The DICT Development Group

Search for:
Search type:

Database copyright information
Server information

3 definitions found
 for Belarus
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Byelorussia \Byelorussia\ n.
     a European country east of Poland, formerly a part of the
     Soviet Union. After the breakup of the Soviet Union the name
     was changed to Belarus.
     Syn: Belarus, Belorussia, White Russia.
          [WordNet 1.5]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a landlocked republic in eastern Europe; formerly a
           European soviet [syn: Belarus, Republic of Belarus,
           Byelarus, Byelorussia, Belorussia, White Russia]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Belarus
                              Background: After seven decades as a constituent
                                          republic of the USSR, Belarus
                                          attained its independence in 1991.
                                          It has retained closer political and
                                          economic ties to Russia than any of
                                          the other former Soviet republics.
                                          Belarus and Russia signed a treaty
                                          on a two-state union on 8 December
                                          1999 envisioning greater political
                                          and economic integration; Belarus
                                          has agreed on the framework for
                                          implementation of the accord.
     Geography Belarus
                                Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland
                  Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 207,600 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 207,600 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas
                         Land boundaries: total: 2,900 km
                                          border countries: Latvia 141 km,
                                          Lithuania 502 km, Poland 407 km,
                                          Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: cold winters, cool and moist
                                          summers; transitional between
                                          continental and maritime
                                 Terrain: generally flat and contains much
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
                                          highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara
                                          346 m
                       Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small
                                          quantities of oil and natural gas,
                                          granite, dolomitic limestone, marl,
                                          chalk, sand, gravel, clay
                                Land use: arable land: 29.76%
                                          permanent crops: 0.69%
                                          other: 69.54% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: NA
            Environment - current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use;
                                          southern part of the country
                                          contaminated with fallout from 1986
                                          nuclear reactor accident at
                                          Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine
              Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
                              agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
                                          Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity,
                                          Climate Change, Desertification,
                                          Endangered Species, Environmental
                                          Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
                                          Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
                                          Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Law of the
                        Geography - note: landlocked; glacial scouring
                                          accounts for the flatness of
                                          Belarusian terrain and for its
                                          11,000 lakes; the country is
                                          geologically well endowed with
                                          extensive deposits of granite,
                                          dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk,
                                          sand, gravel, and clay
     People Belarus
                              Population: 10,335,382 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.3% (male 914,579;
                                          female 876,346)
                                          15-64 years: 68.6% (male 3,443,859;
                                          female 3,643,628)
                                          65 years and over: 14.1% (male
                                          482,624; female 974,346) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: -0.14% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 9.86 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 13.99 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: 2.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.88 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 14.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.28 years
                                          female: 74.56 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 62.3 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.31 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.28% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 14,000 (1999 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 400 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Belarusian(s)
                                          adjective: Belarusian
                           Ethnic groups: Belarusian 81.2%, Russian 11.4%,
                                          Polish, Ukrainian, and other 7.4%
                               Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, other
                                          (including Roman Catholic,
                                          Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20%
                                          (1997 est.)
                               Languages: Belarusian, Russian, other
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 98%
                                          male: 99%
                                          female: 97% (1989 est.)
