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2 definitions found
 for Michigan
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a midwestern state in north central United States in the
           Great Lakes region [syn: Michigan, Wolverine State,
           Great Lakes State, MI]
      2: the 3rd largest of the Great Lakes; the largest freshwater
         lake entirely within the United States borders [syn: Lake
         Michigan, Michigan]
      3: a gambling card game in which chips are placed on the ace and
         king and queen and jack of separate suits (taken from a
         separate deck); a player plays the lowest card of a suit in
         his hand and successively higher cards are played until the
         sequence stops; the player who plays a card matching one in
         the layout wins all the chips on that card [syn: Michigan,
         Chicago, Newmarket, boodle, stops]

From Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  MICHIGAN. One of the new, states of the United States of America. This state 
  was admitted into the Union by the Act, of Congress of January 26th, 1837, 
  Sharsw. cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2531, which enacts "that the state of 
  Michigan shall be one and is hereby declared to be one, of the United States 
  of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the 
  original states, in all respects whatever." 
       2. The first constitution of this state was adopted by a convention of 
  the people, begun and held at the capital in the city of Detroit, on Monday, 
  the eleventh day of May, 1835. This was superseded by the present 
  constitution, which was adopted 1850. It provides, article 3, Sec. 1; The 
  powers of the government shall be divided into three distinct departments; 
  the legislative, the executive, and the judicial; and one department shall 
  never exercise the powers of another, except in such cases as are expressly 
  provided for in this constitution. 
       3.-1. Art. 4, relates to the Legislative department, and provides 
       Sec. 1. The legislative power shall be vested in a senate and house of 
       4.-Sec. 6. No person holding any office under the United States [or 
  this state] or any county office, except notaries public, officers of the 
  militia and officers elected by townships, shall be eligible to, or have a 
  seat in either house of the legislature, and all votes given for any such 
  person shall be void. 
       5.-Sec. 7. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases except 
  treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, nor 
  shall they be subject to any civil process, during the session of the 
  legislature, nor for fifteen days next before the commencement and after the 
  termination of each session. They shall not be questioned in any other 
  place for any speech in either house. 
       6.-Sec. 8. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do 
  business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel 
  the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as 
  each house may provide. 
       7.-Sec. 9. Each house shall choose its own officers, determine the 
  rules of its proceeding, and judge of the qualifications, elections, and 
  return of its own members and may, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all 
  the members elected, expel a member; no member shall be expelled a second 
  time for the same cause, nor for any cause known to his constituents 
  antecedent to his election. The reason for such expulsion shall be entered 
  upon the journal, with the names of the members voting on the question. 
       8.-Sec. 10. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and 
  publish the same, except such parts as may require secrecy; the yeas and 
  nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall be entered on 
  the journal at the request of one-fifth of the members present. Any member 
  of either house may dissent from and protest against any act, proceeding or 
  resolution which he may deem injurious to any person or the public, and have 
  the reason of his dissent entered on the journal. 
       9.-Sec. 11. In all elections by either house, or in joint convention, 
  the votes shall be given viva voce. All votes on nominations to the senate 
  shall be taken by yeas and nays, and published with the journal of its 
      10.-Sec. 12. The doors of each house shall be open, unless the public 
  welfare require secrecy; neither house shall, without the consent of the 
  other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than where 
  the legislature may then be in session. 
      11.-1st. In considering the house of representatives, it will be 
  proper to take a view of the qualifications of members; the qualification of 
  the electors; the number of members; the time for which they are elected. 
      12.-1. The representatives must be citizens of the United States, and 
  qualified electors in the respective counties which they represent. Art. 4, 
  S. 5. 2. In all elections, every white male citizen, every white male 
  inhabitant residing in the state on the twenty-fourth day of June, one 
  thousand eight hundred and thirty-five; every white male inhabitant residing 
  in the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty, who has 
  declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States pursuant to 
  the laws thereof six months preceding an election, or who has resided in 
  this state two years and six months and declared his intention as aforesaid 
  and every civilized male inhabitant of Indian descent, a native of the 
  United States, and not a member of any tribe, shall be an elector and 
  entitled to vote; but no citizen or inhabitant shall be an elector or 
  entitled to vote at any election, unless he shall be above the age of 
  twenty-one years, and has resided in this state three months and in the 
  township or ward in which he offers to vote ten days next preceding such 
  election. Art. 7, Sec. 1. 3. The house of representatives shall consist of 
  not less than sixty-five nor more than one hundred members. Art. 4, s. 3. 4. 
