The DICT Development Group

Search for:
Search type:

Database copyright information
Server information

4 definitions found
 for Maxim
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Maxim \Max"im\, n. [F. maxime, L. maxima (sc. sententia), the
     greatest sentence, proposition, or axiom, i. e., of the
     greatest weight or authority, fem. fr. maximus greatest,
     superl. of magnus great. See Magnitude, and cf. Maximum.]
     [1913 Webster]
     1. An established principle or proposition; a condensed
        proposition of important practical truth; an axiom of
        practical wisdom; an adage; a proverb; an aphorism.
        [1913 Webster]
              'T is their maxim, Love is love's reward. --Dryden.
        [1913 Webster]
     2. (Mus.) The longest note formerly used, equal to two longs,
        or four breves; a large.
        [1913 Webster]
     Syn: Axiom; aphorism; apothegm; adage; proverb; saying. See
          [1913 Webster]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits [syn:
           maxim, axiom]
      2: English inventor (born in the United States) who invented the
         Maxim gun that was used in World War I (1840-1916) [syn:
         Maxim, Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim]

From Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  68 Moby Thesaurus words for "maxim":
     Procrustean law, a belief, adage, aphorism, apophthegm, apothegm,
     article of faith, axiom, brocard, byword, canon, cliche, code,
     commandment, commonplace, convention, criterion, dictum, doctrine,
     dogma, epigram, form, formality, formula, formulary,
     general principle, gnome, golden rule, guideline,
     guiding principle, imperative, law, law of nature, mitzvah, moral,
     mot, motto, norm, norma, order of nature, ordinance, platitude,
     precept, prescribed form, prescript, prescription, principium,
     principle, proverb, regulation, rubric, rule, rule of thumb, saw,
     saying, set form, settled principle, slogan, standard,
     standing order, teaching, tenet, theorem, truism, universal law,
     witticism, working principle, working rule

From Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Revised 6th Ed (1856) :

  MAXIM. An established principle or proposition. A principle of law 
  universally admitted, as being just and consonant With reason. 
       2. Maxims in law are somewhat like axioms in geometry. 1 Bl. Com. 68. 
  They are principles and authorities, and part of the general customs or 
  common law of the land; and are of the same strength as acts of parliament, 
  when the judges have determined what is a maxim; which belongs to the judges 
  and not the jury. Terms do Ley; Doct. & Stud. Dial. 1, c. 8. Maxims of the 
  law are holden for law, and all other cases that may be applied to them 
  shall be taken for granted. 1 Inst. 11. 67; 4 Rep. See 1 Com. c. 68; Plowd. 
  27, b. 
       3. The application of the maxim to the case before the court, is 
  generally the only difficulty. The true method of making the application is 
  to ascertain bow the maxim arose, and to consider whether the case to which 
  it is applied is of the same character, or whether it is an exception to an 
  apparently general rule. 
       4. The alterations of any of the maxims of the common law are 
  dangerous. 2 Inst. 210. The following are some of the more important maxims. 
  A communi observantia non est recedendum. There should be no departure from 
     common observance or usage. Co. Litt. 186. 
  A l'impossible nul n'est tenu. No one is bound to do what is impossible. 1 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 601. 
  A verbis legis non est recedendum. From the words of the law there must be 
     no departure. Broom's Max. 268; 5 Rep. 119; Wing. Max. 25. 
  Absentia ejus qui republicae causa abest, neque ei, neque alii damnosa esse 
     debet. The absence of him who is employed in the service of the state, 
     ought not to be burdensome to him nor to others. Dig. 50, 17, 140. 
  Absoluta sentetia expositore non indiget. An absolute unqualified sentence 
     or proposition, needs no expositor. 2 Co. Inst. 533. 
  Abundans cautela non nocet. Abundant caution does no harm. 11 Co. 6. 
  Accessorius sequit naturam sui principalis. An accessary follows the nature 
     of his principal. 3 Co. Inst. 349. 
  Accessorium non ducit sed sequitur suum principale. The accessory does not 
     lead, but follow its principal. Co. Litt. 152. 
  Accusare nemo debet se, nisi coram Deo. No one ought to accuse himself, 
     unless before God. Hard. 139. 
  Actio exteriora indicant interiora secreta. External actions show internal 
     secrets. 8 Co. R. 146. 
  Actio non datur non damnificato. An action is not given to him who has 
     received no damages. 
  Actio personalis moritur cum persona. A personal action dies with the 
     person. This must be understood of an action for a tort only. 
  Actor qui contra regulam quid adduxit, non est audiendus. He ought not to be 
     heard who advances a proposition contrary to the rules of law. 
  Actor sequitur forum rei. The plaintiff must follow the forum of the thing 
     in dispute. 
  Actore non probante reus absolvitur. When the plaintiff does not prove his 
     case, the defendant is absolved. 
  Actus Dei nemini facit injuriam. The act of God does no injury; that is, no 
     one is responsible for inevitable accidents. 2 Blacks. Com. 122. See Act 
     of God. 
  Actus incaeptus cujus perfectio pendet, ex voluntate partium, revocari 
     potest; si autem pendet ex voluntate tertia personae, vel ex contingenti, 
     revocari non potest. An act already begun, the completion of which 
     depends upon the will of the parties, may be recalled; but if it depend 
     on the consent of a third person, or of a contingency, it cannot be 
     recalled. Bacon's Max. Reg. 20. 
  Actus me invito factus, non est meus actus. An act done by me against my 
     will, is not my act. 
  Actus non reum facit, nisi mens sit rea. An act does not make a person 
     guilty, unless the intention be also guilty. This maxim applies only to 
     criminal cases; in civil matters it is otherwise. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2211. 
  Actus legitimi non recipiunt modum. Acts required by law to be done, admit 
     of no qualification. Hob. 153. 
  Actus legis nemini facit injuriam, The act of the law does no one an injury. 
     5 Co. 116. 
  Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio, nisi impediatur sententia. The 
     antecedent bears relation to what follows next, unless it destroys the 
     meaning of the sentence. 
  Ad quaestiones facti non respondent judices; ad quaestione legis non 
     respondent juratores. The judges do not answer to questions of fact; the 
     jury do not answer to questions of law. Co. Litt. 295. 
  Aestimatio praeteriti delicti ex postremo facto nunquam crescit. The 
     estimation of a crime committed never increased from a subsequent fact. 
     Bac. Max. Reg. 8. 
  Ambiguitas verborum latens verificatione suppletur; nam quod exfacto oritur 
     ambiguum verificatione facti tollitur. A hidden ambiguity of the words is 
     supplied by the verification, for whatever ambiguity arises concerning 
     the deed itself is removed by the verification of the deed. Bacon's Max. 
     Reg. 23. 
  Aqua cedit solo. The water yields or accompanies the soil. The grant of the 
     soil or land carries the water. 
  Aqua curit et debet currere. Water runs and ought to run. 3 Rawle, 84, 88. 
  Aequitas agit in personam. Equity acts upon the person. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Aequilas sequitier legem. Equity follows the law. 1 Story, Eq. Jur. Sec. 
     64.; 3 Woodes. Lect. 479, 482. 
  Aequum et bonum, est lex legum. What is good and equal, is the law of laws. 
     Hob. 224. 
  Affirmati, non neganti incumbit probatio. The proof lies upon him who 
     affirms, not on him who denies. 
  Aliud est celare, aliud tacere. To conceal is one thing, to be silent 
  Alternatica petitio non est audienda. An alternate petition is not to be 
     heard. 5 Co. 40. 
  Animus ad se omne jus ducit. It isto the intention that all law applies. 
  Animus moninis est anima scripti. The intention of the party is the soul of 
     the instrument. 3 Bulstr. 67. 
  Apices juris non sunt jura. Points of law are not laws. Co. Litt. 304; 3 
     Scott, N. P. R. 773. 
  Arbitrium est judicium. An award is a judgment. Jenk Cent. 137. 
  Argumentum a majori ad minus negative non valet; valet e converso. An 
     argument from the greater to the less is of no force negatively; 
     conversely it is. Jenk. Cent. 281. 
  Argumentum a divisione est fortissimum in jure. An argument arising from a 
     division is most powerful in law. 6 Co. 60. 
  Argumentum ab inconvenienti est validum in lege; quia lex non permittit 
     aliquod inconveniens. An argument drawn from what is inconvenient is good 
     in law, because the law will not permit any inconvenience. Co. Litt. 258. 
  Argumentum ab impossibili plurmum valet in lege. An argument deduced from 
     authority great avails in law. Co. Litt. 92. 
  Argumentum ab authoritate est fortissimum in lege. An argument drawn from 
     authority is the strongest in law. Co. Litt. 254. 
  Argumentum a simili valet in lege. An argument drawn from a similar case, or 
     analogy, avails in law. Co. Litt. 191. 
  Augupia verforum sunt judice indigna. A twisting of language is unworthy of 
     a judge. Hob. 343. 
  Bona fides non patitur, ut bis idem exigatur. Natural equity or good faith 
     do no allow us to demand twice the payment of the same thing. Dig. 50, 
     17, 57. 
  Boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem. It is the part of a good judge to 
     enlarge his jurisdiction; that, his remedial authority. Chan. Prec. 329; 
     1 Wils 284; 9 M. & Wels. 818. 
  Boni judicis est causas litium derimere. It is the duty of a good judge to 
     remove the cause of litigation. 2 Co. Inst. 304. 
  Bonum defendentis ex integra causa, malum ex quolibet defectu. The good of a 
     defendant arises from a perfect case, his harm from some defect. 11 Co. 
  Bonum judex secundum aequum et bonum judicat, et aequitatem stricto juri 
     praefert. A good judge decides according to justice and right, and 
     prefers equity to strict law. Co. Litt. 24. 
  Bonum necessarium extra terminos necessitatis non est bonum. Necessary good 
     is not good beyond the bounds of necessity. Hob. 144. 
  Casus fortuitus non est sperandus, et nemo tenetur devinare. A fortuitous 
     event is not to be foreseen, and no person is held bound to divine it. 4 
     Co. 66. 
  Casus omissus et oblivione datus dispositioni communis juris relinquitur. A 
     case omitted and given to oblivion is left to the disposal of the common 
     law. 5 Co. 37. 
  Catalla juste possessa amitti non possunt. Chattels justly possessed cannot 
     be lost. Jenk. Cent. 28. 
  Catalla repuntantur inter minima in lege. Chattels are considered in law 
     among the minor things. Jenk Cent. 52. 
  Causa proxima, non remota spectatur. The immediate, and not the remote 
     cause, is to be considered. Bac. Max. Reg. 1. 
  Caveat emptor. Let the purchaser beware. 
  Cavendum est a fragmentis. Beware of fragments. Bacon, Aph. 26. 
  Cessante causa, cessat effectus. The cause ceasing, the effect must cease. 
  C'est le crime qui fait la honte, et non pas l'echafaud. It is the crime 
     which causes the shame, and not the scaffold. 
  Charta de non ente non valet. A charter or deed of a thing not in being, is 
     not valid. Co. Litt. 36. 
  Chirographum apud debitorem repertum praesumitur solutum. A deed or bond 
     found with the debtor is presumed to be paid. 
  Circuitus est evitandus. Circuity is to be avoided. 5 Co. 31. 
  Clausula inconsuetae semper indicunt suspicionem. Unusual clauses always 
     induce a suspicion. 3 Co. 81. 
  Clausula quae abrogationem excludit ab initio non valet. A clause in a law 
     which precludes its abrogation, is invalid from the beginning. Bacon's 
     Max. Reg. 19, p. 89. 
  Clausula vel dispositio inutilis per praesumptionem remotam vel causam, ex 
     post facto non fulcitur. A useless clause or disposition is not supported 
     by a remote presumption, or by a cause arising afterwards. Bacon's Max. 
     Reg. 21. 
  Cogitationis poenam nemo patitur. No one is punished for merely thinking of 
     a crime. 
  Commodum ex injuria sua non habere debet. No man ought to derive any benefit 
     of his own wrong. Jenk. Cent. 161. 