     Government Belarus
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Belarus
                                          local short form: none
                                          former: Belorussian (Byelorussian)
                                          Soviet Socialist Republic
                                          local long form: Respublika
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Minsk
                Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts')
                                          and one municipality* (harady,
                                          singular - horad); Brestskaya
                                          (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'),
                                          Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya
                                          (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow),
                                          Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk);
                                          note - when using a place name with
                                          the adjectival ending 'skaya' the
                                          word voblasts' should be added to
                                          the place name
                                          note: voblasti have the
                                          administrative center name following
                                          in parentheses
                            Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 3 July (1944);
                                          note - 3 July 1944 was the date
                                          Minsk was liberated from German
                                          troops, 25 August 1991 was the date
                                          of independence from the Soviet
                            Constitution: 30 March 1994; revised by national
                                          referendum of 24 November 1996
                                          giving the presidency greatly
                                          expanded powers and became effective
                                          27 November 1996
                            Legal system: based on civil law system
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Aleksandr
                                          LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Gennadiy NOVITSKIY (since 1 October
                                          2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei
                                          KOBYAKOV (since 13 March 2000),
                                          Aleksandr POPKOV (since 10 November
                                          1998), Sergei SIDORSKY (since NA
                                          September 2001), Vladimir DRAZHIN
                                          (since NA September 2001)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          election results: Aleksandr
                                          LUKASHENKO reelected president;
                                          percent of vote - Aleksandr
                                          LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          first election took place 23 June
                                          and 10 July 1994; according to the
                                          1994 constitution, the next election
                                          should have been held in 1999,
                                          however LUKASHENKO extended his term
                                          to 2001 via a November 1996
                                          referendum; new election held 9
                                          September 2001 (next election to be
                                          held by September 2006); prime
                                          minister and deputy prime ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or
                                          Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of
                                          the Council of the Republic or
                                          Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56
                                          members elected by regional councils
                                          and 8 members appointed by the
                                          president, all for 4-year terms) and
                                          the Chamber of Representatives or
                                          Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats;
                                          members elected by universal adult
                                          suffrage to serve 4-year terms)
                                          election results: party affiliation
                                          data unavailable; under present
                                          political conditions party
                                          designations are meaningless
                                          elections: last held October 2000
                                          (next to be held NA 2004)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed
                                          by the president); Constitutional
                                          Court (half of the judges appointed
                                          by the president and half appointed
                                          by the Chamber of Representatives)
           Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party or AP [Semyon
                                          SHARETSKY, chairman]; Belarusian
                                          Communist Party or KPB [Viktor
                                          CHIKIN, chairman]; Belarusian
                                          Ecological Green Party (merger of
                                          Belarusian Ecological Party and
                                          Green Party of Belarus) [leader NA];
                                          Belarusian Patriotic Movement
                                          (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR
                                          [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman];
                                          Belarusian Popular Front or BNF
                                          [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Belarusian
                                          Social-Democrat Party or SDBP
                                          [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman];
                                          Belarusian Social-Democratic Party
                                          or Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH,
                                          chairman]; Belarusian Socialist
                                          Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic
                                          Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or
                                          CAB [Stanislav BOGDANKEVICH,
                                          chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party
                                          or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH,
                                          chairman]; Party of Communists
                                          Belarusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN,
                                          chairman]; Republican Party of Labor
                                          and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy
                                          NETYLKIN, chairman]; Social-Democrat
                                          Party of Popular Accord or PPA
                                          [Leanid SECHKA]; Women's Party or
                                          "Nadezhda" [Valentina POLEVIKOVA,
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization CCC, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
                           participation: IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM
                                          (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG,
                                          OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WTrO (observer)
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy
                                          V. TSEPAKLO
                                          chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20009
                                          consulate(s) general: New York
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Michael
                                      US: KOZAK
                                          embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St.,
                                          Minsk 220002
                                          mailing address: use embassy street
                                          telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83
                                          FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853
                        Flag description: red horizontal band (top) and green
                                          horizontal band one-half the width
                                          of the red band; a white vertical
                                          stripe on the hoist side bears the
                                          Belarusian national ornament in red
     Economy Belarus
                      Economy - overview: Belarus has seen little structural
                                          reform since 1995, when President
                                          LUKASHENKO launched the country on
                                          the path of "market socialism." In
                                          keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO
                                          reimposed administrative controls
                                          over prices and currency exchange
                                          rates and expanded the state's right
                                          to intervene in the management of
                                          private enterprise. In addition to
                                          the burdens imposed by high
                                          inflation and persistent trade
                                          deficits, businesses have been
                                          subject to pressure on the part of
                                          central and local governments, e.g.,
                                          arbitrary changes in regulations,
                                          numerous rigorous inspections,
                                          retroactive application of new
                                          business regulations, and arrests of
                                          "disruptive" businessmen and factory
                                          owners. Close relations with Russia,
                                          possibly leading to reunion, color
                                          the pattern of economic
                                          developments. For the time being,
                                          Belarus remains self-isolated from
                                          the West and its open-market
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $84.8
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 4.1% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,200
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13%
                                          industry: 42%
                                          services: 45% (2000)
           Population below poverty line: 22% (1995 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 5.1%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 20% (1998)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 21.7 (1998)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 46.1% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 4.8 million (2000)
             Labor force - by occupation: industry and construction NA%,
                                          agriculture and forestry NA%,
                                          services NA%
                       Unemployment rate: 2.1% officially registered
                                          unemployed (December 2000); large
                                          number of underemployed workers
                                  Budget: revenues: $4 billion
                                          expenditures: $4.1 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $180 million (1997 est.)
