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 for That
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  That \That\, pron., a., conj., & adv. [AS. [eth]aet, neuter nom.
     & acc. sing. of the article (originally a demonstrative
     pronoun). The nom. masc. s[=e], and the nom. fem. se['o] are
     from a different root. AS. [eth]aet is akin to D. dat, G.
     das, OHG. daz, Sw. & Dan. det, Icel. [thorn]at (masc. s[=a],
     fem. s[=o]), Goth. [thorn]ata (masc. sa, fem. s[=o]), Gr. ?
     (masc. ?, fem. ?), Skr. tat (for tad, masc. sas, fem. s[=a]);
     cf. L. istud that. [root]184. Cf. The, Their, They,
     Them, This, Than, Since.]
     1. As a demonstrative pronoun (pl. Those), that usually
        points out, or refers to, a person or thing previously
        mentioned, or supposed to be understood. That, as a
        demonstrative, may precede the noun to which it refers;
        as, that which he has said is true; those in the basket
        are good apples.
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              The early fame of Gratian was equal to that of the
              most celebrated princes.              --Gibbon.
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     Note: That may refer to an entire sentence or paragraph, and
           not merely to a word. It usually follows, but sometimes
           precedes, the sentence referred to.
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                 That be far from thee, to do after this manner,
                 to slay the righteous with the wicked. --Gen.
                                                    xviii. 25.
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                 And when Moses heard that, he was content. --Lev.
                                                    x. 20.
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                 I will know your business, Harry, that I will.
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     Note: That is often used in opposition to this, or by way of
           distinction, and in such cases this, like the Latin hic
           and French ceci, generally refers to that which is
           nearer, and that, like Latin ille and French cela, to
           that which is more remote. When they refer to foreign
           words or phrases, this generally refers to the latter,
           and that to the former.
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                 Two principles in human nature reign;
                 Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain;
                 Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call. --Pope.
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                 If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this or
                 that.                              --James iv.
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     2. As an adjective, that has the same demonstrative force as
        the pronoun, but is followed by a noun.
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              It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in
              the day of judgment, than for that city. --Matt. x.
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              The woman was made whole from that hour. --Matt. ix.
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     Note: That was formerly sometimes used with the force of the
           article the, especially in the phrases that one, that
           other, which were subsequently corrupted into th'tone,
           th'tother (now written t'other).
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                 Upon a day out riden knightes two . . .
                 That one of them came home, that other not.
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     3. As a relative pronoun, that is equivalent to who or which,
        serving to point out, and make definite, a person or thing
        spoken of, or alluded to, before, and may be either
        singular or plural.
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              He that reproveth a scorner getteth to himself
              shame.                                --Prov. ix. 7.
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              A judgment that is equal and impartial must incline
              to the greater probabilities.         --Bp. Wilkins.
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     Note: If the relative clause simply conveys an additional
           idea, and is not properly explanatory or restrictive,
           who or which (rarely that) is employed; as, the king
           that (or who) rules well is generally popular;
           Victoria, who (not that) rules well, enjoys the
           confidence of her subjects. Ambiguity may in some cases
           be avoided in the use of that (which is restrictive)
           instead of who or which, likely to be understood in a
           coordinating sense. --Bain.
           [1913 Webster] That was formerly used for that which,
           as what is now; but such use is now archaic.
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                 We speak that we do know, and testify that we
                 have seen.                         --John iii.
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                 That I have done it is thyself to wite [blame].
           [1913 Webster] That, as a relative pronoun, cannot be
           governed by a preposition preceding it, but may be
           governed by one at the end of the sentence which it
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                 The ship that somebody was sailing in. --Sir W.
           [1913 Webster] In Old English, that was often used with
           the demonstratives he, his, him, etc., and the two
           together had the force of a relative pronoun; thus,
           that he = who; that his = whose; that him = whom.
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                 I saw to-day a corpse yborn to church
                 That now on Monday last I saw him wirche [work].
           [1913 Webster] Formerly, that was used, where we now
           commonly use which, as a relative pronoun with the
           demonstrative pronoun that as its antecedent.
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                 That that dieth, let it die; and that that is to
                 cut off, let it be cut off.        --Zech. xi. 9.
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     4. As a conjunction, that retains much of its force as a
        demonstrative pronoun. It is used, specifically: 
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        (a) To introduce a clause employed as the object of the
            preceding verb, or as the subject or predicate
            nominative of a verb.
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                  She tells them 't is a causeless fantasy,
                  And childish error, that they are afraid.
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                  I have shewed before, that a mere possibility to
                  the contrary, can by no means hinder a thing
                  from being highly credible.       --Bp. Wilkins.
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        (b) To introduce, a reason or cause; -- equivalent to for
            that, in that, for the reason that, because.
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                  He does hear me;
                  And that he does, I weep.         --Shak.
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        (c) To introduce a purpose; -- usually followed by may, or
            might, and frequently preceded by so, in order, to the
            end, etc.
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                  These things I say, that ye might be saved.
                                                    --John v. 34.
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                  To the end that he may prolong his days. --Deut.
                                                    xvii. 20.
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        (d) To introduce a consequence, result, or effect; --
            usually preceded by so or such, sometimes by that.
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                  The birds their notes renew, and bleating herds
                  Attest their joy, that hill and valley rings.
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                  He gazed so long
                  That both his eyes were dazzled.  --Tennyson.
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        (e) To introduce a clause denoting time; -- equivalent to
            in which time, at which time, when.
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                  So wept Duessa until eventide,
                  That shining lamps in Jove's high course were
                  lit.                              --Spenser.
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                  Is not this the day
                  That Hermia should give answer of her choice?
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        (f) In an elliptical sentence to introduce a dependent
            sentence expressing a wish, or a cause of surprise,
            indignation, or the like.
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                  Ha, cousin Silence, that thou hadst seen that
                  that this knight and I have seen! --Shak.
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                  O God, that right should thus overcome might!
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     Note: That was formerly added to other conjunctions or to
           adverbs to make them emphatic.
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                 To try if that our own be ours or no. --Shak.
           [1913 Webster] That is sometimes used to connect a
           clause with a preceding conjunction on which it
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                 When he had carried Rome and that we looked
                 For no less spoil than glory.      --Shak.
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     5. As adverb: To such a degree; so; as, he was that
        frightened he could say nothing. [Archaic or in illiteral
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     All that, everything of that kind; all that sort.
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              With singing, laughing, ogling, and all that.
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              The rank is but the guinea's stamp,
              The man's the gowd [gold] for a'that. --Burns.
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     For that. See under For, prep.
     In that. See under In, prep.
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