  Communis error facit jus. A common error makes law. What was at first 
     illegal, being repeated many times, is presumed to have acquired the 
     force of usage, and then it would be wrong to depart from it. The 
     converse of this maxim is communis error no facit just. A common error 
     does not make law. 
  Confessio facta in judicio omni probatione major est. A confession made in 
     court is of greater effect than any proof. Jenk. 
  Cent. 102; 11 Co. 30. 
  Confirmare nemo potest priusquam just ei acciderit. No one can confirm 
     before the right accrues to him. 10 Co. 48. 
  Confirmatio est nulla, ubi donum praecedens est invalidum. A confirmation is 
     null where the preceding gift is invalid. Co. Litt. 295. 
  Conjunctio mariti et faeminae est de jure naturae. The union of a man and a 
     woman is of the law of nature. 
  Consensus non concubitus facit nuptiam. Consent, not lying together, 
     constitutes marriage. 
  Consensus facit legem. Consent makes the law. A contract is a law between 
     the parties, which can acquire force only by consent. 
  Consensus tollit errorem. Consent removes or obviates a mistake. 
  Co. Litt. 126. 
  Consentientes et agentes pari poena plectentur. Those consenting and those 
     perpetrating are embraced in the same punishment. 5 Co. 80. 
  Consequentiae non est consequentia. A consequence ought not to be drawn from 
     another consequence. Bacon, De Aug. Sci. Aph. 16. 
  Consilii, non fraudulenti, nulla est obligatio. Advice, unless fraudulent, 
     does not create an obligation. 
  Constructio contra rationem introducta, potius usurpatio quam consuetudo 
     appellari debet. A custom introduced against reason ought rather to be 
     called an usurpation than a custom. Co. Litt. 113. 
  Construction legis non facit injuriam. The construction of law works not an 
     injury. Co. Litt. 183; Broom's Max. 259. 
  Consuetudo debet esse certa. A custom ought to be certain. Dav. 33. 
  Consuetudo est optimus interpres legum. Custome is the best expounder of the 
     law. 2 Co. Inst. 18; Dig. 1, 3, 37; Jenk. Cent. 273. 
  Consuetudo est altera lex. Custom is another law. 4 Co. 21. 
  Consuetudo loci observanda est. The custom of the place is to be observed. 6 
     Co. 67. 
  Consuetudo praescripta et legitima vincit legem. A prescriptive and 
     legitimate custom overcomes the law. Co. Litt. 113. 
  Consuetudo semel reprobata non potest amplius induci. Custom once disallowed 
     cannot again be produced. Dav. 33. 
  Consuetudo voluntis ducit, lex nolentes trahit. Custom leads the willing, 
     law, law compels or draws the unwilling. Jenk. Cent. 274. 
  Contestio litis eget terminos contradictaris. An issue requires terms of 
     contradiction; that is, there can be no issue without an affirmative on 
     one side and a negative on the other. 
  Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege. A contemporaneous 
     exposition is the best and most powerful in the law. 2 Co. Inst. 11. 
  Contra negantem principia non est disputandum. There is no disputing against 
     or denying principles. Co. Litt. 43. 
  Contra non volentem agere nulla currit praescriptio. No prescription runs 
     against a person unable to act. Broom's Max. 398. 
  Contra veritatem lex numquam aliquid permittit. The law never suffers 
     anything contrary to truth. 2 Co. Inst. 252. But sometimes it allows a 
     conclusive presumption in opposition to truth. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3061. 
  Contractus legem ex conventione accipiunt. The agreement of the parties 
     makes the law of the contract. Dig. 16, 3, 1, 6. 
  Contractus ex turpi causa, vel contra bonos mores nullus est. A contract 
     founded on a base and unlawful consideration, or against good morals, is 
     null. Hob. 167; Dig. 2, 14, 27, 4. 
  Conventio vincit legem. The agreement of the parties overcomes or prevails 
     against the law. Story, Ag. Sec.  See Dig. 16, 3, 1, 6. 
  Copulatio verborum indicat acceptionem in eodem sensu. Coupling words 
     together shows that they ought to be understood in the same sense. 
     Bacon's Max. in Reg. 3. 
  Corporalis injuria non recipit aestimationem de futuro. A personal injury 
     does no receive satisfaction from a future course of proceding. Bacon's 
     Max. in Reg. 6. 
  Cuilibet in arte sua herito credendum est. Every one should be believed 
     skillful in how own art. Co. Litt. 125. Vide Experts; Opinion. 
  Cujus est commodum ejus debet esse incommodum. He who receives the benefit 
     should also bear the disadvantage. 
  Cujus est dare ejus est disponere. He who has a right to give, has the right 
     to dispose of the gift. 
  Cujus per errorem dati repetitio est, ejus consulto dati donatio est. 
     Whoever pays by mistake what he does not owe, may recover it back; but he 
     who pays, knowing he owes nothing; is presumed to give. 
  Cujus est solum, ejus est usque ad caelum. He who owns the soil, owns up to 
     the sky. Co. Litt. 4 a; Broom's Max. 172; Shep. To. 90; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 
     15, 70. 
  Cujus est divisio alterius est electio. Which ever of two parties has the 
     division, the other has the choice. Co. Litt. 166. 
  Cujusque rei potissima pars principium est. The principal part of everything 
     is the beginning. Dig. 1, 2, 1; 10 Co. 49. 
  Culpa tenet suos auctores. A fault finds its own. 
  Culpa est immiscere se rei ad se non pertinenti. It is a fault to meddle 
     with what does not belong to or does not concern you. Dig. 50, 17, 36. 
  Culpa paena par esto. Let the punishment be proportioned to the crime. 
  Culpa lata aequiparatur dolo. A concealed fault is equal to a deceit. 
  Cui pater est populus non habet ille patrem. He to whom the people is 
     father, has not a father. Co. Litt. 123. 
  Cum confitente sponte mitius est agendum. One making a voluntary confession, 
     is to be dealt with more mercifully. 4 Co. Inst. 66. 
  Cum duo inter se pugnantia reperiuntur in testamento ultimum ratum est. When 
     two things repugnant to each other are found in a will, the last is to be 
     confirmed. Co. Litt. 112. 
  Cum legitimae nuptiae factae sunt, patrem liberi sequuntur. Children born 
     under a legitimate marriage follow the condition of the father. 
  Cum adsunt testimonia rerum quid opus est verbis. When the proofs of facts 
     are present, what need is there of words. 2 Bulst. 53. 
  Curiosa et captiosa intepretatio in lege reprobatur. A curious and captious 
     interpretation in the law is to be reproved. 1 Bulst. 6. 
  Currit tempus contra desides et sui juris contemptores. Time runs against 
     the slothful and those who neglect their rights. 
  Cursus curiae est lex curiae. The practice of the court is the law of the 
     court. 3 Bulst. 53. 
  De fide et officio judicis non recipitur quaestio; sed de scientia, sive 
     error sit juris sive facti. Of the credit and duty of a judge, no 
     question can arise; but it is otherwise respecting his knowledge, whether 
     he be mistaken as to the law or fact. Bacon's max. Reg. 17. 
  De jure judices, de facto juratores, respondent. The judges answer to the 
     law, the jury to the facts. 
  De minimis non curat lex. The law does not notice or care for trifling 
     matters. Broom's Max. 333; Hob. 88; 5 Hill, N.Y. Rep. 170. 
  De morte hominis nulla est cunctatio longa. When the death of a human being 
     may be the consequence, no delay is long. Col Litt. 134. When the 
     question is on the life or death of a man, no delay is too long to admit 
     of inquiring into facts. 
  De non apparentibus et non existentibus eadem est ratio. The reason is the 
     same respecting things which do not appear, and those which do not exist. 
  De similibus ad similia eadem ratione procedendum est. From similars to 
     similars, we are to proceed by the same rule. 
  De similibus idem est judicium. Concerning similars the judgment is the 
     same. 7 Co. 18. 
  Debet esse finis litium. There ought to be an end of law suits. Jenk. Cent. 
  Debet qui juri subjacere ubi delinquit. Every one ought to be subject to the 
     law of the place where he offends. 3 Co. Inst. 34. 
  Debile fundamentum, fallit opus. Where there is a weak foundation, the work 
     falls. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2068. 
  Debita sequuntur personam debitoris. Debts follow the person of the debtor. 
     Story, Confl. of Laws, Sec. 362. 
  Debitor non praesumitur donare. A debtor is not presumed to make a gift. See 
     1 Kames' Eq. 212; Dig. 50, 16, 108. 
  Debitum et contractus non sunt nullius loci. Debt and contract are of no 
     particular place. 
  Delegata potestas non potest delegari. A delegated authority cannot be again 
     delegated. 2 Co. Inst. 597; 5 Bing. N. C. 310; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1300. 
  Delegatus non potest delegare. A delegate or deputy cannot appoint another. 
     2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1936; Story, Ag. Sec. 33. 
  Derativa potestas non potest esse major primitiva. The power which is 
     derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived. 
  Derogatur legi, cum pars detrahitur; abrogatur legi, cum prorsus tollitur. 
     To derogate from a law is to enact something contrary to it; to abrogate 
     a law, is to abolish it entirely. Dig. 50, 16, 102. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Designatio unius est exclusio alterius, et expressum facit cessare tacitum. 
     The appointment or designation of one is the exclusion of another; and 
     that expressed makes that which is implied cease. Co. Litt. 210. 
  Dies dominicus non est juridicus. Sunday is not a day in law. Co. Litt. 135 
     a; 21 Saund. 291. See Sunday. 
  Dies inceptus pro completo habetur. The day of undertaking or commencement 
     of the business is held as complete. 
  Dies incertus pro conditione habetur. A day uncertain is held as a 
  Dilationes in lege sunt odiosae. Delays in law are odious. 
  Disparata non debent jungi. Unequal things ought not to be joined. Jenk. 
     Cent. 24. 
  Dispensatio est vulnus, quod vulnerat jus commune. A dispensation is a wound 
     which wounds a common right. Dav. 69. 
  Dissimilum dissimiles est ratio. Of dissimilars the rule is dissimilar. Co. 
     Litt. 191. 
  Divinatio non interpretatio est, quae omnino recedit a litera. It is a guess 
     not interpretation which altogether departs from the letter. Bacon's Max. 
     in Reg. 3, p. 47. 
  Dolosus versatur generalibus. A deceiver deals in generals. 2 Co. 34. 
  Dolus auctoris non nocet successori. The fraud of a possessor does not 
     prejudice the successor. 
  Dolus circuitu non purgator. Fraud is not purged by circity. Bacon's Max. in 
     Reg. 1. 
  Domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium. Every man's house is his castle. 5 
     Rep. 92. 
  Domus tutissimum cuique refugium atque receptaculum. The habitation of each 
     one is an inviolable asylum for him. Dig. 2, 4, 18. 
  Donatio perficitur possesione accipientis. A gift is rendered complete by 
     the possession of the receiver. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 712; 2 John. 52; 2 
     Leigh, 337. 
  Donatio non praesumitur. A gift is not presumed. 
  Donatur nunquam desinit possidere antequam donatarius incipiat possidere. He 
     that gives never ceases to possess until he that receives begins to 
     possess. Dyer, 281. 
  Dormiunt aliquando leges, nunquam moriuntur. The laws sometimes sleep, but 
     never die. 2 Co. Inst. 161. 
  Dos de dote peti non debet, Dower ought not to be sought from dower. 4 Co. 
  Duas uxores eodem tempore habere non potest. It is not lawful to have two 
     wives at one time. Inst. 1, 10, 6. 
  Duo non possunt in solido unam rem possidere. Two cannot possess one thing 
     each in entirety. Co. Litt. 368. 
  Duplicationem possibilitatis lex non patitur. It is not allowed to double a 
     possibility. 1 Roll. R. 321. 
  Ea est accipienda interpretation, qui vitio curet. That interpretation is to 
     be received, which will not intend a wrong. Bacon's Max. Reg. 3, p. 47. 
  Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat. The burden of the proof lies 
     upon him who affirms, not he who denies. Dig. 22, 3, 2; Tait on Ev. 1; 1 
     Phil. Ev. 194; 1 Greenl. Ev. Sec. 74; 3 Louis. R. 83; 2 Dan. Pr. 408; 4 
     Bouv Inst. n. 4411. 
  Ei nihil turpe, cui nihil satis. To whom nothing is base, nothing is 
     sufficient. 4 Co. Inst. 53. 
  Ejus est non nolle, qui potest velle. He who may consent tacitly, may 
     consent expressly. Dig. 50, 17, 8. 
  Ejus est periculum cujus est dominium aut commodum. He who has the risk has 
     the  dominion or advantage. 
  Electa una via, non datur recursus ad alteram. When there is concurrence of 
     means, he who has chosen one cannot have recourse to another. 10 Toull. 
     n. 170. 
  Electio semel facta, et placitum testatum, non patitur regressum. Election 
     once made, and plea witnessed, suffers not a recall. Co. Litt. 146. 
  Electiones fiant rite et libere sine interruptione aliqua. Elections should 
     be made in due form and freely, without any interruption. 2 Co. Inst. 
  Enumeratio infirmat regulam in casibus non enumeratis. Enumeration affirms 
     the rule in cases not enumerated. Bac. Aph. 17. 
  Equality is equity. Francis' Max., Max. 3; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3725. 
  Equity suffers not a right without a remedy.  4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3726. 
  Equity looks upon that as done, which ought to be done. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 
     3729; 1 Fonb. Eq. b. 1, ch. 6, s. 9, note; 3 Wheat. 563. 
  Error fucatus nuda veritate in multis est probabilior; et saepenumero 
     rationibus vincit veritatem error. Error artfully colored is in many 
     things more probable than naked truth; and frequently error conquers 
     truth and reasoning. 2 Co. 73. 
  Error juris nocet. Error of law is injurious. See 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3828. 
  Error qui non resistitur, approbatur. An error not resisted is approved. 
     Doct. & Stud. c. 70. 
  Error scribentis nocere non debet. An error made by a clerk ought not to 
     injure; a clerical error may be corrected. 
  Errores ad sua principia referre, est refellere. To refer errors to their 
     origin is to refute them. 3 Co. Inst. 15. 
  Est autem vis legem simulans. Violence may also put on the mask of law. 
  Est boni judicis ampliare jurisdictionem. It is the part of a good judge to 
     extend the jurisdiction. 
  Ex antecedentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretatio. The best 
     interpretation is made from antecedents and consequents. 2 Co. Inst. 317. 
  Ex diuturnitate temporis, amnia praesumuntur solemniter esse acta. From 
     length of time, all things are presumed to have been done in due form. 
     Co. Litt. 6; 1 Greenl. Ev. Sec. 20. 
  Ex dolo malo non oritur action. Out of fraud no action arises. Cowper, 343; 
     Broom's Max. 349. 
  Ex facto jus oritur. Law arises out of fact; that is, its application must 
     be to facts. 
  Ex malificio non oritur contractus. A contract cannot arise out of an act 
     radically wrong and illegal. Broom's Max. 851. 
  Ex multitudine signorum, colligitur identitas vera. From the great number of 
     signs true identity may be ascertained. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 25. 
  Ex nudo pacto non oritur action. No actions arises on a naked contract 
     without a consideration. See Nudum Pactum. 
  Ex tota materia emergat resolutio. The construction or resolution should 
     arise out of the whole subject matter. 
  Ex turpi causa non oritur action. No action arises out of an immoral 
  Ex turpi contractu non oritur actio. No action arises on an immoral 
  Ex uno disces omnes. From one thing you can discern all. 
  Excusat aut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in 
     civilibus. A wrong in capital cases is excused or palliated which would 
     not be so in civil matters. Bacon's Max. Reg. 7. 
  Exceptio ejus rei cujus petitiur dissolutio nulla est. There can be no plea 
     of that thing of which the dissolution is sought. Jenk. Cent. 37. 
  Exceptio falsi omnium ultima. A false plea is the basest of all things. 
  Exceptio firmat regulam in contrarium. The exception affirms the rule in 
     contrary cases. Bac. Aph. 17. 
  Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis. The exception affirms the 
     rule in cases not excepted. Bac. Aph. 17. 
  Exceptio nulla est versus actionem quae exceptionem perimit. There can be no 
     plea against an action which entirely destroys the plea. Jenk. Cent. 106. 
  Exceptio probat regulam de rebus non exceptio. An exception proves the rule 
     concerning things not excepted. 11 Co. 41. 
  Exceptio quoque regulam declarat. The exception also declares the rule. Bac. 
     Aph. 17. 
  Exceptio semper ultima ponenda est. An exception is always to be put last. 9 
     Co. 53. 
  Executio est finis et fructus legis. An execution is the end and the first 
     fruit of the law. Co. Litt. 259. 
  Executio juris non habet injuriam. The execution of the law causes no 
     injury. 2 Co. Inst. 482; Broom's Max. 57. 
  Exempla illustrant non restringunt legem. Examples illustrate and do not 
     restrict the law. Co. Litt. 24. 
  Expedit reipublicae ut sit finis litium. It is for the public good that 
     there be an end of litigation. Co. Litt. 303. 
  Expressa nocent, non expressa non nocent. Things expressed may be 
     prejudicial; things not expressed are not. See Dig. 50, 17, 195. 
  Expressio eorum quae tacite insunt nihil operatur. The expression of those 
     things which are tacitly implied operates nothing. 
  Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the 
     exclusion of another. 
  Expressum facit cessare tacitum. What is expressed renders what is implied 
  Extra legem positus est civiliter mortuus. One out of the pale of the law, 
     (an outlaw,) is civilly dead. 
  Extra territorium jus dicenti non paretur impune. One who exercises 
     jurisdiction out of his territory is not obeyed with impunity. 
  Facta sunt potentiora verbis. Facts are more powerful than words. 
  Factum a judice quod ad ujus officium non spectat, non ratum est. An act of 
     a judge which does not relate to his office, is of no force. 10 Co. 76. 
  Factum negantis nulla probatio. Negative facts are not proof. 
  Factum non dictur quod non perseverat. It cannot be called a deed which does 
     not hold out or persevere. 5 Co. 96. 
  Factum unius alteri nocere non debet. The deed of one should not hurt the 
     other. Co. Litt. 152. 
  Facultas probationum non est angustanda. The faculty or right of offering 
     proof is not to be narrowed. 4 Co. Inst. 279. 
  Falsa demonstratio non nocet. A false or mistaken description does not 
     vitiate. 6T. R. 676; see 2 Story's Rep. 291; 1 Greenl. Ev. Sec.  301. 
  Falsa ortho graphia, sive falsa grammatica, non vitiat concessionem. False 
     spelling or false grammar do not vitiate a grant. 9 Co. 48; Shep. To. 
  Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus. False in one thing, false in everything. 1 
     Sumn. 356. 
  Fiat justitia ruat caelum. Let justice be done, though the heavens should 
  Felonia implicatur in quolibet proditione. Felony is included or implied in 
     every treason. 3 Co. Inst. 15. 
  Festinatio justitiae est noverca infortunii. The hurrying of justice is the 
     stepmother of misfortune. Hob. 97. 
  Fiat prout, fieri consuerit, nil temere novandum. Let it be done as 
     formerly, let nothing be done rashly. Jenk. Cent. 116. 
  Fictio est contra veritatem, sed pro veritate habetur. Fiction is against the
     truth, but it is to have truth. 
  Finis rei attendendus est. The end of a thing is to be attended to. 3 Co. 
     Inst. 51. 
  Finis finem litibus imponit. The end puts an end to litigation. 3 Inst. 78. 
  Finis unius diei est principium alterius. The end of one day is the 
     beginning of another. 2 Buls. 305. 
  Firmior et potentior est operatio legis quam dispositio hominis. The 
     disposition of law is firmer and more powerful than the will of man. Co. 
     Litt. 102. 
  Flumina et protus publica sunt, ideoque jus piscandi omnibus commune est. 
     Rivers and ports are public, therefore the right of fishing there is 
     common to all. 
  Faemina ab omnibus officiis civilibus vel publicis remotae sunt. Women are 
     excluded from all civil and public charges or offices. Dig. 50, 17, 2. 
  Forma legalis forma essentialis. Legal form is essential form. 10 Co. 100. 
  Forma non observata, inferiur adnullatio actus. When form is not observed a 
     nullity of the act is inferred. 12 Co. 7. 
  Forstellarius est pauperum depressor, et totius communitatis et patriae 
     publicus inimicus. A forestaller is an oppressor of the poor, and a 
     public enemy to the whole community and the country. 3 Co. Inst. 196. 
  Fortior est custodia legis quam hominis. The custody of the law is stronger 
     than that of man. 2 Roll. R. 325. 
  Fortior et potentior est dispositio legis quam hominis. The disposition of 
     the law is stronger and more powerful than that of man. Co Litt. 234. 
  Fraus est celare fraudem. It is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 1 Vern. 270. 
  Fraus est odiosa et non praesumenda. Fraud is odious and not to be presumed. 
     Cro. Car. 550. 
  Fraus et dolus nemini patrocianari debent. Fraud and deceit should excuse no 
     man. 3 Co. 78. 
  Fraus et jus numquam cohabitant. Fraud and justice never agree together. 
     Wing. 680. 
  Fraus latet in generalibus. Fraud lies hid in general expressions. 
  Fraus meretur fraudem. Fraud deserves fraud. Plow. 100. This is very 
     doubtful morality. 
  Fructus pendentes pars fundi videntur. Hanging fruits make part of the land. 
     Dig. 6, 1, 44; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1578. See Larceny. 
  Fructus perceptos villae non esse constat. Gathered fruits do not make a 
     part of the house. Dig. 19, 1, 17, 1; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1578. 
  Frustra est potentia quae numcquam venit in actum. The power which never 
     comes to be exercised is vain. 2 Co. 51. 
  Frustra feruntur legis nisi subditis et obedientibus. Laws are made to no 
     purpose unless for those who are subject and obedient. 7 Co. 13. 
  Frustra legis auxilium quaerit qui in legem committit. Vainly does he who 
     offends against the law, seek the help of the law. 
  Frustra petis quoa statim alteri reddere cogeris. Vainly you ask that which 
     you will immediately be compelled to restore to another. Jenk. Cent. 256. 
  Frustra probatur quod probatum non relevat. It is vain to prove that which 
     if proved would not aid the matter in question. 
  Furiosus absentis loco est. The insane is compared to the absent. Dig. 50, 
     17, 24, 1. 
  Furiosus solo furore punitur. A madman is punished by his madness alone. Co. 
     Litt. 247. 
  Furtum non est ubi initium habet detentionis per dominum rei. It is not 
     theft where the commencement of the detention arises through the owner of 
     the thing. 3 Co. Inst. 107. 
  Generale tantum valet in generalibus, quanium singulare singulis. What is 
     general prevails or is worth as much among things general, as what is 
     particular among things particular. 11 Co. 59. 
  Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A general expression is to 
     be construed generally. 8 co. 116. 
  Generale nihil certum implicat. A general expression implies nothing 
     certain. 2 Co. 34. 
  Generalia sunt praeponenda singularibus. General things are to be put before 
     particular things. 
  Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. General words are understood 
     in a general sense. 3 Co. Inst. 76. 
  Generalis clausula non porrigitur ad ea quae antea specialiter sunt 
     comprehensa. A general clause does not extend to those things which are 
     previously provided for specially. 8 Co. 154. 
  Haeredem Deus facit, non homo. God and not man, make the heir. 
  Haeredem est nomen collectivum. Heir is a collective name. 
  Haeris est nomen juris, filius est nomen naturae. Heir is a term of law, son 
     one of nature. 
  Haeres est aut jure proprietatis aut jure representationis. An heir is 
     either by right of property or right of representation. 3 Co. 40. 
  Haeres est alter ispe, et filius est pars patris. An heir is another self, 
     and a son is a part of the father. 
