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6 definitions found
 for china
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Porcelain \Por"ce*lain\ (277), n. [F. porcelaine, It.
     porcellana, orig., the porcelain shell, or Venus shell
     (Cypr[ae]a porcellana), from a dim. fr. L. porcus pig,
     probably from the resemblance of the shell in shape to a
     pig's back. Porcelain was called after this shell, either on
     account of its smoothness and whiteness, or because it was
     believed to be made from it. See Pork.]
     A fine translucent or semitransculent kind of earthenware,
     made first in China and Japan, but now also in Europe and
     America; -- called also China, or China ware.
     [1913 Webster]
           Porcelain, by being pure, is apt to break. --Dryden.
     [1913 Webster]
     Ivory porcelain, porcelain with a surface like ivory,
        produced by depolishing. See Depolishing.
     Porcelain clay. See under Clay.
     Porcelain crab (Zool.), any crab of the genus Porcellana
        and allied genera (family Porcellanid[ae]). They have a
        smooth, polished carapace.
     Porcelain jasper. (Min.) See Porcelanite.
     Porcelain printing, the transferring of an impression of an
        engraving to porcelain.
     Porcelain shell (Zool.), a cowry.
        [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  China \Chi"na\, n.
     1. A country in Eastern Asia.
        [1913 Webster]
     2. China ware, which is the modern popular term for
        porcelain. See Porcelain.
        [1913 Webster]
     China aster (Bot.), a well-known garden flower and plant.
        See Aster.
     China bean. See under Bean, 1.
     China clay See Kaolin.
     China grass, Same as Ramie.
     China ink. See India ink.
     China pink (Bot.), an anual or biennial species of
        Dianthus+({Dianthus+Chiensis">Dianthus ({Dianthus Chiensis) having variously colored
        single or double flowers; Indian pink.
     China root (Med.), the rootstock of a species of Smilax
        ({Smilax China, from the East Indies; -- formerly much
        esteemed for the purposes that sarsaparilla is now used
        for. Also the galanga root (from Alpinia Gallanga and
        Alpinia officinarum).
     China rose. (Bot.)
        (a) A popular name for several free-blooming varieties of
            rose derived from the Rosa Indica, and perhaps other
        (b) A flowering hothouse plant ({Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis)
            of the Mallow family, common in the gardens of China
            and the east Indies.
     China shop, a shop or store for the sale of China ware or
        of crockery.
     Pride of China, China tree. (Bot.) See Azedarach.
        [1913 Webster]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern
           Asia; the most populous country in the world [syn: China,
           People's Republic of China, mainland China, Communist
           China, Red China, PRC, Cathay]
      2: high quality porcelain originally made only in China
      3: a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by
         Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the
         Communists led by Mao Zedong [syn: Taiwan, China,
         Nationalist China, Republic of China]
      4: dishware made of high quality porcelain [syn: chinaware,

From Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  33 Moby Thesaurus words for "china":
     adobe, biscuit, bisque, bowl, brick, bubble, cement, ceramic ware,
     ceramics, clay, crock, crockery, eggshell, enamel, enamelware,
     firebrick, glass, glass house, house of cards, ice, jug, matchwood,
     old paper, parchment, piecrust, porcelain, pot, pottery,
     refractory, tile, tiling, urn, vase

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction China
                              Background: For centuries China stood as a
                                          leading civilization, outpacing the
                                          rest of the world in the arts and
                                          sciences. But in the 19th and early
                                          20th centuries, China was beset by
                                          civil unrest, major famines,
                                          military defeats, and foreign
                                          occupation. After World War II, the
                                          Communists under MAO Zedong
                                          established a dictatorship that,
                                          while ensuring China's sovereignty,
                                          imposed strict controls over
                                          everyday life and cost the lives of
                                          tens of millions of people. After
                                          1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping
                                          gradually introduced market-oriented
                                          reforms and decentralized economic
                                          decision making, and output
                                          quadrupled by 2000. Political
                                          controls remain tight even while
                                          economic controls continue to be
     Geography China
                                Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East
                                          China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea,
                                          and South China Sea, between North
                                          Korea and Vietnam
                  Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E
                          Map references: Asia
                                    Area: total: 9,596,960 sq km
                                          land: 9,326,410 sq km
                                          water: 270,550 sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US
                         Land boundaries: total: 22,147.34 km
                                          border countries: Afghanistan 76 km,
                                          Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong
                                          Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km,
                                          Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
                                          1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos
                                          423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
                                          4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan
                                          523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km,
                                          Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan
                                          414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
                               Coastline: 14,500 km
                         Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
                                          exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
                                          continental shelf: 200 NM or to the
                                          edge of the continental margin
                                          territorial sea: 12 NM
                                 Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south
                                          to subarctic in north
                                 Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus,
                                          deserts in west; plains, deltas, and
                                          hills in east
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
                                          highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
                                          (1999 est.)