                              Industries: metal-cutting machine tools,
                                          tractors, trucks, earthmovers,
                                          motorcycles, television sets,
                                          chemical fibers, fertilizer,
                                          textiles, radios, refrigerators
       Industrial production growth rate: 5.4% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 24.66 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.51%
                                          hydro: 0.08%
                                          other: 0.41% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 26.78 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 300 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 4.15 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar
                                          beets, flax; beef, milk
                                 Exports: $7.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral
                                          products, chemicals, textiles,
                                          foodstuffs, metals
                      Exports - partners: Russia 51%, Ukraine 8%, Poland 4%,
                                          Germany 3% (2000)
                                 Imports: $8.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
                   Imports - commodities: mineral products, machinery and
                                          equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs,
                      Imports - partners: Russia 65%, Germany 7%, Poland 3%
                         Debt - external: $770 million (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $194.3 million (1995)
                                Currency: Belarusian ruble (BYB/BYR)
                           Currency code: BYB/BYR
                          Exchange rates: Belarusian rubles per US dollar -
                                          1,590 (yearend 2001), 1,531.000
                                          (November 2001), 876.750 (2000),
                                          248.795 (1999), 46.127 (1998),
                                          26.020 (1997); note - on 1 January
                                          2000, the national currency was
                                          redenominated at one new ruble to
                                          2,000 old rubles
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Belarus
          Telephones - main lines in use: 2.313 million (1997)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,167 (1997)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: the Ministry of
                                          Telecommunications controls all
                                          telecommunications through its
                                          carrier (a joint stock company)
                                          Beltelcom which is a monopoly
                                          domestic: local - Minsk has a
                                          digital metropolitan network and a
                                          cellular NMT-450 network; waiting
                                          lists for telephones are long; local
                                          service outside Minsk is neglected
                                          and poor; intercity - Belarus has a
                                          partly developed fiber-optic
                                          backbone system presently serving at
                                          least 13 major cities (1998);
                                          Belarus's fiber optics form
                                          synchronous digital hierarchy rings
                                          through other countries' systems; an
                                          inadequate analog system remains
                                          international: Belarus is a member
                                          of the Trans-European Line (TEL),
                                          Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic
                                          line, and has access to the Trans-
                                          Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-
                                          optic segments provide connectivity
                                          to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and
                                          Ukraine; worldwide service is
                                          available to Belarus through this
                                          infrastructure; additional analog
                                          lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat,
                                          and Intersputnik earth stations
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)
                                  Radios: 3.02 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)
                             Televisions: 2.52 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .by
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 23 (2002)
                          Internet users: 180,000 (2001)
     Transportation Belarus
                                Railways: total: 5,523 km
                                          broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge
                                          (875 km electrified) (2000 est.)
                                Highways: total: 98,200 km
                                          paved: 66,100 km (includes some all-
                                          weather gravel-surfaced roads)
                                          unpaved: 32,100 km (these roads are
                                          made of unstabilized earth and are
                                          difficult to negotiate in wet
                                          weather) (1990)
                               Waterways: NA km; note - Belarus has extensive
                                          and widely used canal and river
                               Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products
                                          1,100 km; natural gas 1,980 km
                       Ports and harbors: Mazyr
                                Airports: 136 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 33
                                          over 3,047 m: 2
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 11 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 103
                                          over 3,047 m: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 14
                                          under 914 m: 65 (2001)
     Military Belarus
                        Military branches: Army, Air Force (including air
                                           defense), Interior Ministry Troops,
                                           Border Guards
         Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,744,267 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 2,149,873 (2002
                                  service: est.)
     Military manpower - reaching military males: 86,396 (2002 est.)
                             age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $156 million (FY98)
        Military expenditures - percent of 1% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Belarus
                Disputes - international: boundary demarcation with Latvia and
                                          Lithuania is pending European Union
                           Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy
                                          and cannabis, mostly for the
                                          domestic market; transshipment point
                                          for illicit drugs to and via Russia,
                                          and to the Baltics and Western

Contact=webmaster@dict.org Specification=RFC 2229