  The election of representatives, pursuant to the provisions of this 
  constitution, shall be held on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of 
  November, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, and on the 
  Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November of every second year 
  thereafter. Art. 4, s. 34. Representatives shall be chosen for two years. 
  Art. 4, s. 3. 
      13.-2d. The senate will be considered in the same order. 1. Senators 
  must be citizens of the United States, and be qualified electors in the 
  district which they represent. Art. 4, s. 5. 2. They are elected by the 
  electors of representatives. Art. 7, s. 1. 3. The senate shall consist of 
  thirty-two members. Art. 4, s. 2. 4. The senators shall be elected for two 
  years, at the same time and in the same manner as the representatives are 
  required to be chosen. Art. 4, section 2, 34. 
      14.-2. The executive department is regulated by the fifth article of 
  the constitution as follows, namely: 
      Sec. 1. The executive power is vested in a governor, who shall hold his 
  office for two years; a lieutenant governor shall be chosen for the same 
      15.-Sec. 2 No person shall be eligible to the office of governor or 
  lieutenant governor, who has not been five years a citizen of the United 
  States, and a resident of this state two years next preceding the election; 
  nor shall any person be eligible to either office who has not attained the 
  age of thirty years. 
      16.-Sec. 3. The governor and lieutenant governor shall be elected at 
  the times and places of choosing members of the legislature. The Person 
  having the highest number of votes for governor and lieutenant governor 
  shall be elected; in case two or more persons have an equal and the highest 
  number of votes for governor or lieutenant governor, the legislature shall 
  by joint vote choose one of such persons. 
      17.-Sec. 4. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the military 
  and naval forces, and may call out such forces to execute the laws, to 
  suppress insurrections and to repel invasions. 
      18.-Sec. 5. He shall transact all necessary; business with the 
  officers of government; and may require information, in writing, from the 
  officers of the executive department, upon any subject relating to the 
  duties of their respective offices. 
      19.-Sec. 6. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. 
      20.-Sec. 7. He may convene the legislature on extraordinary occasions. 
      21.-Sec. 8. He shall give to the legislature, and at the close of his 
  official term to the next legislature, information by message of the 
  condition of the state, and recommend such measures to them as he shall deem 
      22.-Sec. 9. He may convene the legislature at some other place, when 
  the seat of government becomes dangerous from disease or a common enemy. 
      23.-Sec. 10. He shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies 
  as occur in the senate or house of representatives. 
      24.-Sec. 11. He may grant reprieves, commutations and pardons after 
  convictions, for all offences except treason and cases of impeachment, upon 
  such conditions, and with such restrictions and limitations, as he may think 
  proper, subject to regulations provided by law, relative to the manner of 
  applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he may suspend the 
  execution of the sentence until the case shall be reported to the 
  legislature at its next session, when the legislature shall either pardon, 
  or commute the sentence, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a 
  further reprieve. He shall communicate to the legislature at each session 
  information of each case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted, and the 
  reasons therefor. 
      25.-Sec. 12. In case of the impeachment of the governor, his removal 
  from office, death, inability, resignation, or absence from the state, the 
  powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the lieutenant governor 
  for the residue of the term, or until the disability ceases. When the 
  governor shall be out of the state in time of war, at the head of a military 
  force thereof, he shall continue commander-in-chief of all the military 
  force of the state. 
      26.-Sec. 13. During a vacancy in the office of governor, if the 
  lieutenant governor die, resign, be impeached, displaced, be incapable of 
  performing the duties of his office, or absent from the state, the president 
  pro tempore of the senate shall act as governor until the vacancy be filled, 
  or the disability cease. 
      27.-Sec. 14. The lieutenant governor shall, by virtue of his office, 
  be president of the senate. In committee of the whole he may debate all 
  questions; and when there is an equal division, he shall give the casting 
      28.-Sec. 15. No member of congress, nor any person holding office 
  under the United States, or this state, shall execute the office of 
      29.-Sec. 16. No person elected governor or lieutenant governor shall 
  be eligible to any office or appointment from the legislature, or either 
  house thereof, during the time for which he was elected. All votes for 
  either of them, for any such office, shall be void. 
      30.-Sec. 17. The lieutenant governor and president of the senate pro 
  tempore, when performing the duties of governor, shall receive the same 
  compensation as the governor. 
      31.-Sec. 18. All official acts of the governor, his approval of the 
  laws excepted, shall be authenticated by the great seal of the state, which 
  shall be kept by the secretary of state. 
