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2 definitions found
 for Algeria
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in northwestern Africa on the Mediterranean Sea
           with a population that is predominantly Sunni Muslim;
           colonized by France in the 19th century but gained autonomy
           in the early 1960s [syn: Algeria, Algerie, Democratic
           and Popular Republic of Algeria]

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Algeria
                              Background: After a century of rule by France,
                                          Algeria became independent in 1962.
                                          The surprising first round success
                                          of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic
                                          Salvation Front) party in the
                                          December 1991 balloting caused the
                                          army to intervene, crack down on the
                                          FIS, and postpone the subsequent
                                          elections. The FIS response has
                                          resulted in a continuous low-grade
                                          civil conflict with the secular
                                          state apparatus, which nonetheless
                                          has allowed elections featuring pro-
                                          government and moderate religious-
                                          based parties. FIS's armed wing, the
                                          Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded
                                          itself in January 2000 and many
                                          armed militants surrendered under an
                                          amnesty program designed to promote
                                          national reconciliation.
                                          Nevertheless, residual fighting
                                          continues. Other concerns include
                                          Berber unrest, large-scale
                                          unemployment, a shortage of housing,
                                          and the need to diversify the
                                          petroleum-based economy.
     Geography Algeria
                                Location: Northern Africa, bordering the
                                          Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco
                                          and Tunisia
                  Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 2,381,740 sq km
                                          water: 0 sq km
                                          land: 2,381,740 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the
                                          size of Texas
                         Land boundaries: total: 6,343 km
                                          border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali
                                          1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco
                                          1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965
                                          km, Western Sahara 42 km
                               Coastline: 998 km
                         Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters
                                          with hot, dry summers along coast;
                                          drier with cold winters and hot
                                          summers on high plateau; sirocco is
                                          a hot, dust/sand-laden wind
                                          especially common in summer
                                 Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some
                                          mountains; narrow, discontinuous
                                          coastal plain
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
                                          highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore,
                                          phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
                                Land use: arable land: 3.21%
                                          permanent crops: 0.21%
                                          other: 96.57% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 5,600 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe
                                          earthquakes; mudslides and floods in
                                          rainy season
            Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and
                                          other poor farming practices;
                                          desertification; dumping of raw
                                          sewage, petroleum refining wastes,
                                          and other industrial effluents is
                                          leading to the pollution of rivers
                                          and coastal waters; Mediterranean
                                          Sea, in particular, becoming
                                          polluted from oil wastes, soil
                                          erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
                                          inadequate supplies of potable water
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Environmental Modification,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Wetlands
                                          signed, but not ratified: Nuclear
                                          Test Ban
                        Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa
                                          (after Sudan)
     People Algeria
                              Population: 32,277,942 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.5% (male 5,512,369;
                                          female 5,311,914)
                                          15-64 years: 62.4% (male 10,175,135;
                                          female 9,950,315)
                                          65 years and over: 4.1% (male
                                          610,643; female 717,566) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.68% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 22.34 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 5.15 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1.02 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 39.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.24 years
                                          female: 71.67 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 68.87 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.63 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
                             Nationality: noun: Algerian(s)
                                          adjective: Algerian
                           Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than
                               Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%,
                                          Christian and Jewish 1%
                               Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 61.6%
                                          male: 73.9%
                                          female: 49% (1995 est.)