  Haeres est eadem persona cum antecessore. The heir is the same person with 
     the ancestor. Co. Litt. 22. 
  Haeres haeredis mei est meus haeres. The heir of my heir is my heir. 
  Haeres legitimus est quem nuptiae demonstrant. He is the lawful heir whom 
     the marriage demonstrates. 
  He who has committed iniquity, shall not have equity. Francis' Max., Max. 2. 
  He who will have equity done to him, must do equity to the same person. 4 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 3723. 
  Hominum causa jus constitutum est. Law is established for the benefit of 
  Id quod nostrum est, sine facto nostro ad alium transferi non potest. What 
     belongs to us cannot be transferred to another without our consent. Dig. 
     50, 17, 11. But this must be understood with this qualification, that the 
     government may take property for public use, paying the owner its value. 
     The title to property may also be acquired, with the consent of the 
     owner, by a judgment of a competent tribunal. 
  Id certum est quod certum reddi potest. That is certain which may be 
     rendered certain. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 929; 2 Bl. Com. 143; 4 Kent Com. 462; 
     4 Pick 179. 
  Idem agens et patiens esse non potest. One cannot be agent and patient, in 
     the same matter. Jenk. Cent. 40. 
  Idem est facere, et nolle prohibere cum possis. It is the same thing to do a 
     thing as not to prohibit it when in your power. 3 Co. 
  Inst. 178. 
  Idem est non probari et non esse; non deficit jus, sed probatio. What does 
     not appear and what is not is the same; it is not the defect of the law, 
     but the want of proof. 
  Idem est nihil dicere et insufficienter dicere. It is the same thing to say 
     nothing and not to say it sufficiently. 2 Co. Inst. 178. 
  Idem est scire aut scire debet aut potuisse. To be able to know is the same 
     as to know. This maxim is applied to the duty of every one to know the 
  Idem non esse et non apparet. It is the same thing not to exist and not to 
     appear. Jenk. Cent. 207. 
  Idem semper antecedenti proximo refertur. The same is always referred to its 
     next antecedent. Co. Litt. 385. 
  Identitas vera colligitur ex multitudine signorum. True identity is 
     collected from a number of signs. 
  Id perfectum est quod ex omnibus suis partibus constat. That is perfect 
     which is complete in all its parts. 9 Co. 9. 
  Id possumus quod de jure possumus. We may do what is allowed by law. Lane, 
  Ignorantia excusatur, non juris sed facti. Ignorance of fact may excuse, but 
     not ignorance of law. See Ignorance. 
  Ignorantia legis neminem excusat. Ignorance of fact may excuse, but not 
     ignorance of law. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3828. 
  Ignorantia facti excusat, ignorantia juris non excusat. Ignorance of facts 
     excuses, ignorance of law does not excuse. 1 Co. 177; 4 Bouv. Inst. n 
     3828. See Ignorance. 
  Ignorantia judicis est calamitas innocentis. The ignorance of the judge is 
     the misfortune of the innocent. 2 Co. Inst. 591. 
  Ignorantia terminis ignoratur et ars. An ignorance of terms is to be 
     ignorant of the art. Co. Litt. 2. 
  Illud quod alias licitum non est necessitas facit licitum, et necessitas 
     inducit privilegium quod jure privatur. That which is not otherwise 
     permitted, necessity allows, and necessity makes a privilege which 
     supersedes the law. 10 Co. 61. 
  Imperitia culpae annumeratur. Ignorance, or want of skill, is considered a 
     negligence, for which one who professes skill is responsible. Dig. 50, 
     17, 132; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1004. 
  Impersonalitas non concludit nec ligat. Impersonality neither concludes nor 
     binds. Co. Litt. 352. 
  Impotentia excusat legem. Impossibility excuses the law. Co. Litt. 29. 
  Impunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. Impunity offers a 
     continual bait to a delinquent. 4 Co. 45. 
  In alternativis electio est debitoris. In alternatives there is an election 
     of the debtor. 
  In aedificiis lapis male positus non est removendus. A stone badly placed in 
     a building is not to be removed. 11 Co. 69. 
  In aequali jure melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties have equal 
     rights, the condition of the possessor is the better. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 215; 
     Jer. Eq. Jur. 285; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 170; Dig. 50, 17, 128. Plowd. 296. 
  In commodo haec pactio, ne dolus praestetur, rata non est. If in a contract 
     for a loan there is inserted a clause that the borrower shall not be 
     answerable for fraud, such clause is void. Dig. 13, 6, 17. 
  In conjunctivis oportet utramque partem esse veram. In conjunctives each 
     part ought to be true. Wing. 13. 
  In consimili casu consimile debet esse remedium. In similar cases the remedy 
     should be similar. Hard. 65. 
  In contractibus, benigna; in testamentis, benignior; in restitutionibus, 
     benignissima interpretatio facienda est. In contracts, the interpretation 
     or construction should be liberal; in wills, more liberal; in 
     restitutions, more liberal. Co. Litt. 112. 
  In conventibus contrahensium voluntatem potius quam verba spectari placuit. 
     In the agreements of the contracting parties, the rule is to regard the 
     intention rather than the words. Dig. 50, 16, 219. 
  In criminalibus, probationes bedent esse luce clariores. In criminal cases, 
     the proofs ought to be clearer than the light. 3 Co. inst. 210. 
  In criminalibus sufficit generalis malitia intentionis cum facto paris 
     gradus. In criminal cases a general intention is sufficient, when there 
     is an act of equal or corresponding degree. Bacon's Max. Reg. 15. 
  In disjunctivis sufficit alteram partem esse veram. In disjunctives, it is 
     sufficient if either part be true. Wing. 15. 
  In dubiis magis dignum est accipiendum. In doubtful cases the more worthy is 
     to be taken. Branch's Prin. h.t. 
  In dubiis non praesumitur pro testamento. In doubtful cases there is no 
     presumption in favor of the will. Cro. Car. 51. 
  In dubio haec legis constructio quam verba ostendunt. In a doubtful case, 
     that is the construction of the law which the words indicate. Br. Pr. 
  In dubio pars melior est sequenda. In doubt, the gentler course is to be 
  In dubio, sequendum quod tutius est. In doubt, the safer course is to be 
  In eo quod plus sit, semper inest et minus. The less is included in the 
     greater. 50, 17, 110. 
  In facto quod se habet ad bonum et malum magis de bono quam de malo lex 
     intendit. In a deed which may be considered good or bad, the law looks 
     more to the good than to the bad. Co. Litt. 78. 
  In favorabilibus magis attenditur quod prodest quam quod nocet. In things 
     favored what does good is more regarded than what does harm. Bac. Max. in 
     Reg. 12. 
  In fictione juris, semper subsistit aequitas. In a fiction of law, equity 
     always subsists. 11 Co. 51. 
  In judiciis minori aetati sucuritur. In judicial proceedings, infancy is 
     aided or favored. 
  In judicio non creditur nisi juratis. In law none is credited unless he is 
     sworn. All the facts must when established, by witnesses, be under oath 
     or affirmation. Cro. Car. 64. 
  In jure non remota causa, sed proxima spectatur. In law the proximate, and 
     not the remote cause, is to be looked to. Bacon's Max. REg. 1. 
  In majore summa continetur minor. In the greater sum is contained the less. 
     5 Co. 115. 
  In maleficio ratihabitio mandato comparatur. He who ratifies a bad action is 
     considered as having ordered it. Dig. 50, 17, 152, 2. 
  In mercibus illicitis non sit commercium. NO commerce should be in illicit 
     goods. 3 Kent, Com. 262, n. 
  In maxima potentia minima licentia. IN the greater power is included the 
     smaller license. Hob. 159. 
  In obscuris, quod minimum est, sequitur. In obscure cases, the milder course 
     ought to be pursued. Dig. 50, 17, 9. 
  In odium spoliatoris omnia praesumuntur. All things are presumed in odium of 
     a despoiler. 1 Vern. 19. 
  In omni re nascitur res qua ipsam rem exterminat. In everything, the thing 
     is born which destroys the thing itself. 2 Co. Inst. 15. 
  In omnibus contractibus, sive nominatis sive innominatis, permutatio 
     continetur. In every contract, whether nominate or innominate, there is 
     implied a consideration. 
  In omnibus quidem, maxime tamen in jure, aequitas spectanda sit. In all 
     affairs, and principally in those which concern the administration of 
     justice, the rules of equity ought to be followed. Dig. 50, 17, 90. 
  In omnibus obligationibus, in quibus dies non ponitar, praesenti die 
     debutur. In all obligations when no time is fixed for the payment, the 
     thing is due immediately. Dig. 50, 17, 14. 
  In praesentia majoris potestatis, minor potestas cessat. In the presence of 
     the superior power, the minor power ceases. Jenk. Cent. 214. 
  In pari causa possessor potior haberi debet. When two parties have equal 
     rights, the advantage is always in favor of the possessor. Dig. 50, 17, 
  In pari causa possessor potior est. In an equal case, better is the 
     condition of the possessor. Dig. 50, 17, 128; Poth. Vente, n. 320; 1 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 952. 
  In pari delicto melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties are 
     equally in the wrong, the condition of the possessor is better. 11 Wheat. 
     258; 3 Cranch 244; Cowp. 341; Broom's Max. 325; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3724. 
  In propria causa nemo judex. No one can be judge in his own cause. 
  In quo quis delinquit, in eo de jure est puniendus. In whatever thing one 
     offends, in that he is rightfully to be punished. Co. Litt. 233. 
  In repropria iniquum admodum est alicui licentiam tribuere sententiae. It is 
     extremely unjust that any one should be judge in his own cause. 
  In re dubia magis inficiata quam affirmatio intelligenda. In a doubtful 
     matter, the negative is to be understood rather than the affirmative. 
     Godb. 37. 
  In republica maxime conservande sunt jura belli. In the state the laws of 
     war are to be greatly preserved. 2 Co. Inst. 58. 
  In restitutionem, non in paenam haeres succedit. The heir succeeds to the 
     restitution not the penalty. 2 Co. Inst. 198. 
  In restitutionibus benignissima interpretatio facienda est. The most 
     favorable construction is made in restitutions. Co. Litt. 112. 
  In suo quisque negotio hebetior est quam in alieno. Every one is more dull 
     in his own business than in that of another. Co. Litt. 377. 
  In toto et pars continetur. A part is included in the whole. Dig. 50, 17, 
  In traditionibus scriptorum non quod dictum est, sed quod gestum est, 
     inscpicitur. In the delivery of writing, not what is said, but what is 
     done is to be considered. 9 co. 137. 
  Incerta pro nullius habentur. Things uncertain are held for nothing Dav. 33. 
  Incerta quantitas vitiat acium. An uncertain quantity vitiates the act. 1 
     Roll. R. 465. 
  In civile est nisi tota sententia inspectu, de aliqua parte judicare. It is 
     improper to pass an opinion on any part of a sentence, without examining 
     the whole. Hob. 171. 
  Inclusio unius est exclusio alterius. The inclusion of one is the exclusion 
     of another. 11 Co. 58. 
  Incommodum non solvit argumentum. An inconvenience does not solve an 
  Indefinitum aequipolet universali. The undefined is equivalent to the whole. 
     1 Ventr. 368. 
  Indefinitum supplet locum universalis. The undefined supplies the place of 
     the whole Br. Pr. h.t. 
  Independenter se habet assecuratio a viaggio vanis. The voyage insured is an 
     independent or distinct thing from the voyage of the ship. 3 Kent, Com. 
     318, n. 
  Index animi sermo. Speech is the index of the mind. 
  Inesse potest donationi, modus, conditio sive causa; ut modus est; si 
     conditio; quia causa. In a gift there may be manner, condition and cause; 
     as, (ut), introduces a manner; if, (si), a condition; because, (quia), a 
     cause. Dy. 138. 
  Infinitum in jure reprobatur. That which is infinite or endless is 
     reprehensible in law. 9 Co. 45. 
  Iniquum est alios permittere, alios inhibere mercaturam. It is inequitable 
     to permit some to trade, and to prohibit others. 3 Co. 