                       Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural
                                          gas, mercury, tin, tungsten,
                                          antimony, manganese, molybdenum,
                                          vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead,
                                          zinc, uranium, hydropower potential
                                          (world's largest)
                                Land use: arable land: 13.31%
                                          permanent crops: 1.2%
                                          other: 85.49% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 525,800 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per
                                          year along southern and eastern
                                          coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis;
                                          earthquakes; droughts; land
            Environment - current issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases,
                                          sulfur dioxide particulates) from
                                          reliance on coal, produces acid
                                          rain; water shortages, particularly
                                          in the north; water pollution from
                                          untreated wastes; deforestation;
                                          estimated loss of one-fifth of
                                          agricultural land since 1949 to soil
                                          erosion and economic development;
                                          desertification; trade in endangered
              Environment - international party to: Antarctic-Environmental
                              agreements: Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
                                          Biodiversity, Climate Change,
                                          Desertification, Endangered Species,
                                          Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
                                          Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
                                          Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
                                          Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
                                          Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol
                        Geography - note: world's fourth-largest country
                                          (after Russia, Canada, and US);
                                          Mount Everest on the border with
                                          Nepal, is the world's tallest peak
     People China
                              Population: 1,284,303,705 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.3% (male 163,821,081;
                                          female 148,855,387)
                                          15-64 years: 68.4% (male
                                          452,354,428; female 426,055,713)
                                          65 years and over: 7.3% (male
                                          43,834,528; female 49,382,568) (2002
                  Population growth rate: 0.87% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 15.85 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 6.77 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/
                                          total population: 1.06 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 27.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.86 years
                                          female: 73.86 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 70.02 years
                    Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.2% (2000-01 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 1.25 million (January 2001)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 17,000 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
                                          adjective: Chinese
                           Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur,
                                          Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu,
                                          Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other
                                          nationalities 8.1%
                               Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim
                                          1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%
                                          note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
                               Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin
                                          (Putonghua, based on the Beijing
                                          dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu
                                          (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou),
                                          Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang,
                                          Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
                                          languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 81.5%
                                          male: 89.9%
                                          female: 72.7% (1995 est.)
     Government China
                            Country name: conventional long form: People's
                                          Republic of China
                                          conventional short form: China
                                          local short form: Zhong Guo
                                          abbreviation: PRC
                                          local long form: Zhonghua Renmin
                         Government type: Communist state
                                 Capital: Beijing
                Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and
                                          plural), 5 autonomous regions*
                                          (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and
                                          4 municipalities** (shi, singular
                                          and plural); Anhui, Beijing**,
                                          Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu,
                                          Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou,
                                          Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan,
                                          Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi,
                                          Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*,
                                          Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi,
                                          Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi,
                                          Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*,
                                          Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang;
                                          note - China considers Taiwan its
                                          23rd province; see separate entries
                                          for the special administrative
                                          regions of Hong Kong and Macau
                            Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or
                                          Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing
                                          Dynasty replaced by the Republic on
                                          12 February 1912; People's Republic
                                          established 1 October 1949)
                        National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the
                                          People's Republic of China, 1
                                          October (1949)
                            Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December
                            Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and
                                          statute, largely criminal law;
                                          rudimentary civil code in effect
                                          since 1 January 1987; new legal
                                          codes in effect since 1 January
                                          1980; continuing efforts are being
                                          made to improve civil,
                                          administrative, criminal, and
                                          commercial law
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President JIANG
                                          Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice
                                          President HU Jintao (since 16 March
                                          elections: president and vice
                                          president elected by the National
                                          People's Congress for five-year
                                          terms; elections last held 16-18
                                          March 1998 (next to be held NA March
                                          2003); premier nominated by the
                                          president, confirmed by the National
                                          People's Congress
                                          head of government: Premier ZHU
                                          Rongji (since 18 March 1998); Vice
                                          Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March
                                          1993), LI Lanqing (29 March 1993),
                                          WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995),
                                          and WEN Jiabao (since 18 March 1998)
                                          cabinet: State Council appointed by
                                          the National People's Congress (NPC)
                                          election results: JIANG Zemin
                                          reelected president by the Ninth
                                          National People's Congress with a
                                          total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates
                                          voted against him, 29 abstained, and
                                          32 did not vote); HU Jintao elected
                                          vice president by the Ninth National