      32.-Sec. 19. All commissions issued to persons holding office under 
  the provisions of this constitution, shall be in the name and by the 
  authority of the people of the state of Michigan, sealed with the great seal 
  of the state, signed by the governor, and countersigned by the secretary of 
      32.-3. The judicial department is regulated by the sixth article as 
  follows, namely: 
      33.-Sec. 1. The judicial power is vested in one supreme court, in 
  circuit courts, in probate courts, and in justices of the peace. Municipal 
  courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction may be established by the 
  legislature in cities. 
      34.-Sec. 2. For the term of six years, and thereafter, until the 
  legislature otherwise provide, the judges of the several circuit courts 
  shall be judges of the supreme court, four of whom shall constitute a 
  quorum. A concurrence of three shall be necessary to a final decision. After 
  six years the legislature may provide by law for the organization of a 
  supreme court, with the jurisdiction and powers prescribed in this 
  constitution, to consist of one chief justice and three associate justices, 
  to be chosen by the electors of the state. Such supreme court, when so 
  organized, shall not be changed or discontinued by the legislature for eight 
  years thereafter. The judges thereof shall be so classified that but one of 
  them shall go out of office at the same time. Their term of office, shall be 
  eight years. 
      35.-Sec. 3. The supreme court shall have a general superintending 
  control over all inferior courts, and shall have power to issue writs of 
  error, habeas corpus, mandamus, quo warrants, procedendo, and other original 
  and remedial writs, and to hear and determine the same. In all other cases 
  it shall have appellate jurisdiction only. 
      36.-Sec. 4. Four terms of the supreme court shall be held annually, at 
  such times and places, as may be designated by law. 
      37.-Sec. 5. The supreme court shall, by general rules, establish, 
  modify and amend the practice in such court and in the circuit courts, and, 
  simplify the same. The legislature shall, as far as practicable, abolish 
  distinctions between law and equity proceedings. The office of master in 
  chancery is prohibited. 
      38.-Sec. 6. The state shall be divided, into eight judicial circuits; 
  in each of which the electors thereof shall elect one circuit judge, who 
  shall hold his office for the term of six years, and until his successor is 
  elected and qualified. 
      39.-Sec. 7. The legislature may alter the limits of circuits, or 
  increase the number of the same. No alteration or increase shall have the 
  effect to remove a judge from office. In every additional circuit 
  established the judge shall be elected by the electors of such circuit, and 
  his term of office shall continue as provided in this constitution for 
  judges of the circuit court. 
      40.-Sec. 8. The circuit courts shall have original jurisdiction in all 
  matters civil and criminal, not excepted in this constitution, and not 
  prohibited by law; and, appellate jurisdiction from all inferior courts and 
  tribunals, and a supervisory control of the same. They shall also have power 
  to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, injunction, quo warranto, 
  certiorari, and other writs necessary to carry into effect their orders, 
  judgments and decrees, and give there a general control over inferior courts 
  and tribunals within their respective jurisdictions. 
      41.-Sec. 9. Each of the judges of the circuit courts shall receive a 
  salary payable quarterly. They shall be ineligible to any other than a 
  judicial office during the term for which they are elected, and for one year 
  thereafter. All votes for any person elected such judge for any office other 
  than judicial, given either by the legislature or the people, shall be void. 
      42.-Sec. 10. The supreme court may appoint a reporter of its 
  decisions. The decisions of the supreme court shall be in writing, and 
  signed by the judges concurring therein. Any judge dissenting there from, 
  shall give the reasons of such dissent in writing, under his signature. All 
  such opinions shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the supreme 
  court. The judges of the circuit court, within their respective 
  jurisdictions, may fill vacancies in the office of county clerk and of 
  prosecuting, attorney; but no judge of the supreme court, or, circuit court, 
  shall exercise any other power of appointment to public office. 
      43.-Sec. 11. A circuit court shall be held at least twice in each 
  year, in every county organized for judicial purposes, and four times in 
  each year in counties containing ten thousand inhabitants. Judges of the 
  circuit court may hold courts for each other, and shall do so when required 
  by law. 
      44.-Sec. 12. The clerk of each county organized for judicial purposes 
  shall be the  clerk of the circuit court of such county, and of the supreme 
  court when held within the same. 
      45.-Sec. 13. In each of the counties organized for judicial purposes, 
  there shall be a court of probate. The judge of such court shall be elected 
  by the electors of the county in which he resides, and shall hold his office 
  for four years, and until his successor is elected and qualified. The 
  jurisdiction, powers, and duties of such court, shall be prescribed by law. 