  Inst. 181. 
  Iniquum est aliquem rei sui esse judicem. It is against equity for any one 
     to be judge in his own cause. 12 Co. 13. 
  Iniquum est ingenuis hominibus non esse liberam rerum suarum alienationem. 
     It is against equity to deprive freeman of the free disposal of their own 
     property. Co. Litt. 223. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 455, 460. 
  Injuria non praesumitur. A wrong is not presumed. Co. Litt. 232. 
  Injuria propria non cadet in beneficium facientis. One's own wrong shall not 
     benefit the person doing it. 
  Injuria fit ei cui convicium dictum est, vel de eo factum carmen famosum. It 
     is a slander of him who a reproachful thing is said, or concerning whom 
     an infamous song is made. 9 Co. 60. 
  Intentio caeca, mala. A hidden intention is bad. 2 Buls. 179. 
  Intentio inservire debet legibus, non leges intentioni. Intentions ought to 
     be subservient to the laws, not the laws to intentions. Co. Litt. 314. 
  Intentio mea imponit nomen operi meo. My intent gives a name to my act. Hob. 
  Interest reipublicae ne maleficia remaneant impunita. It concerns the 
     commonwealth that crimes do not remain unpunished. Jenk. Cent. 30, 31. 
  Interest reipublicae res judicatas non rescindi. It concerns the common 
     wealth that things adjudged be not rescinded. Vide Res judicata. 
  Interest reipublicae quod homines conserventur. It concerns the commonwealth 
     that we be preserved. 12 Co. 62. 
  Interest reipublicae ut qualibet re sua bene utatur. It concerns the 
     commonwealth that every one use his property properly. 6 Co. 37. 
  Interest reipublicae ut carceres sint in tuto. It concerns the commonwealth 
     that prisons be secure. 2 Co. Inst. 589. 
  Interest reipublicae suprema hominum testamenta rata haberi. It concerns the 
     commonwealth that men's last wills be sustained. Co. Litt. 236. 
  Interest reipublicae ut sit finis litium. In concerns the commonwealth that 
     there be an end of law suits. Co. Litt. 303. 
  Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus. To 
     interpret and reconcile laws so that they harmonize is the best mode of 
     construction. 8 Co. 169. 
  Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat. That construction 
     is to be made so that the subject may have an effect rather than none. 
     Jenk. Cent. 198. 
  Interpretatio talis in ambiguis semper fienda, ut evitetur inconveniens et 
     absurdum. In ambiguous things, such a construction is to be made, that 
     what is inconvenient and absurd is to be avoided. 4 Co. Inst. 328. 
  Interruptio multiplex non tollit praescriptionem semel obtentam. Repeated 
     interruptions do not defeat a prescription once obtained. 2 Co. Inst. 
  Inutilis labor, et sine fructu, non est effectus legis. Useless labor and 
     without fruit, is not the effect of law. Co. Lit. 127. 
  Invito beneficium non datur. No one is obliged to accept a benefit against 
     his consent. Dig. 50, 17, 69. But if he does not dissent he will be 
     considered as assenting. Vide Assent. 
  Ipsae legis cupiunt ut jure regantur. The laws themselves require that they 
     should be governed by right. Co. Litt. 174. 
  Judex ante occulos aequitatem semper habere debet. A judge ought always to 
     have equity before his eyes. Jenk. Cent. 58. 
  Judex aequitatem semper spectare debet. A judge ought always to regard 
     equity. Jenk. Cent. 45. 
  Judex bonus nihil ex arbitrio suo faciat, nec propositione domesticae 
     voluntatis, sed juxta legis et jura pronunciet. A good judge should do 
     nothing from his own judgment, or from the dictates of his private 
     wishes; but he should pronounce according to law and justice. 7 co. 27. 
  Judex debet judicare secundum allegata et probata. The judge ought to decide 
     according to the allegation and the proof. 
  Judex est lex loquens. The judge is the speaking law. 7 co. 4. 
  Judex non potest esse testis in propria causa A judge cannot be a witness in 
     his own cause. 4 Co. Inst. 279. 
  Judex non potest injuriam sibi datum punire. A judge cannot punish a wrong 
     done to himself. 12 Co. 113. 
  Judex damnatur cum nocens absolvitur. The judge is condemned when the guilty 
     are acquitted. 
  Judex non reddat plus quam quod petens ipse requireat. The judge does demand 
     more than the plaintiff demands. 2 Inst. 286. 
  Judici officium suum excedenti non paretur. To a judge who exceeds his 
     office or jurisdiction no obedience is due. Jenk. Cent. 139. 
  Judici satis paena est quod Deum habet ultorem. It is punishment enough for 
     a judge that he is responsible to God. 1 Leon. 295. 
  Judicia in deliberationibus crebro naturescunt, in accelerato processu 
     nunquam. Judgments frequently become matured by deliberation, never by 
     hurried process. 3 Co. Inst. 210. 
  Judicia posteriora sunt in lege fortiora. The latter decisions are stronger 
     in law. 8 Co. 97. 
  Judicia sunt tanquam juris dicta, et pro veritate accipiuntur. Judgments 
     are, as it were, the dicta or sayings of the law, and are received as 
     truth. 2 Co. Inst. 573. 
  Judiciis posterioribus fides est adhibenda. Faith or credit is to be given 
     to the last decisions. 13 Co. 14. 
  Judicis est in pronuntiando sequi regulam, exceptione non probata. The judge 
     in his decision ought to follow the rule, when the exception is not made 
  Judicis est judicare secundum allegata et probata. A judge ought to decide 
     according to the allegations and proofs. Dyer. 12. 
  Judicium a non suo judice datum nullius est momenti. A judgment given by an 
     improper judge is of no moment. 11 Co. 76. 
  Judicium non debet esse illusorium, suum effectum habere debet. A judgment 
     ought not to be illusory, it ought to have its consequence. 2 Inst. 341. 
  Judicium redditur in invitum, in praesumptione legis. In presumption of law, 
     a judgment is given against inclination. Co. Litt. 248. 
  Judicium semper pro veritate accipitur. A judgment is always taken for 
     truth. 2 Co. Inst. 380. 
  Jura sanguinis nullo jure civili dirimi possunt. The right of blood and 
     kindred cannot be destroyed by any civil law. Dig. 50, 17, 9; Bacon's 
     Max. Reg. 11. 
  Jura naturae sunt immutabilia. The laws of nature are unchangeable. 
  Jura eodem modo distruuntur quo constituuntur. Laws are abrogated or 
     repealed by the same means by which they are made. 
  Juramentum est indivisibile, et non est admittendum in parte verum et in 
     parte falsam. An oath is indivisible, it cannot be in part true and in 
     part false. 
  Jurato creditur in judicio. He who makes oath is to be believed in judgment. 
  Jurare est Deum in testum vocare, et est actus divini cultus. To swear is to 
     call God to witness, and is an act of religion. 3 Co. Inst. 165. Vide 3 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 3180, note; 1 Benth. Rat. of Jud. Ev. 376, 371, note. 
  Juratores sunt judices facti. Juries are the judges of the facts. Jenk. 
     Cent. 58. 
  Juris effectus in executione consistit. The effect of a law consists in the 
     execution. Co. Litt. 289. 
  Jus accrescendi inter mercatores locum non habet, pro beneficio commercii. 
     The right of survivorship does not exist among merchants for the benefit 
     of commerce. Co. Litt. 182; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 682. 
  Jus accrescendi praefertur oneribus. The right of survivorship is preferred 
     to incumbrances. Co. Litt. 185. 
  Jus accrescendi praefertur ultimae voluntati. The right of survivorship is 
     preferred to a last will. Co. Litt. 1856. 
  Jus descendit et non terra. A right descends, not the land. Co. Litt. 345. 
  Jus est ars boni et aequi. Law is the science of what is good and evil. Dig. 
     1, 1, 1, l. 
  Jus et fraudem numquam cohabitant. Right and fraud never go together. 
  Jus ex injuria non oritur. A right cannot arise from a wrong. 4 Bing. 639. 
  Jus publicum privatorum pactis mutari non potest. A public right cannot be 
     changed by private agreement. 
  Jus respicit aequitatem. Law regards equity. Co. Litt. 24. 
  Jus superveniens auctori accressit successors. A right owing to a 
     possessor accrues to a successor. 
  Justicia est virtus excellens et Altissimo complacens. Justice is an 
     excellent virtue and pleasing to the Most high. 4 inst. 58. 
  Justitia nemine neganda est. Justice is not to be denied. Jenk. Cent. 178. 
  Justitia non est neganda, non differenda. Justice is not to be denied nor 
     delayed. Jenk. Cent. 93. 
  Justitia non novit patrem nec matrem, solum veritatem spectat justitia. 
     Justice knows neither father nor mother, justice looks to truth alone. 1 
     Buls. 199. 
  La conscience est la plus changeante des regles. Conscience is the most 
     changeable of rules. 
  Lata culpa dolo aequiparatur. Gross negligence is equal to fraud. 
  Le contrat fait la loi. The contract makes the law. 
  Legatos violare contra jus gentium est. It is contrary to the law of nations 
     to violate the rights of ambassadors. 
  Legatum morte testatoris tantum confirmatur, sicut donatio inter vivos 
     traditione sola. A legacy is confirmed by the death of the testator, in 
     the same manner as a gift from a living person is by delivery alone. 
     Dyer, 143. 
  Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant. Subsequent laws repeal those 
     before enacted to the contrary. 2 Rol. R. 410; 11 Co. 626, 630. 
  Leges humanae nascuntur, vivunt et moriuntur. Human laws are born, live and 
     die. 7 co. 25. 
  Leges non verbis sed regus sunt impositae. Laws, not words, are imposed on 
     things. 10 Co. 101. 
  Legibus sumptis disinentibus, lege naturae utendum est. When laws imposed by 
     the state fail, we must act by the law of nature. 2 Roll. R. 298. 
  Legis constructio non facit injuriam. The construction of law does no wrong. 
     Co. Litt. 183. 
  Legis figendi et refigendi consuetudo periculosissima est. The custom of 
     fixing and refixing (making and annulling) laws is most dangerous. 4 Co. 
     Ad. Lect. 
  Legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. The construction of law obtains the 
     force of law. 
  Legislatorum est viva vox, rebus et non verbis, legem imponere. The voice of 
     legislators is a living voice, to impose laws on things and not on words. 
     10 Co. 101. 
  Legis minister non tenetur, in executione officii sui fugere aut 
     retrocedere. The minister of the law is not bound, in the execution of 
     his office, neither to fly nor retreat. 6 Co. 68. 
  Legitime imperanti parere necesse est. One who commands lawfully must be 
     obeyed. Jenk. Cent. 120. 
  Les fictions naissent de la loi, et non la loi des fictions. Fictions arise 
     from the law, and not law from fictions. 
  Lex aliquando sequitur aequitatem. The law sometimes follows equity. 3 Wils. 
  Lex aequitate guadet; appetit perfectum; est norma recti. The law delights 
     in equity; it covets perfection; it is a rule of right. Jenk. Cent. 36. 
  Lex beneficialis rei consimili remedium praestat. A beneficial law affords a 
     remedy in a similar case. 2 Co. Inst. 689. 
  Lex citius tolerare vult privatum damnum quam publicum malum. The law would 
     rather tolerate a private wrong than a public evil. Co. Litt. 152. 
  Lex de futuro, judex de praeterito. The law provides for the future, the 
     judge for the past. 
  Lex deficere non potest in justitia exhibenda. The law ought not to fail in 
     dispensing justice. Co. Litt. 197. 
  Lex dilationes semper exhorret. The law always abhors delay. 2 Co. Inst. 
  Lex est ab aeterno. The law is from everlasting. 
  Lex est dictamen rationis. Law is the dictate of reason. Jenk. Cent. 117. 
  Lex est norma recti. Law is a rule of right. 
  Lex est ratio summa, quae jubet quae sunt utilia et necessaria, et contraria 
     prohibet. Law is the perfection of reason, which commands what is useful 
     and necessary and forbids the contrary. Co. Litt. 319. 
