although agriculture is almost all
                                          in private hands, farms are small
                                          and inefficient, and the republic
                                          traditionally is a net importer of
                                          food. Industry has been greatly
                                          overstaffed, one reflection of the
                                          socialist economic structure of
                                          Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the
                                          development of military industries
                                          in the republic with the result that
                                          Bosnia hosted a large share of
                                          Yugoslavia's defense plants. The
                                          bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia
                                          caused production to plummet by 80%
                                          from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to
                                          soar, and human misery to multiply.
                                          With an uneasy peace in place,
                                          output recovered in 1996-99 at high
                                          percentage rates from a low base;
                                          but output growth slowed in 2000 and
                                          2001. GDP remains far below the 1990
                                          level. Economic data are of limited
                                          use because, although both entities
                                          issue figures, national-level
                                          statistics are limited. Moreover,
                                          official data do not capture the
                                          large share of activity that occurs
                                          on the black market. The marka - the
                                          national currency introduced in 1998
                                          - is now pegged to the euro, and the
                                          Central Bank of Bosnia and
                                          Herzegovina has dramatically
                                          increased its reserve holdings.
                                          Implementation of privatization,
                                          however, has been slow, and local
                                          entities only reluctantly support
                                          national-level institutions. Banking
                                          reform accelerated in 2001 as all
                                          the communist-era payments bureaus
                                          were shut down. The country receives
                                          substantial amounts of
                                          reconstruction assistance and
                                          humanitarian aid from the
                                          international community but will
                                          have to prepare for an era of
                                          declining assistance.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $7 billion
                                          (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,800
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 16%
                                          industry: 28%
                                          services: 56% (1998 est.)
           Population below poverty line: NA%
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 1.026 million
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%,
                                          services NA%
                       Unemployment rate: 40% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $1.9 billion
                                          expenditures: $2.2 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (1999 est.)
                              Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc,
                                          manganese, bauxite, vehicle
                                          assembly, textiles, tobacco
                                          products, wooden furniture, tank and
                                          aircraft assembly, domestic
                                          appliances, oil refining
       Industrial production growth rate: 9% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 2.615 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 37.67%
                                          hydro: 62.33%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 2.577 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 205 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 350 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables;
                                 Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: miscellaneous manufactures, crude
                      Exports - partners: Croatia, Switzerland, Italy, Germany
                                 Imports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment,
                                          industrial products, foodstuffs
                      Imports - partners: Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Italy
                         Debt - external: $2.8 billion (2001)
                Economic aid - recipient: $650 million (2001 est.)
                                Currency: marka (BAM)
                           Currency code: BAM
                          Exchange rates: marka per US dollar - 2.161 (October
                                          2001), 2.124 (2000), 1.837 (1999),
                                          1.760 (1998), 1.734 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina
           Telephones - main lines in use: 303,000 (1997)
             Telephones - mobile cellular: 9,000 (1997)
                         Telephone system: general assessment: telephone and
                                           telegraph network needs
                                           modernization and expansion; many
                                           urban areas are below average as
                                           contrasted with services in other
                                           former Yugoslav republics
                                           domestic: NA
                                           international: no satellite earth
                 Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)
                                   Radios: 940,000 (1997)
            Television broadcast stations: 33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September
                              Televisions: NA
                    Internet country code: .ba
        Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)
                           Internet users: 3,500 (2000)
     Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina
                                Railways: total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified;
                                          operating as diesel or steam until
                                          grids are repaired)
                                          standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge; note - many segments still
                                          need repair and/or reconstruction
                                          because of war damage (2000 est.)
                                Highways: total: 21,846 km
                                          paved: 14,020 km
                                          note: road system is in need of
                                          maintenance and repair (2001)
                                          unpaved: 7,826 km
                               Waterways: NA km; large sections of the Sava
                                          blocked by downed bridges, silt, and
                               Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km
                       Ports and harbors: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod,
                                          Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all
                                          inland waterway ports on the Sava),
                         Merchant marine: none (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 27 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 8
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 3 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 19
                                          under 914 m: 11 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 7
                               Heliports: 5 (2001)
     Military Bosnia and Herzegovina
                       Military branches: VF Army (the air and air defense
                                          forces are subordinate commands
                                          within the Army), VRS Army (the air
                                          and air defense forces are
                                          subordinate commands within the
        Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,131,537 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 898,117 (2002 est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 29,757 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $NA
       Military expenditures - percent of NA%
     Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina
                Disputes - international: Bosnia and Herzegovina and
                                          Yugoslavia have delimited about half
                                          of their boundary, but several
                                          segments, particularly along the
                                          meandering Drina River, remain in
                                          dispute; discussions continue with
                                          Croatia on the disputed boundary in
                                          the Una River near Kostajnica,
                                          Hrvatska Dubica, and Zeljava;
                                          protests Croatian claim to the tip
                                          of the Klek Peninsula and several
                                          islands near Neum
                           Illicit drugs: minor transit point for marijuana
                                          and opiate trafficking routes to
                                          Western Europe

Contact=webmaster@dict.org Specification=RFC 2229