      46.-Sec. 14. When a vacancy occurs in the office of judge of the 
  supreme, circuit or probate court, it shall be filled by appointment of the 
  governor, which shall continue until a successor is elected and qualified. 
  When elected, such successor shall hold his office the residue of the 
  unexpired term. 
      47.-Sec. 15. The supreme court, the circuit and probate court of each 
  county, shall be courts of record, and shall each have a common seal. 
      48.-Sec. 16. The legislature may provide by law for the election of 
  one or more persons in each organized county, who may be vested with 
  judicial powers, not exceeding those of a judge of the circuit court at 
      49.-Sec. 17. There shall be not exceeding four justices of the peace 
  in each organized township. They shall be elected by the electors of the 
  townships, and shall hold their offices for four years, and until their 
  successors are elected and qualified. At the first election in any township, 
  they shall be classified as shall be prescribed by law. A justice elected to 
  fill a vacancy shall hold his office for the residue of the unexpired term. 
  The legislature may increase the number of justices in cities. 
      50.-Sec. 18. In civil cases justices of the peace shall have exclusive 
  jurisdiction to the amount of one hundred dollars, and concurrent 
  jurisdiction to the amount of three hundred dollars, which may be increased 
  to five hundred dollars, with such exceptions and restrictions as may be 
  provided by law. They shall also have such criminal jurisdiction and perform 
  such duties as shall be prescribed by the legislature. 
      51.-Sec. 19. Judges of the supreme court, circuit judges, and justices 
  of the peace, shall be conservators of the peace within their respective 
      52.-Sec. 20. The first election of judges of the circuit courts shall 
  be held on the first Monday in April, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-
  one, and every sixth year thereafter. Whenever an additional circuit is 
  created, provision. shall be made to hold the subsequent election of such 
  additional judges at the regular elections herein provided. 
      53.-Sec. 21. The first election of judges of the probate courts shall 
  be held on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November, one thousand 
  eight hundred and fifty-two, and every fourth year thereafter. 
      54.-Sec. 22. Whenever a judge shall remove beyond the limits of the 
  jurisdiction for which he was elected or a justice of the peace from the 
  township in which he was elected, or by a change in the boundaries of such 
  township shall be placed without the same, they shall be deemed to have 
  vacated their respective offices. 
      55.-Sec. 23. The legislature may establish courts of conciliation, 
  with such powers and duties as shall be prescribed by law. 
      56.-Sec. 24. Any suitor in any court of this state shall have the 
  right to prosecute or defend his suit, either in his own proper person, or 
  by an attorney or agent, of his choice. 
      57.-Sec. 25. In all prosecutions for libels, the truth may be given in 
  evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter 
  charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives and for 
  justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted. The jury shall have the 
  right to determine the law and the fact. 
      58.-Sec. 26. The person, houses, papers, and possessions of every 
  person shall be secure from unreasonable searches and seizure. No warrant to 
  search any place, or to seize any person or things shall issue without 
  describing them, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or 
      59.-Sec. 27. The right of trial by jury shall remain, but shall be 
  deemed to be waived in all civil cases unless demanded by one of the 
  parties, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law. 
      60.-Sec. 28. In every criminal prosecution, the accused shall have the 
  right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury, which may consist 
  of less than twelve, men in all courts not of record; to be informed of the 
  nature of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; 
  to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and have 
  the assistance of counsel for his defence. 
      61.-Sec. 29. No person, after acquittal upon the merits, shall be 
  tried for the same offence; all persons shall, before conviction, be 
  bailable by sufficient sureties, except for murder and treason, when the 
  proof is evident or the presumption great. 
      62.-Sec. 30. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying 
  war against, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No 
  person shall be convicted of treason unless upon the testimony of two 
  witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 
      63.-Sec. 31. Excessive bail shall not be required; excessive fines 
  shall not be imposed; cruel or unusual punishment shall not be inflicted, 
  nor, shall witnesses be unreasonably detained. 
      64.-Sec. 32. No person shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be 
  a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, 
  without due process of law. 
      65.-Sec. 33. No person shall be imprisoned for debt arising out of, or 
  founded on a contract, express or implied, except in cases of fraud or 
  breach of trust, or of moneys collected by public officers, or in any 
  professional employment. No person shall be imprisoned for a militia fine in 
  time of peace. 
      66.-Sec. 34. No person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness, 
  on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief. 
      67.-Sec. 35. The style of all process shall be, "In the name of the 
  people of the State of Michigan." 

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