  Lex est sanctio sancta, jubens honesta, et prohibens contraria. Law is a 
     scared sanction, commanding what is right and prohibiting the contrary. 2 
     Co. Inst. 587. 
  Lex favet doti. The law favors dower. 
  Lex fingit ubi subsistit aequitas. Law feigns where equity subsists. 11 Co. 
  Lex intendit vicinum vicini facta scire. The law presumes that one neighbor 
     knows the actions of another. Co. Litt. 78. 
  Lex judicat de rebus necessario faciendis quasire ipsa factis. The law 
     judges of things which must necessarily be done, as if actually done. 
  Lex necessitatis est lex temporis, i.e. instantis. The law of necessity is 
     the law of time, that is, time present. Hob. 159. 
  Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu inutilia peragenda. The forces no one to do 
     vain or useless things. 
  Lex nemini facit injuriam. The law does wrong to no one. lex nemini operatur 
     iniquum, nemini facit injuriam. The law never works an injury, or does 
     him a wrong. jenk. Cent. 22. 
  Lex nil facit frustra, nil jubet frustra. The law does nothing and commands 
     nothing in vain. 3 Buls. 279; Jenk. Cent. 17. 
  Lex non cogit impossibilia. The law requires nothing impossible. Co. Litt. 
     231, b; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 951. 
  Lex non curat de minimis. The law does not regard small matters. Hob. 88. 
  Lex non cogit ad impossibilia. The law forces not to impossibilities. Hob. 
  Lex non praecipit inutilia, quia inutilis labor stultus. The law commands 
     not useless things, because useless labor is foolish. Co. Litt. 197. 
  Lex non deficit in justitia exibenda. The law does not fail in showing 
  Lex non intendit aliquid impossibile. The law intends not anything 
     impossible. 12 Co. 89. 
  Lex non requirit verificare quod apparet curiae. The law does not require 
     that to be proved, which is apparent to the court. 9 Co. 54. 
  Lex plus laudatur quando ratione probatur. The law is the more praised when 
     it is consonant to reason. 
  Lex prospicit, non respicit. The law looks forward, not backward. 
  Lex punit mendacium. The law punishes falsehood. 
  Lex rejicit superflua, pugnantia, incongrua. The law rejects superfluous, 
     contradictory and incongruous things. 
  Lex reprobat moram. The law dislikes delay. 
  Lex semper dabit remedium. The law always gives a remedy. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Lex spectat naturae ordinem. The law regards the order of nature. Co. Litt. 
  Lex succurit ignoranti. The laws succor the ignorant. 
  Lex semper intendit quod convenit ratione. The law always intends what is 
     agreeable to reason. Co. Litt. 78. 
  Lex uno ore omnes alloquitur. The law speaks to all with one mouth. 2 Inst. 
  Libertas inaestimabilis res est. Liberty is an inestimable good. Dig. 50, 
     17, 106. 
  Liberum corpus aestimationem non recipit. The body of a freeman does not 
     admit of valuation. 
  Licet dispositio de interesse furture sit inutilis, tamen potest fieri 
     declaratio praecedens quae fortiatur effectum interveniente novo actu. 
     Although the grant of a future interest be inoperative, yet a declaration 
     precedent may be made, which may take effect, provided a new act 
     intervene. Bacon's Max. Reg. 14. 
  Licita bene miscentur, formula nisi juris obstet. Things permitted should be 
     well contrived, lest the form of the law oppose. Bacon's Max. Reg. 24. 
  Linea recta semper praefertur transversali. The right line is always 
     preferred to the collateral. Co. Litt. 10. 
  Locus contractus regit actum. The place of the contract governs the act. 
  Longa possessio est pacis jus. Long possession is the law of peace. Co. 
     Litt. 6. 
  Longa possessio parit jus possidendi, et tollit actionem vero domino. Long 
     possession produces the right of possession, and takes away from the true 
     owner his action. Co. Litt. 110. 
  Longum tempus, et longus usus qui excedit memoria hominum, sufficit pro 
     jure. Long time and long use, beyond the memory of man, suffices for 
     right. Co. Litt. 115. 
  Loquendum ut vulgus, sentiendum ut docti. We speak as the common people, we 
     must think as the learned. 7 Co. 11. 
  Magister rerum usus; magistra rerum experientia. Use is the master of 
     things; experience is the mistress of things. Co. Litt. 69, 229. 
  Manga negligentia culpa est, magna culpa dolus est. Gross negligence is a 
     fault, gross fault is a fraud. Dig 50, 16, 226. 
  Magna culpa dolus est. Great neglect is equivalent to fraud. Dig. 50, 16, 
     226; 2 Spears, R. 256; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 646. 
  Mahemium est inter crimina majora minimum et inter minora maximum. Mayhem 
     is the least of great crimes, and the greatest of small. Co. Litt. 127. 
  Mahemium est homicidium inchoatum. Mayhem is incipient homicide. 3 Inst. 
  Major haeriditas venit unicuique nostrum a jure et legibus quam a 
     parentibus. A greater inheritance comes to every one of us from right and 
     the laws than from parents. 2 Co. Inst. 56. 
  Major numerus in se continet minorem. The greater number contains in itself 
     the less. 
  Majore paena affectus quam legibus statuta est, non est infamis. One 
     affected with a greater punishment than is provided by law, is not 
     infamous. 4 Co. Inst. 66. 
  Majori continet in se minus. The greater includes the less. 19 Vin. Abr. 
  Majus dignum trahit in se minus dignum. The more worthy or the greater draws 
     to it the less worthy or the lesser. 5 Vin. Abr. 584, 586. 
  Majus est delictum seipsum occidare quam alium. it is a greater crime to 
     kill one's self than another. 
  Mala grammatica non vitiat chartam; sed in expositione instrumentorum mala 
     grammatica quoad fieri possit evitanda est. Bad grammar does not vitiate 
     a deed; but in the construction of instruments, bad grammar, as far as it 
     can be done, is to be avoided. 6 Co. 39. 
  Maledicta est expositio quae corrumpit textum. It is a bad construction 
     which corrupts the text. 4 Co. 35. 
  Maleficia non debent remanere impunita, et impunitas continuum affectum 
     tribuit delinquenti. Evil deeds ought not to remain unpunished, for 
     impunity affords continual excitement to the delinquent. 4 Co. 45. 
  Malificia propositus distinguuntur. Evil deeds are distinguished from evil 
     purposes. Jenk. Cent. 290. 
  Malitia est acida, est mali animi affectus. Malice is sour, it is the 
     quality of a bad mind. 2 Buls. 49. 
  Malitia supplet aetatem. Malice supplies age. Dyer, 104. See Malice. 
  Malum hominun est obviandum. The malice of men is to be avoided. 4 Co. 15. 
  Malum non praesumitur. Evil is not presumed. 4 Co. 72. 
  Malum quo communius eo pejus. The more common the evil, the worse. 
  Malus usus est abolendus. An evil custom is to be abolished. Co. Litt. 141. 
  Mandata licita recipiunt strictam interpretationem, sed illicita latam et 
     extensam. lawful commands receive a strict interpretation, but unlawful, 
     a wide or broad construction. Bacon's Max. Reg. 16. 
  Mandatarius terminos sobi positos transgredi non potest. A mandatory cannot 
     exceed the bounds of his authority. Jenk. Cent. 53. 
  Mandatum nisi gratuitum nullum est. Unless a mandate is gratuitous it is not 
     a mandate. Dig. 17, 1, 4; Inst. 3, 27; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1070. 
  Manifesta probatione non indigent. Manifest things require no proof. 7 Co. 
  Maris et faeminae conjunctio est de jure naturae. The union of husband and 
     wife is founded on the law of nature. 7 Co. 13. 
  Matrimonia debent esse libera. Marriages ought to be free. 
  Matrimonium subsequens tollit peccatum praecedens. A subsequent marriage 
     cures preceding criminality. 
  Maxime ita dicta quia maxima ejus dignitas et certissima auctoritas, atque 
     quod maxime omnibus probetur. A maxim is so called because its dignity is 
     chiefest, and its authority most certain, and because universally 
     approved by all. Co. Litt. 11. 
  Maxime paci sunt contraria, vis et injuria. The greatest enemies to peace 
     are force and wrong. Co. Litt. 161. 
  Melior est justitia vere praeveniens quam severe pumens. That justice which 
     justly prevents a crime, is better than that which severely punishes it. 
  Melior est conditio possidentis et rei quam actoris. Better is the condition 
     of the possessor and that of the defendant than that of the plaintiff. 4 
     Co. Inst. 180. 
  Melior est causa possidentis. The cause of the possessor is preferable. Dig. 
     50, 17, 126, 2,. 
  Melior est conditio possidentis, ubi neuter jus habet. Better is the 
     condition of the possessor, where neither of the two has a right. Jenk. 
     Cent. 118. 
  Meliorem conditionem suum facere potest minor, deteriorem nequaquam. A minor 
     can improve or make his condition better, but never worse. Co. Litt. 337. 
  Melius est omnia mala pati quam malo concentire. It is better to suffer 
     every wrong or ill, than to consent to it. 3 Co. Inst. 23. 
  Melius est recurrere quam malo currere. It is better to recede than to 
     proceed in evil. 4 Inst. 176. 
  Melius est in tempore occurrere, quam post causam vulneratum remedium 
     quaerere. It is better to restrain or meet a thing in time, than to see a 
     remedy after a wrong has been inflicted. 2 Inst. 299. 
  Mens testatoris in testamentis spectanda est. In wills, the intention of the 
     testator is to be regarded. Jenk. Cent. 277. 
  Mentiri est contra mentem ire. To lie is to go against the mind. 3 Buls. 
  Merx est quidquid vendi potest. Merchandise is whatever can be sold. 3 Metc. 
     365. Vide Merchandise. 
  Mercis appellatio ad res mobiles tantum pertinet. The term merchandise 
     belongs to movable things only. Dig. 50, 16, 66. 
  Minima paena corporalis est major qualibet pecuniaria. The smallest bodily 
     punishment is greater than any pecuniary one. 2 Inst. 220. 
  Minime mutanda sunt quae certam habuerent interpretationem. Things which 
     have had a certain interpretation are to be altered as little as 
     possible. Co. Litt. 365. 
  Minor ante tempus agere non potest in casu proprietatis, nec etiam 
     convenire. A minor before majority cannot act in a case of property, nor 
     even agree. 2 Inst. 291. 
  Minor minorem custodire non debet, alios enim praesumitur male regere qui 
     seipsum regere nuscit. A minor ought not to be guardian of a minor, for 
     he is unfit to govern others who does not know how to govern himself. Co. 
     Litt. 88. 
  Misera est servitus, ubi jus est vagum aut incertum. It is a miserable 
     slavery where the law is vague or uncertain. 4 Co. Inst. 246. 
  Mitius imperanti melius paretur. The more mildly one commands the better is 
     he obeyed. 3 Co. Inst. 24. 
  Mibilia personam sequuntur, immobilia situm. Movable things follow the 
     person, immovable their locality. 
  Modica circumstantia facti jus mutat. The smallest circumstance may change 
     the law. 
  Modus et conventio vincunt legem. Manner and agreement overrule the law. 2 
     Co. 73. 
  Modus legel dat donationi. The manner gives law to a gift. Co. Litt. 19 a. 
  Moneta est justum medium et mensura rerum commutabilium, nam per medium 
     monetae fit omnium rerum conveniens, et justa aestimatio. Money is the 
     just medium and measure of all commutable things, for, by the medium of 
     money, a convenient and just estimation of all things is made. Dav. 18. 
     See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 922. 
  Mora reprobatur in lege. Delay is disapproved of in law. 
  Mors dicitur ultimum supplicium. Death is denominated the extreme penalty. 3 
     Inst. 212. 
  Mortuus exitus non est exitus. To be dead born is not to be born. Co. Litt. 
     29. See 2 Paige, 35; Domat, liv. prel. t. 2, s. 1, n. 4, 6; 2 Bouv. Inst. 
     n. 1721 and 1935. 
