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2 definitions found
 for Albania
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a republic in southeastern Europe on the Adriatic coast of
           the Balkan Peninsula [syn: Albania, Republic of

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Albania
                              Background: In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of
                                          xenophobic communist rule and
                                          established a multiparty democracy.
                                          The transition has proven difficult
                                          as corrupt governments have tried to
                                          deal with high unemployment, a
                                          dilapidated infrastructure,
                                          widespread gangsterism, and
                                          disruptive political opponents.
                                          International observers judged local
                                          elections in 2001 to be acceptable
                                          and a step toward democratic
                                          development, but identified serious
                                          deficiencies which should be
                                          addressed through reforms in the
                                          Albanian electoral code.
     Geography Albania
                                Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the
                                          Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between
                                          Greece and the Federal Republic of
                  Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E
                          Map references: Europe
                                    Area: total: 28,748 sq km
                                          water: 1,350 sq km
                                          land: 27,398 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland
                         Land boundaries: total: 720 km
                                          border countries: Greece 282 km, The
                                          Former Yugoslav Republic of
                                          Macedonia 151 km, Yugoslavia 287 km
                               Coastline: 362 km
                         Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
                                          the depth of exploitation
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet
                                          winters; hot, clear, dry summers;
                                          interior is cooler and wetter
                                 Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small
                                          plains along coast
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
                                          highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem
                                          Korab) 2,753 m
                       Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal,
                                          chromium, copper, timber, nickel,
                                Land use: arable land: 21.09%
                                          permanent crops: 4.45%
                                          other: 74.45% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 3,400 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
                                          occur along southwestern coast;
                                          floods; drought
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
                                          pollution from industrial and
                                          domestic effluents
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Hazardous
                                          Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          signed, but not ratified: none of
                                          the selected agreements
                        Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of
                                          Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
                                          Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
     People Albania
                              Population: 3,544,841 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.8% (male 528,678;
                                          female 493,531)
                                          15-64 years: 64% (male 1,094,034;
                                          female 1,175,024)
                                          65 years and over: 7.2% (male
                                          111,524; female 142,050) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 1.06% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 18.59 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 6.49 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -1.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.96 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 38.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.1 years
                                          female: 75.14 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 69.27 years
                    Total fertility rate: 2.27 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (2000 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Albanian(s)
                                          adjective: Albanian
                           Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2%
                                          (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb, and Bulgarian)
                                          (1989 est.)
                                          note: in 1989, other estimates of
                                          the Greek population ranged from 1%
                                          (official Albanian statistics) to
                                          12% (from a Greek organization)
                               Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%,
                                          Roman Catholic 10%
                                          note: all mosques and churches were
                                          closed in 1967 and religious
                                          observances prohibited; in November
                                          1990, Albania began allowing private
                                          religious practice
                               Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official
                                          dialect), Greek
                                Literacy: definition: age 9 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 93% (1997 est.)