                                          People's Congress with a total of
                                          2,841 votes (67 delegates voted
                                          against him, 39 abstained, and 32
                                          did not vote)
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National People's
                                          Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao
                                          Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected
                                          by municipal, regional, and
                                          provincial people's congresses to
                                          serve five-year terms)
                                          elections: last held NA December
                                          1997-NA February 1998 (next to be
                                          held late 2002-NA March 2003)
                                          election results: percent of vote -
                                          NA%; seats - NA
                         Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court (judges
                                          appointed by the National People's
                                          Congress); Local Peoples Courts
                                          (comprise higher, intermediate and
                                          local courts); Special Peoples
                                          Courts (primarily military,
                                          maritime, and railway transport
           Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP
                                          [JIANG Zemin, General Secretary of
                                          the Central Committee]; eight
                                          registered small parties controlled
                                          by CCP
            Political pressure groups and no substantial political opposition
                                 leaders: groups exist, although the
                                          government has identified the
                                          Falungong sect and the China
                                          Democracy Party as potential rivals
               International organization AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner),
                           participation: AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS,
                                          CCC, CDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
                                          IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
                                          IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
                                          Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
                                          ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO,
                                          MONUC, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA,
                                          UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL,
                                          UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
                                          UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH,
                                          UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
                                          WMO, WToO, WTrO
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador YANG
                                          consulate(s) general: Chicago,
                                          Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and
                                          San Francisco
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500
                                          chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue
                                          NW, Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Clark
                                      US: T. RANDT, Jr.
                                          embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600
                                          mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50,
                                          FPO AP 96521-0002
                                          telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3431
                                          FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6422
                                          consulate(s) general: Chengdu,
                                          Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang
                        Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed
                                          star and four smaller yellow five-
                                          pointed stars (arranged in a
                                          vertical arc toward the middle of
                                          the flag) in the upper hoist-side
     Economy China
                      Economy - overview: In late 1978 the Chinese leadership
                                          began moving the economy from a
                                          sluggish Soviet-style centrally
                                          planned economy to a more market-
                                          oriented system. Whereas the system
                                          operates within a political
                                          framework of strict Communist
                                          control, the economic influence of
                                          non-state organizations and
                                          individual citizens has been
                                          steadily increasing. The authorities
                                          have switched to a system of
                                          household and village responsibility
                                          in agriculture in place of the old
                                          collectivization, increased the
                                          authority of local officials and
                                          plant managers in industry,
                                          permitted a wide variety of small-
                                          scale enterprise in services and
                                          light manufacturing, and opened the
                                          economy to increased foreign trade
                                          and investment. The result has been
                                          a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In
                                          2001, with its 1.27 billion people
                                          but a GDP of just $4,300 per capita,
                                          China stood as the second largest
                                          economy in the world after the US
                                          (measured on a purchasing power
                                          parity basis). Agriculture and
                                          industry have posted major gains,
                                          especially in coastal areas near
                                          Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where
                                          foreign investment has helped spur
                                          output of both domestic and export
                                          goods. On the darker side, the
                                          leadership has often experienced in
                                          its hybrid system the worst results
                                          of socialism (bureaucracy and
                                          lassitude) and of capitalism
                                          (windfall gains and growing income
                                          disparities). Beijing thus has
                                          periodically backtracked,
                                          retightening central controls at
                                          intervals. The government has
                                          struggled to (a) collect revenues
                                          due from provinces, businesses, and
                                          individuals; (b) reduce corruption
                                          and other economic crimes; and (c)
                                          keep afloat the large state-owned
                                          enterprises many of which had been
                                          shielded from competition by
                                          subsidies and had been losing the
                                          ability to pay full wages and
                                          pensions. From 80 to 120 million
                                          surplus rural workers are adrift
                                          between the villages and the cities,
                                          many subsisting through part-time
                                          low-paying jobs. Popular resistance,
                                          changes in central policy, and loss
                                          of authority by rural cadres have
                                          weakened China's population control
                                          program, which is essential to
                                          maintaining long-term growth in
                                          living standards. Another long-term
                                          threat to continued rapid economic
                                          growth is the deterioration in the
                                          environment, notably air pollution,
                                          soil erosion, and the steady fall of
                                          the water table especially in the
                                          north. China continues to lose
                                          arable land because of erosion and
                                          economic development. Beijing will
                                          intensify efforts to stimulate
                                          growth through spending on
                                          infrastructure - such as water
                                          control and power grids - and
                                          poverty relief and through rural tax
                                          reform aimed at eliminating
                                          arbitrary local levies on farmers.