  Multa conceduntur per obliquum quae non conceduntur de directo. Many things 
     are conceded indirectly which are not allowed directly. 6 Co. 47. 
  Multa in jure communi contra rationem disputandi pro communi ultilitate 
     introducta sunt. Many things have been introduced into the common law, 
     with a view to the public good, which are inconsistent with sound reason. 
     Co. Litt. 70; Broom's Max. 67; 2 Co. R. 75. See 3 T. R. 146; 7 T. R. 252. 
  Multa multo exercitatione facilius quam regulis percipies. You will perceive 
     many things more easily by practice than by rules. 4 Co. Inst. 50. 
  Multa non vetat lex. quae tamen tacite damnavit. The law forbids many 
     things, which yet it has silently condemned. 
  Multa transeunt cum universitate quae non per se transeunt. Many things pass 
     as a whole which would not pass separately. 
  Multi multa, non omnia novit. Many men know many things, no one knows 
     everything. 4 Co. Inst. 348. 
  Multiplex et indistinctum parit confusionem; et questiones quo simpliciores, 
     eo lucidiores. Multiplicity and indistinctness produce confusion; the 
     more simple questions are the more lucid. Hob. 335. 
  Multiplicata transgressione crescat paenae inflictio. The increase of 
     punishment should be in proportion to the increase of crime. 2 Co. Inst. 
  Multitudo errantium non parit errori patrocinium. The multitude of those who 
     err is no excuse for error. 11 Co. 75. 
  Multitudo imperitorum perdit curiam. A multitude of ignorant practitioners 
     destroys a court. 2 Co. Inst. 219. 
  Natura appetit perfectum, ita et lex. Nature aspires to perfection, and so 
     does the law. Hob. 144. 
  Natura non facit saltum, ita nec lex. nature makes no leap, nor does the 
     law. Co. Litt. 238. 
  Natura no facit vacuum, nec lex supervacuum. Nature makes no vacuum, the law 
     no supervacuum. Co. Litt. 79. 
  Naturae vis maxima, natura bis maxima. The force of nature is greatest; 
     nature is doubly great. 2 Co. Inst. 564. 
  Necessarium est quod non potest aliter se habere. That is necessity which 
     cannot be dispensed with. 
  Necessitas est lex temporis et loci. Necessity is the law of a particular 
     time and place. 8 Co. 69; H. H. P. C. 54. 
  Necessitas excusat aut extenuat delicium in capitalibus, quod non operatur 
     idem in civilibus. Necessity excuses or extenuates delinquency in capital 
     cases, but not in civil. Vide Necessity. 
  Necessitas facit licitum quod alias non est licitum. Necessity makes that 
     lawful which otherwise is unlawful. 10 Co. 61. 
  Necessitas inducit privilegium quoad jura privata. Necessity gives a 
     preference with regard to private rights. Bacon's Max. REg. 5. 
  Necessitas non habet legem. Necessity has no law. Plowd. 18. See Necessity, 
     and 15 Vin. Ab. 534; 22 Vin. Ab. 540. 
  Necessitas publica major est quam private. Public necessity is greater than 
     private. Bacon's Max. in REg. 5. 
  Necessitas quod cogit, defendit. Necessity defends what it compels. H. H. P. 
     C. 54. 
  Necessitas vincit legem. Necessity overcomes the law. Hob. 144. 
  Negatio conclusionis est error in lege. The negative of a conclusion is 
     error in law. Wing. 268. 
  Negatio destruit negationem, et ambae faciunt affirmativum. A negative 
     destroys a negative, and both make an affirmative. Co. Litt. 146. 
  Negatio duplex est affirmatio. A double negative is an affirmative. 
  Negligentia semper habet infortuniam comitem. Negligence has misfortune for 
     a companion. Co. Litt. 246. 
  Neminem oportet esse sapientiorem legibus. No man ought to be wiser than the 
     law. Co. Litt. 97. 
  Nemo admittendus est inhabilitare seipsum. No one is allowed to incapacitate 
     himself. Jenk. Cent. 40. Sed vide "To stultify," and 5 Whart. 371. 
  Nemo agit in seipsum. No man acts against himself; Jenk. Cent. 40; therefore 
     no man can be a judge in his own cause. 
  Nemo allegans suam turpitudinem, audiendus est. No one alleging his own 
     turpitude is to be heard as a witness. 4 Inst. 279. 
  Nemo bis punitur por eodem delicto. No one can be punished twice for the 
     same crime or misdemeanor. See Non bis in idem. 
  Nemo cogitur rem suam vendere, etiam justo pretio. No one is bound to sell 
     his property, even for a just price. Sed vide Eminent Domain. 
  Nemo contra factum suum venire potest. No man ca contradict his own deed. 2 
     Inst. 66. 
  Nemo damnum facit, nisi qui id fecit quod facere jus non habet. No one is 
     considered as committing damages, unless he is doing what he has no right 
     to do. dig. 50, 17, 151. 
  Nemo dat qui non habet. No one can give who does not possess. Jenk. Cent. 
  Nemo de domo sua extrahi debet. A citizen cannot be taken by force from his 
     house to be conducted before a judge or to prison. Dig. 50, 17. This 
     maxim in favor of Roman liberty is much the same as that "every man's 
     house is his castle." 
  Nemo debet esse judex in propria causa. No one should be judge in his own 
     cause. 12 Co. 113. 
  Nemo debet ex aliena jactura lucrari. No one ought to gain by another's 
  Nemo debet immiscere se rei alienae ad se nihil pertinenti. No one should 
     interfere in what no way concerns him. 
  Nemo debet rem suam sine facto aut defectu suo amittere. No one should lose 
     his property without his act or negligence. Co. Litt. 263. 
  Nemo est haeres viventes. No one is an heir to the living. 2 Bl. Com. 107; 1 
     Vin. Ab. 104, tit. Abeyance; Merl. Rep. verbo Abeyance; Co. Litt. 342; 2 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 1694, 1832. 
  Nemo ex suo delicto melioroem suam conditionem facere potest. No one can 
     improve his condition by a crime. Dig. 50, 17, 137. 
  Nemo ex alterius facto praegravari debet. No man ought to be burdened in 
     consequence of another's act. 
  Nemo ex consilio obligatur. No man is bound for the advice he gives. 
  Nemo in propria causa testis ese debet. No one can be a witness in his own 
     cause. But to this rule there are many exceptions. 
  Nemo inauditus condemnari debet, si non sit contumax. No man ought to be 
     condemned unheard, unless he be contumacious. 
  Nemo nascitur artifex. No one is born an artist. Co. LItt. 97. 
  Nemo patriam in qua natus est exuere, nec ligeantiae debitum ejurare possit. 
     No man can renounce the country in which he was born, nor abjure the 
     obligation of his allegiance. Co. LItt. 129. Sed vide Allegiance; 
     Expatriation; Naturalization. 
  Nemo plus juris ad alienum transfere potest, quam ispe habent. One cannot 
     transfer to another a right which he has not. Dig. 50, 17, 54; 10 Pet. 
     161, 175. 
  Nemo praesens nisi intelligat. One is not present unless he understands. See 
  Nemo potest contra recordum verificare per patriam. No one can verify by the 
     country against a record. The issue upon a record cannot be tried by a 
  Nemo potest esse tenes et dominus. No man can be at the same time tenant and 
     landlord of the same tenement. 
  Nemo potest facere per alium quod per se non potest. No one can do that by 
     another which he cannot do by himself. 
  Nemo potest sibi devere. No one can owe to himself. See Confusion of Rights. 
  Nemo praesumitur alienam posteritatem suae praetulisse. NO one is presumed 
     to have preferred another's posterity to his own. 
  Nemo praesumitur donare. No one is presumed to give. 
  Nemo praesumitur esse immemor suae aeternae salutis, et maxime in articulo 
     mortis. No man is presumed to be forgetful of his eternal welfare, and 
     particularly at the point of death. 6 Co. 76. 
  Nemo praesumitur malus. No one is presumed to be bad. 
  Nemo praesumitru ludere in extremis. No one is presumed to trifle at the 
     point of death. 
  Nemo prohibetur plures negotiationes sive artes exercere. No one is 
     restrained from exercising several kinds of business or arts. 11 Co. 54. 
  Nemo prohibetur pluribus defensionibus uti. No one is restrained from using 
     several defences. Co. Litt. 304. 
  Nemo prudens punit ut praeterita revocentur, sed ut futura praeveniantur. No 
     wise one punishes that things done may be revoked, but that future wrongs 
     may be prevented. 3 Buls. 173. 
  Nemo punitur pro alieno delicto. No one is to be punished for the crime or 
     wrong of another. 
  Nemo punitur sine injuria, facto, seu defalto. No one is punished unless for 
     some wrong, act or default. 2 Co. Inst. 287. 
  Nemo, qui condemnare potest, absolvere non potest. He who may condemn may 
     acquit. Dig. 50, 17, 37. 
  Nemo tenetur seipsum accusare. No one is bound to accuse himself. 
  Nemo tenetur ad impossibile. No one is bound to an impossibility. 
  Nemo tenetur armare adversarum contra se. No one is bound to arm his 
  Nemo tenetur divinare. No one is bound to foretell. 4 Co. 28. 
  Nemo tenetur informare qui nescit, sed quisquis scire quod informat. No one 
     is bound to inform about a thing he knows not, but he who gives 
     information is bound to know what he says. Lane, 110. 
  Nemo tenetur jurare in suam turpitudinem. No one is bound to testify to his 
     own baseness. 
  Nemo tenetur seipsam infortunis et periculis exponere. No one is bound to 
     expose himself to misfortune and dangers. Co. Litt. 253. 
  Nemo tenetur seipsum accusare. No man is bound to accuse himself. 
  Nemo videtur fraudare eos qui sciunt, et consentiunt. One cannot complain of 
     having been deceived when he knew the fact and gave his consent. Dig. 50, 
     17, 145. 
  Nihil dat qui non habet. He gives nothing who has nothing. 
  Nihil de re accrescit ei qui nihil in re quando jus accresceret habet. 
     Nothing accrues to him, who, when the right accrues, has nothing in the 
     subject matter. Co. Litt. 188. 
  Nihil facit error nominis cum de corpore constat. An error in the name is 
     nothing when there is certainty as to the person. 11 Co. 21. 
  Nihil habet forum ex scena. The court has nothing to do with what is not 
     before it. 
  Nihil infra regnum subditos magis conservat in tranquilitate et concordia 
     quam debita legum administratio. Nothing preserves in tranquility and 
     concord those who are subjected to the same government better than a due 
     administration of the laws. 2 Co. Inst. 158. 
  Nihil in lege intolerabilius est, eandem rem diverso jure censeri. Nothing 
     in law is more intolerable than to apply the law differently to the same 
     cases. 4 Co. 93. 
  Nihil magis justum est quam quod necessarium est. Nothing is more just that 
     what is necessary. Dav. 12. 
  Nihil perfectum est dum aliquid restat agendum. Nothing is perfect while 
     something remains to be done. 2 co. 9. 
  Nihil possumus contra veritatem. We can do nothing against truth. Doct. & 
     Stu. Dial. 2, c. 6. 
  Nihil quod est contra rationem est licitum. Nothing against reason is 
     lawful. Co. Litt. 97. 
  Nihil quod inconveniens est licitum est. Nothing inconvenient is lawful. 
  Nihil simul inventum est et perfectum. Nothing is invented and perfected at 
     the same moment. Co. Litt. 230. 
  Nihil tam naturale est, quam eo genere quidque dissolvere, quo colligatum 
     est. It is very natural that an obligation should not be dissolved but by 
     the same principles which were observed in contracting it. Dig. 50, 17, 
     35. See 1 Co. 100; 2 Co. Inst. 359. 
  Nihil tam conveniens est naturali aequitati, quam voluntatem domini voluntis 
     rem suam in alium transferre, ratam haberi. Nothing is more conformable 
     to natural equity, than to confirm the will of an owner who desires to 
     transfer his property to another. Inst. 2, 1, 40; 1 Co. 100. 