     Government Algeria
                            Country name: conventional long form: People's
                                          Democratic Republic of Algeria
                                          conventional short form: Algeria
                                          local short form: Al Jaza'ir
                                          local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al
                                          Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Algiers
                Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular -
                                          wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
                                          Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna,
                                          Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj
                                          Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes,
                                          Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El
                                          Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia,
                                          Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela,
                                          Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila,
                                          Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran,
                                          Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane,
                                          Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes,
                                          Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset,
                                          Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza,
                                          Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
                            Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)
                        National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
                            Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22
                                          November 1976; revised 3 November
                                          1988, 23 February 1989, and 28
                                          November 1996
                            Legal system: socialist, based on French and
                                          Islamic law; judicial review of
                                          legislative acts in ad hoc
                                          Constitutional Council composed of
                                          various public officials, including
                                          several Supreme Court justices; has
                                          not accepted compulsory ICJ
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdelaziz
                                          BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Ali BENFLIS (since 26 August 2000)
                                          cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
                                          appointed by the president
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term;
                                          election last held 15 April 1999
                                          (next to be held NA April 2004);
                                          prime minister appointed by the
                                          election results: Abdelaziz
                                          BOUTEFLIKA elected president;
                                          percent of vote - Abdelaziz
                                          BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six
                                          opposing candidates withdrew on the
                                          eve of the election citing electoral
                      Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the
                                          National People's Assembly or Al-
                                          Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389
                                          seats - changed from 380 seats in
                                          the 2002 elections; members elected
                                          by popular vote to serve five-year
                                          terms) and the Council of Nations
                                          (144 seats; one-third of the members
                                          appointed by the president, two-
                                          thirds elected by indirect vote;
                                          members serve six-year terms; the
                                          constitution requires half the
                                          council to be renewed every three
                                          elections: National People's
                                          Assembly - last held 30 May 2002
                                          (next to be held NA 2007); Council
                                          of Nations - last held 30 December
                                          2000 (next to be held NA 2003)
                                          election results: National People's
                                          Assembly - percent of vote by party
                                          - NA%; seats by party - FLN 199, RND
                                          48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8,
                                          Nahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents
                                          29; Council of Nations - percent of
                                          vote by party - NA%; seats by party
                                          - RND 79, FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1
                                          (remaining 48 seats appointed by the
                                          president, party breakdown NA)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
           Political parties and leaders: Algerian National Front or FNA
                                          [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National
                                          Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA,
                                          chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front
                                          or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali
                                          BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI
                                          (imprisoned), Rabeh KEBIR (self-
                                          exile in Germany)]; Movement of a
                                          Peaceful Society or MSP [Mahfoud
                                          NAHNAH, chairman]; National Entente
                                          Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA];
                                          National Liberation Front or FLN
                                          [Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary
                                          general]; National Reform Movement
                                          or MRN [Abdellah DJABALLAH];
                                          National Renewal Party or PRA
                                          [leader NA]; Progressive Republican
                                          Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for
                                          Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said
                                          SAADI, secretary general];
                                          Renaissance Movement or EnNahda
                                          Movement [Lahbib ADAMI]; Social
                                          Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL];
                                          Socialist Forces Front or FFS
                                          [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general
                                          (self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union
                                          for Democracy and Liberty [Mouley
                                          BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT
                                          [Louisa HANOUN]
                                          note: a law banning political
                                          parties based on religion was
                                          enacted in March 1997
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU,
                           participation: CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-
                                          77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
                                          IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC,
                                          OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW,
                                          OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU,
                                          WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss
                                          chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Janet
                                      US: A. SANDERSON
                                          embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-
                                          Ibrahimi, Algiers
                                          mailing address: B. P. Box 549,
                                          Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
                                          telephone: [213] (21) 69-11-86, 69-
                                          12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75
                                          FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79
                        Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green
                                          (hoist side) and white; a red, five-
                                          pointed star within a red crescent
                                          centered over the two-color
                                          boundary; the crescent, star, and
                                          color green are traditional symbols
                                          of Islam (the state religion)
     Economy Algeria
                      Economy - overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the
                                          backbone of the economy, accounting
                                          for roughly 60% of budget revenues,
                                          30% of GDP, and over 95% of export
                                          earnings. Algeria has the fifth-
                                          largest reserves of natural gas in
                                          the world and is the second largest
                                          gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil
                                          reserves. Algeria's financial and
                                          economic indicators improved during
                                          the mid-1990s, in part because of
                                          policy reforms supported by the IMF
                                          and debt rescheduling from the Paris
                                          Club. Algeria's finances in 2000 and
                                          2001 benefited from the temporary
                                          spike in oil prices and the
                                          government's tight fiscal policy,
                                          leading to a large increase in the
                                          trade surplus, record highs in
                                          foreign exchange reserves, and
                                          reduction in foreign debt. The
                                          government's continued efforts to
                                          diversify the economy by attracting
                                          foreign and domestic investment
                                          outside the energy sector has had
                                          little success in reducing high
                                          unemployment and improving living
                                          standards. In 2001, the government
                                          signed an Association Treaty with
                                          the European Union that will
                                          eventually lower tariffs and
                                          increase trade.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $177
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,600
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 17%
                                          industry: 33%
                                          services: 50% (2000 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.4%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 25% (1995)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 35.3 (1995)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 9.4 million (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: government 29%, agriculture 25%,
                                          construction and public works 15%,
                                          industry 11%, other 20% (1996 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: 34% (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $20.3 billion
                                          expenditures: $18.8 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $5.8 billion (2001 est.)