                                          Access to the World Trade
                                          Organization strengthens China's
                                          ability to maintain sturdy growth
                                          rates, and at the same time puts
                                          additional pressure on the hybrid
                                          system of strong political controls
                                          and growing market influences.
                                          Although Beijing has claimed 7%-8%
                                          annual growth in recent years, many
                                          observers believe the rate, while
                                          strong, is more like 5%.
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.56
                                          trillion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (official estimate) (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300
                                          (2001 est.)
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 17.7%
                                          industry: 49.3%
                                          services: 33% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 10% (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.4%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 40 (2001)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 706 million (2000 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 23%,
                                          services 27% (2001 est.)
                       Unemployment rate: urban unemployment roughly 10%;
                                          substantial unemployment and
                                          underemployment in rural areas (2001
                                  Budget: revenues: $161.8 billion
                                          expenditures: $191.8 billion,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2000)
                              Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine
                                          building, armaments, textiles and
                                          apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical
                                          fertilizers, footwear, toys, food
                                          processing, automobiles, consumer
                                          electronics, telecommunications
       Industrial production growth rate: 9.9% (2001 est.)
                Electricity - production: 1.308 trillion kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 81.83%
                                          hydro: 16.83%
                                          other: 0.12% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 1.22%
               Electricity - consumption: 1.206 trillion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 10.25 billion kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 400 million kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum,
                                          peanuts, tea, millet, barley,
                                          cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
                                 Exports: $262.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment; textiles
                                          and clothing, footwear, toys and
                                          sporting goods; mineral fuels
                      Exports - partners: US 21%, Hong Kong 18%, Japan 17%,
                                          South Korea, Germany, Netherlands,
                                          UK, Singapore, Taiwan (2000)
                                 Imports: $236.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral
                                          fuels, plastics, iron and steel,
                      Imports - partners: Japan 18%, Taiwan 11%, South Korea
                                          10%, US 10% Germany, Hong Kong,
                                          Russia, Malaysia (2000)
                         Debt - external: $167 billion (2001 est.)
                Economic aid - recipient: $NA
                                Currency: yuan (CNY)
                           Currency code: CNY
                          Exchange rates: yuan per US dollar - 8.2767 (January
                                          2002), 8.2771 (2001), 8.2785 (2000),
                                          8.2783 (1999), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications China
          Telephones - main lines in use: 135 million (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 65 million (January 2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: domestic and
                                          international services are
                                          increasingly available for private
                                          use; unevenly distributed domestic
                                          system serves principal cities,
                                          industrial centers, and many towns
                                          domestic: interprovincial fiber-
                                          optic trunk lines and cellular
                                          telephone systems have been
                                          installed; a domestic satellite
                                          system with 55 earth stations is in
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific
                                          Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1
                                          Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
                                          and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian
                                          Ocean regions); several
                                          international fiber-optic links to
                                          Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong,
                                          Russia, and Germany (2000)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
                                  Radios: 417 million (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by
                                          China Central Television, 31 are
                                          provincial TV stations and nearly
                                          3,000 are local city stations)
                             Televisions: 400 million (1997)
                   Internet country code: .cn
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (2000)
                          Internet users: 26.5 million (2001)
     Transportation China
                                Railways: total: 67,524 km (including 5,400 km
                                          of provincial "local" rails)
                                          standard gauge: 63,924 km 1.435-
                                          m gauge (13,362 km electrified;
                                          20,250 km double-track)
                                          narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m and
                                          1.000-m gauge local industrial lines
                                          (1999 est.)