                                          male: NA%
                                          female: NA%
     Government Albania
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Albania
                                          local short form: Shqiperia
                                          former: People's Socialist Republic
                                          of Albania
                                          local long form: Republika e
                         Government type: emerging democracy
                                 Capital: Tirana
                Administrative divisions: 36 districts (rrethe, singular -
                                          rreth) and 1 municipality* (bashki);
                                          Berat, Bulqize, Delvine, Devoll
                                          (Bilisht), Diber (Peshkopi), Durres,
                                          Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh,
                                          Has (Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje
                                          (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove,
                                          Kukes, Kurbin, Lezhe, Librazhd,
                                          Lushnje, Malesi e Madhe (Koplik),
                                          Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat (Burrel),
                                          Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin, Permet,
                                          Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder,
                                          Skrapar (Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane
                                          (Tirana), Tirane* (Tirana), Tropoje
                                          (Bajram Curri), Vlore
                                          note: administrative divisions have
                                          the same names as their
                                          administrative centers (exceptions
                                          have the administrative center name
                                          following in parentheses)
                            Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
                            Constitution: a constitution was adopted by
                                          popular referendum on 28 November
                                          1998; note - the opposition
                                          Democratic Party boycotted the vote
                            Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President of the
                                          Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24
                                          July 1997)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Pandeli MAJKO (since 22 February
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          nominated by the prime minister and
                                          approved by the president
                                          election results: Rexhep MEIDANI
                                          elected president; People's Assembly
                                          vote by number - total votes 122,
                                          for 110, against 3, abstained 2,
                                          invalid 7
                                          elections: president elected by the
                                          People's Assembly for a five-year
                                          term; election last held 24 July
                                          1997 (next to be held NA July 2002);
                                          prime minister appointed by the
                      Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or
                                          Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100 are
                                          elected by direct popular vote and
                                          40 by proportional vote for four-
                                          year terms)
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - PS 41.5%, PD and coalition
                                          allies 36.8%, NDP 5.2%, PSD 3.6%,
                                          PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH 2.6%, PAD 2.5%;
                                          seats by party - PS 73, PD and
                                          coalition allies 46, NDP 6, PSD 4,
                                          PBDNJ 3, PASH 3, PAD 3, independents
                                          elections: last held 24 June with
                                          subsequent rounds on 8 July, 22
                                          July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next
                                          to be held NA June 2005)
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chairman is elected
                                          by the People's Assembly for a four-
                                          year term)
           Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party or PASH [Lufter
                                          XHUVELI]; Albanian National Front
                                          (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Shptim
                                          ROQI]; Albanian Republican Party or
                                          PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Albanian
                                          Socialist Party or PS (formerly the
                                          Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO,
                                          chairman]; Christian Democratic
                                          Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI];
                                          Democratic Alliance or PAD [Nerltan
                                          CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali
                                          BERISHA]; Group of Reformist
                                          Democrats [Leonard NDOKA]; Legality
                                          Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem
                                          SPAHIA]; Liberal Union Party or PBL
                                          [Teodor LACO]; New Democratic Party
                                          or NDP [Genc POLLO]; OMONIA
                                          [Vagjelis DULES]; Party of National
                                          Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQUIRI];
                                          Social Democratic Party or PSD
                                          [Skender GJINUSHI]; Unity for Human
                                          Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO,
            Political pressure groups and NA
               International organization ACCT, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC,
                           participation: EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
                                          ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
                                          ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
                                          ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW,
                                          OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
                                          UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr.
                                          Fatos TARIFA
                                          chancery: 2100 S Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph
                                      US: LIMPRECHT
                                          embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti
                                          #103, Tirana
                                          mailing address: U. S. Department of
                                          State, 9510 Tirana Place,
                                          Washington, DC 20521-9510
                                          telephone: [355] (4) 247285
                                          FAX: [355] (4) 232222
                        Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in
                                          the center
     Economy Albania
                      Economy - overview: Poor and backward by European
                                          standards, Albania is making the
                                          difficult transition to a more
                                          modern open-market economy. The
                                          government has taken measures to
                                          curb violent crime and to revive
                                          economic activity and trade. The
                                          economy is bolstered by remittances
                                          from abroad of $400-$600 million
                                          annually, mostly from Greece and
                                          Italy. Agriculture, which accounts
                                          for 52% of GDP, is held back because
                                          of frequent drought and the need to
                                          modernize equipment and consolidate
                                          small plots of land. Severe energy
                                          shortages are forcing small firms
                                          out of business, increasing
                                          unemployment, scaring off foreign
                                          investors, and spurring inflation.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $13.2
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,800
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 52%
                                          industry: 21%
                                          services: 27% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 30% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 1.283 million (not including 352,000
                                          emigrant workers and 261,000
                                          domestically unemployed) (2000 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry and
                                          services 50%
                       Unemployment rate: 17% officially (2001 est.); may be
                                          as high as 30%
                                  Budget: revenues: $697 million
                                          expenditures: $1.5 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $368 million (2002 est.)