                              Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light
                                          industries, mining, electrical,
                                          petrochemical, food processing
       Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 23.556 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.58%
                                          hydro: 0.42%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 21.847 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 210 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 150 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives,
                                          citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
                                 Exports: $20 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and
                                          petroleum products 97%
                      Exports - partners: Italy 23%, Spain 13%, US 13%, France
                                          11%, Brazil 7%, (2000)
                                 Imports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and beverages,
                                          consumer goods
                      Imports - partners: France 29%, US 9%, Italy 8%, Germany
                                          6%, Spain 5% (2000)
                         Debt - external: $24.7 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $100 million (1999 est.)
                                Currency: Algerian dinar (DZD)
                           Currency code: DZD
                          Exchange rates: Algerian dinars per US dollar -
                                          77.889 (January 2002), 77.215
                                          (2001), 75.260 (2000), 66.574
                                          (1999), 58.739 (1998), 57.707 (1997)
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Algeria
          Telephones - main lines in use: 2.3 million (1998)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 33,500 (1999)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: telephone
                                          density in Algeria is very low, not
                                          exceeding five telephones per 100
                                          persons; the number of fixed main
                                          lines increased in the last few
                                          years to a little more than
                                          2,000,000, but only about two-thirds
                                          of these have subscribers; much of
                                          the infrastructure is outdated and
                                          domestic: good service in north but
                                          sparse in south; domestic satellite
                                          system with 12 earth stations (20
                                          additional domestic earth stations
                                          are planned)
                                          international: 5 submarine cables;
                                          microwave radio relay to Italy,
                                          France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia;
                                          coaxial cable to Morocco and
                                          Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel;
                                          satellite earth stations - 2
                                          Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1
                                          Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1
                                          Arabsat (1998)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
                                  Radios: 7.1 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
                             Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .dz
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
                          Internet users: 180,000 (2001)
     Transportation Algeria
                                Railways: total: 4,820 km
                                          standard gauge: 3,664 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
                                          narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge
                                          (1999 est.)
                                Highways: total: 104,000 km
                                          paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km
                                          of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 32,344 km (1996 est.)
                               Waterways: none
                               Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum
                                          products 298 km; natural gas 2,948
                       Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni
                                          Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet,
                                          Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda,
                         Merchant marine: total: 73 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 903,944 GRT/1,051,433 DWT
                                          ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 25,
                                          chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas 10,
                                          petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off
                                          12, short-sea passenger 4,
                                          specialized tanker 1, includes some
                                          foreign-owned ships registered here
                                          as a flag of convenience: United
                                          Arab Emirates 2 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 136 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 52
                                          over 3,047 m: 9
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 5
                                          under 914 m: 1 (2001)
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 84
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
                                          under 914 m: 18 (2001)
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 40
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
     Military Algeria
                        Military branches: Peoples National Army (ANP),
                                           Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air
                                           Force, Territorial Air Defense,
                                           National Gendarmerie
         Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 9,016,048 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 5,513,317 (2002
                                  service: est.)
              Military manpower - reaching males: 388,939 (2002 est.)
                    military age annually:
            Military expenditures - dollar $1.87 billion (FY99)
        Military expenditures - percent of 4.1% (FY99)
     Transnational Issues Algeria
                 Disputes - international: part of southeastern region claimed
                                           by Libya; Algeria supports exiled
                                           West Saharan Polisario Front and
                                           rejects Moroccan administration of
                                           Western Sahara

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