                                Highways: total: 1.4 million km
                                          paved: 271,300 km (with at least
                                          16,000 km of expressways)
                                          unpaved: 1,128,700 km (1999)
                               Waterways: 110,000 km (1999)
                               Pipelines: crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum
                                          products 560 km; natural gas 9,383
                                          km (1998)
                       Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou,
                                          Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing,
                                          Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao,
                                          Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou,
                                          Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen,
                                          Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang (2001)
                         Merchant marine: total: 1,764 ships (1,000 GRT or
                                          over) totaling 16,915,047 GRT/
                                          25,366,296 DWT
                                          ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk
                                          328, cargo 822, chemical tanker 25,
                                          combination bulk 10, combination
                                          ore/oil 1, container 134, liquefied
                                          gas 26, multi-functional large-load
                                          carrier 6, passenger 7, passenger/
                                          cargo 45, petroleum tanker 263,
                                          refrigerated cargo 26, roll on/roll
                                          off 23, short-sea passenger 42,
                                          specialized tanker 3, vehicle
                                          carrier 1
                                          note: includes some foreign-owned
                                          ships registered here as a flag of
                                          convenience: Croatia 1, Germany 1,
                                          Hong Kong 16, Japan 2, Panama 2,
                                          South Korea 1, Spain 1, Taiwan 9,
                                          Tanzania 1, Turkey 1 (2002 est.)
                                Airports: 489 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 324
                                          over 3,047 m: 27
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 88
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 147
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 30
                                          under 914 m: 32 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 165
                                          over 3,047 m: 1
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 29
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 56
                                          under 914 m: 78 (2001)
     Military China
                       Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA):
                                          comprises ground forces, Navy
                                          (including naval infantry and naval
                                          aviation), Air Force, and II
                                          Artillery Corps (strategic missile
                                          force), People's Armed Police Force
                                          (internal security troops, nominally
                                          a state security body but included
                                          by the Chinese as part of the "armed
                                          forces" and considered to be an
                                          adjunct to the PLA), militia
        Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
        Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 370,087,489 (2002
     Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 203,003,036 (2002
                                 service: est.)
             Military manpower - reaching males: 10,089,458 (2002 est.)
                   military age annually:
           Military expenditures - dollar $20.048 billion (2002); note - this
                                  figure: is the officially announced figure,
                                          but actual defense spending more
                                          likely ranges from $45 billion to
                                          $65 billion for 2002
       Military expenditures - percent of 1.6% (2002); note - this is the
                                     GDP: officially announced figure, but
                                          actual defense spending is more
                                          likely between 3.5% to 5.0% of GDP
                                          for 2002
     Transnational Issues China
                Disputes - international: in 2000, China joined ASEAN
                                          discussions towards creating a South
                                          China Sea "code of conduct" - a non-
                                          legally binding, confidence-building
                                          measure; much of the rugged,
                                          militarized boundary with India is
                                          in dispute, but talks to resolve the
                                          least contested middle sector
                                          resumed in 2001; ongoing talks with
                                          Tajikistan have failed to resolve
                                          the longstanding dispute over the
                                          indefinite boundary; Kazakhstan is
                                          working rapidly with China to
                                          delimit its large open borders to
                                          control population migration,
                                          illegal activities, and trade; 2001
                                          Treaty of Good Neighborliness,
                                          Friendship, and Cooperation commits
                                          Russia and China to seek peaceable
                                          unanimity over disputed alluvial
                                          islands at the confluence of the
                                          Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small
                                          island on the Argun; involved in a
                                          complex dispute over the Spratly
                                          Islands with Malaysia, Philippines,
                                          Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
                                          Brunei; maritime boundary agreement
                                          with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin
                                          awaits ratification; Paracel Islands
                                          occupied by China, but claimed by
                                          Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-
                                          administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku
                                          Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Taiwan;
                                          demarcation of the land boundary
                                          with Vietnam has commenced, but
                                          details of the alignment have not
                                          been made public; 33-km section of
                                          boundary with North Korea in the
                                          Paektu-san (mountain) area is
                           Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin
                                          produced in the Golden Triangle;
                                          growing domestic drug abuse problem;
                                          source country for chemical
                                          precursors and methamphetamine

From U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000) :

  China, TX -- U.S. city in Texas
     Population (2000):    1112
     Housing Units (2000): 458
     Land area (2000):     1.288801 sq. miles (3.337980 sq. km)
     Water area (2000):    0.008365 sq. miles (0.021665 sq. km)
     Total area (2000):    1.297166 sq. miles (3.359645 sq. km)
     FIPS code:            14704
     Located within:       Texas (TX), FIPS 48
     Location:             30.054259 N, 94.331882 W
     ZIP Codes (1990):    
     Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
      China, TX

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