                              Industries: food processing, textiles and
                                          clothing; lumber, oil, cement,
                                          chemicals, mining, basic metals,
       Industrial production growth rate: 9% (2000 est.)
                Electricity - production: 4.738 billion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 3%
                                          hydro: 97%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 5.378 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 100 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 1.072 billion kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables,
                                          fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat,
                                          dairy products
                                 Exports: $306 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear; asphalt,
                                          metals and metallic ores, crude oil;
                                          vegetables, fruits, tobacco
                      Exports - partners: Italy 70%, Greece 12%, Germany 6%,
                                          The Former Yugoslav Republic of
                                          Macedonia 2%, Austria 1% (2001)
                                 Imports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs,
                                          textiles, chemicals
                      Imports - partners: Italy 32%, Greece 26%, Turkey 6%,
                                          Germany 6%, Bulgaria 2% (2001)
                         Debt - external: $1 billion (2000)
                Economic aid - recipient: $315 million (top donors were Italy,
                                          EU, Germany) (2000 est.)
                                Currency: lek (ALL)
                           Currency code: ALL
                          Exchange rates: leke per US dollar - 140.16
                                          (November 2001), 143.71 (2000)
                                          137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998), 148.93
                                          (1997); note - leke is the plural of
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Albania
          Telephones - main lines in use: 120,000 (2001)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 250,000 (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: Albania has the
                                          poorest telephone service in Europe
                                          with fewer than two telephones per
                                          100 inhabitants; it is doubtful that
                                          every village has telephone service
                                          domestic: obsolete wire system; no
                                          longer provides a telephone for
                                          every village; in 1992, following
                                          the fall of the Communist
                                          government, peasants cut the wire to
                                          about 1,000 villages and used it to
                                          build fences
                                          international: inadequate;
                                          international traffic carried by
                                          microwave radio relay from the
                                          Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)
                                  Radios: 1 million (2001)
           Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)
                             Televisions: 700,000 (2001)
                   Internet country code: .al
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10 (2001)
                          Internet users: 12,000 (2001)
     Transportation Albania
                                Railways: total: 447 km
                                          standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge
                                          (2001 est.)
                                Highways: total: 18,000 km
                                          paved: 5,400 km
                                          unpaved: 12,600 km (1998 est.)
                               Waterways: 43 km
                                          note: includes Albanian sections of
                                          Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake
                                          Prespa (1990)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 196 km; petroleum products
                                          55 km; natural gas 64 km (1996)
                       Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
                         Merchant marine: total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
                                          totaling 13,423 GRT/20,837 DWT
                                          ships by type: cargo 7, includes
                                          some foreign-owned ships registered
                                          here as a flag of convenience:
                                          Croatia 1, Honduras 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 11 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 3
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 8
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          under 914 m: 4 (2001)
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 2
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                               Heliports: 1 (2001)
     Military Albania
                       Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense
                                          Forces, Interior Ministry Troops,
                                          Border Guards
        Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 888,086 (2002 est.)
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 727,406 (2002 est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 35,792 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $56.5 million (FY02)
       Military expenditures - percent of 1.49% (FY02)
     Transnational Issues Albania
                Disputes - international: the Albanian Government supports
                                          protection of the rights of ethnic
                                          Albanians outside of its borders in
                                          the Kosovo region of Yugoslavia and
                                          in the Former Yugoslav Republic of
                                          Macedonia while continuing to seek
                                          regional cooperation; many Albanians
                                          illegally transit neighboring states
                                          to emigrate to western Europe
                           Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment
                                          point for Southwest Asian opiates,
                                          hashish, and cannabis transiting the
                                          Balkan route and - to a far lesser
                                          extent - cocaine from South America
                                          destined for Western Europe; limited
                                          opium and growing cannabis
                                          production; ethnic Albanian
                                          narcotrafficking organizations
                                          active and rapidly expanding in

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