  Nil tamere novandum. Nothing should be rashly changed. Jenk. Cent. 163. 
  Nil facit error nominis, si de corpore constat. An error in the name is 
     immaterial, if the body is certain. 
  Nimia subtilitas in jure reporbatur. Too much subtlety is reprobated in law. 
  Nimium altercando veritas amiltitur. By too much altercation truth is lost. 
     Hob. 344. 
  No man is presumed to do anything against nature. 22 Vin. Ab. 154. 
  No man shall take by deed but parties, unless in remainder. 
  No man can hold the same land immediately of two several landlords. Co. 
     Litt. 152. 
  No man shall set up his infamy as a defence. 2 W. Bl. 364. 
  Necessity creates equity. 
  No one may be judge in his own cause. 
  Nobiliores et beniginores presumptiones in dubiis sunt praeferendae. When 
     doubts arise the most generous and benign presumptions are to be 
  Nomen est quasi rei notamen. A name is, as it were, the note of a thing. 11 
     Co. 20. 
  Nomen non sufficit si res non sit de jure aut de facto. A name does not 
     suffice if there be not a thing by law or by fact. 4 Co. 107. 
  Nomina si nescis perit cognitio rerum. If you know not the names of things, 
     the knowledge of things themselves perishes. Co. Litt. 86. 
  Nomina sunt notae rerum. Names are the notes of things. 11 Co. 20. 
  Nomina sunt mutabilia, res autem immobiles. Names are mutable, but things 
     immutable. 6 Co. 66. 
  Nomina sunt symbola rerum. Names are the symbols of things. 
  Non accipi debent verba in demonstrationem falsam, quae competunt in 
     limitationem veram. Words ought not to be accepted to import a false 
     demonstration which have effect by way of true limitation. Bacon's Max. 
     Reg. 13. 
  Non alio modo puniatur aliquis, quam secundum quod se habet condemnatio. A 
     person may not be punished differently than according to what the sentence
     enjoins. 3 Co. Inst. 217. 
  Non concedantur citationes priusquam exprimatur super qua ne fieri debet 
     citatio. Summonses or citations should not be granted before it is 
     expressed under the circumstances whether the summons ought to be made. 
     12 Co. 47. 
  Non auditor perire volens. One who wishes to perish ought not to be heard. 
     Best on Evidence, Sec. 385. 
  Non consentit qui errat. He who errs does not consent. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Non debet, cui plus licet, quod minus est, non licere. He who is permitted 
     to do the greater, may with greater reason do the less. Dig. 50, 17, 21. 
  Non decipitur qui scit se decipi. He is not deceived who know himself to be 
     deceived. 5 co. 60. 
  Non definitur in jure quid sit conatus. What an attempt is, is not defined 
     in law. 6 Co. 42. 
  Non differunt quae concordant re, tametsi non in verbis iisdem. Those things 
     which agree in substance though not in the same words, do not differ. 
     Jenk. Cent. 70. 
  Non effecit affectus nisi sequatur effectus. The intention amounts to 
     nothing unless some effect follows. 1 Roll. R. 226. 
  Non est arctius vinculum inter homines quam jusjurandum. There is no 
     stronger link among men than an oath. Jenk. Cent. 126. 
  Non est disputandum contra principia negantem. There is no disputing against 
     a man denying principles. Co. Litt. 343. 
  Non est recedendum a communi observantia. There is no departing from a 
     common observance. 2 Co. 74. 
  Non est regula quin fallat. There is no rule but what may fail. Off. Ex. 
  Non est certandum de regulis juris. There is no disputing about rules of 
  Non faciat malum, ut inde veniat bonum. You are not to do evil that good may 
     come of it. 11 Co. 74. 
  Non impedit clausula derogatoria, quo minus ab eadem potestate res 
     dissolvantur a quibus constitutuntur. A derogatory clause does not 
     prevent things or acts from being dissolved by the same power, by which 
     they were originally made. Bacon's Max. Reg. 19. 
  Non in legendo sed in intelligendo leges consistunt. The laws consist not in 
     being read, but in being understood. 8 co. 167. 
  Non Licet quod dispendio licet. That which is permitted only at a loss, is 
     not permitted to be done. Co. Litt. 127. 
  Non nasci, et natum mori, pari sunt. Not to be born, and to be dead born, is 
     the same. 
  Non obligat lex nisi promulgata. A law is not obligatory unless it be 
  Non observata forma, infertur adnullatio actus. When the form is not 
     observed, it is inferred that the act is annulled. 12 Co. 7. 
  Non omne quod licet honestum est. Everything which is permitted is not 
     becoming. Dig. 50, 17, 144. 
  Non omne damnum inducit injuriam. Not every loss produces an injury. See 3 
     Bl. Com. 219; 1 Smith's Lead. Cas. 131; Broom's Max. 93; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Non omnium quae a majoribus nostris constituta sunt ratio reddit potest. A 
     reason cannot always be given for the institutions of our ancestors. 4 
     Co. 78. 
  Non potest adduci exception ejusdem rei cujus petitur dissolutio. A plea of 
     the same matter, the dissolution of which is sought by the action, cannot 
     be brought forward. Bacon's Max. Reg. 2. When an action is brought to 
     annul a proceeding, the defendant cannot plead such proceeding in bar. 
  Non praestat impedimentum quod de jure non sortitur effectum. A thing which 
     has no effect in law, is not an impediment. Jenk. Cent. 162. 
  Non quod dictum est, sed quod factum est, inspicitur. Not what is said, but 
     what is done, is to be regarded. Co. Litt. 36. 
  Non refert an quis assensum suum praefert verbis, an rebus ipsis et factis. 
     It is immaterial whether a man gives his assent by words or by acts and 
     deeds. 10 Co. 52. 
  Non refert quid ex aequipolentibus fiat. What may be gathered from words of 
     tantamount meaning, is of no consequence when omitted. 5 Co. 122. 
  Non refert quid notum sit judice si notum non sit in forma judici. It 
     matters not what is known to the judge, if it is not known to him 
     judicially. 3 Buls. 115. 
  Non refert verbis an factis fit revocatio. It matters not whether a 
     revocation be by words or by acts. Cro. Car. 49. 
  Non solum quid licet, sed quidest conveniens considerandum, quia nihil quod 
     inconveniens est licitum. Not only what is permitted, but what is proper, 
     is to be considered, because what is improper is illegal. Co. Litt. 66. 
  Non sunt longa ubi nihil est quod demere possis. There is no prolixity where 
     nothing can be omitted. Vaugh. 138. 
  Non temere credere, est nervus sapientae. Not to believe rashly is the nerve 
     of wisdom. 5 Co. 114. 
  Non videtur quisquam id capere, quod ei necesse est alii restituere. One is 
     not considered as acquiring property in a thing which he is bound to 
     restore. Dig. 50, 17, 51. 
  Non videntur qui errant consentire. He who errs is not considered as 
     consenting. Dig. 50, 17, 116. 
  Non videtur consensum retinuisse si quis ex praescripto minantis aliquid 
     immutavit. He does not appear to have retained his consent, if he have 
     changed anything through the means of a party threatening. Bacon's Max. 
     Reg. 33. 
  Novatio non praesumitur. A novation is not presumed. See Novation. 
  Novitas non tam utilitate prodest quam novitate perturbat. Novelty benefits 
     not so much by its utility, as it disturbs by its novelty. Jenk. Cent. 
  Novum judicium non dat novum jus, sed declarat antiquum. A new judgment does 
     not make a new law, but declares the old. 10 Co. 42. 
  Nul ne doit s'enrichir aux depens des autres. No one ought to enrich himself 
     at the expense of others. 
  Nul prendra advantage de son tort demesne. No one shall take advantage of 
     his own wrong. 
  Nulla impossibilia aut inhonesta sunt praesumenda. Impossibilities and 
     dishonesty are not to be presumed. Co. Litt. 78. 
  Nulle regle sans faute. There is no rule without a fault. 
  Nulli enim res sua servit jure servitutis. No one can have a servitude over 
     his own property. Dig. 8, 2, 26; 17 Mass. 443; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1600. 
  Nullum exemplum est idem omnibus. No example is the same for all purposes. 
  Nullum iniquum praesumendum in jure. Nothing unjust is presumed in law. 4 
     Co. 72. 
  Nullum simile est idem. No simile is the same. Co. Litt. 3. 
  Nullus commodum capere potest de injuria sua propria. No one shall take 
     advantage of his own wrong. Co. Litt. 148. 
  Nullus recedat e curia concellaria sine remedio. No one ought to depart out 
     of the court of chancery without a remedy. 
  Nunquam fictio sine lege. There is no fiction without law. 
  Nuptias non concubitas, sed consensus facit. Cohabitation does not make the 
     marriage, it is the consent of the parties. Dig 50, 17, 30; 1 Bouv. Inst. 
     n. 239; Co. Litt. 33. 
  Obedientia est legis essentia. Obedience is the essence of the law. 11 Co. 
  Obtemperandum est consuetudini rationabili tanquam legi. A reasonable custom 
     is to be obeyed like law. 4 Co. 38. 
  Officers may not examine the judicial acts of the court. 
  Officia magistratus non debent esse venalia. The offices of magistrates 
     ought not to be sold. Co. Litt. 234. 
  Officia judicialia non concedantur antequam vacent. Judicial offices ought 
     not to be granted before they are vacant. 11 Co. 4. 
  Officit conatus si effectus sequatur. The attempt becomes of consequence, if 
     the effect follows. 
  Officium nemini debet esse damnosum. An office ought to be injurious to no 
  Omissio eorum quae tacite insunt nihil operatur. The omission of those 
     things which are silently expressed is of no consequence. 
  Omne actum ab intentione agentis est judicandum. Every act is to be 
     estimated by the intention of the doer. 
  Omne crimen ebrietas et incendit et detegit. Drunkenness inflames and 
     produces every crime. Co. Litt. 247. 
  Omne magis dignum trahit ad se minus dignum sit antiquius. Every worthier 
     thing draws to it the less worthy, though the latter be more ancient. Co. 
     Litt. 355. 
  Omne magnum exemplum habet aliquid ex iniquio, quod publica utilitate 
     compensatur. Every great example has some portion of evil, which is 
     compensated by its public utility. Hob. 279. 
  Omne majus continet in se minus. The greater contains in itself the less. 
     Co. Litt. 43. 
  Omne majus minus in se complecitur. Always the greater is embraced in the 
     minor. Jenk. Cent. 208. 
  Omne testamentum morte consummatum est. Every will is consummated by death. 
     3 Co. 29. 
  Omne sacramentum debet esse de certa scientia. Every oath ought to be 
     founded on certain knowledge. 4 Co. Inst. 279. 
  Omnia delicta in aperto leviora sunt. All crimes committed openly are 
     considered lighter. 8 co. 127. 
  Omnia praesumuntur contra spoliatorem. All things are presumed against a 
     wrong doer. 
  Omnia praesumuntur legitime facta donec probetur in contrarium. All things 
     are presumed to be done legitimately, until the contrary is proved. Co. 
     Litt. 232. 
  Omnia praesumuntur rite esse acta. All things are presumed to be done in due 
  Omnia praesumuntur solemniter esse acta. All things are presumed to be done 
     solemnly. Co. Litt. 6. 
  Omnia quae sunt uxoris sunt ipsius viri. All things which are of the wife, 
     belong to the husband. Co. Litt. 112. 
  Omnis actio est loquela. Every action is a complaint. Co. Litt. 292. 
  Omnis conclusio boni et veri judicii sequitur ex bonis et veris praemissis 
     et dictis juratorem. Every conclusion of a good and true judgment arises 
     from good and true premises, and the sayings of jurors. Co. Litt. 226. 
  Omnis consensus tollit errorem. Every consent removes error. 2 Inst. 123. 
  Omnis definitio in jure periculosa est; parum est enim ut non subverti 
     posset. Every definition in law is perilous, and but a little may reverse 
     it. Dig. 50, 17, 202. 
  Omnis exceptio est ipsa quoque regula. An exception is, in itself, a rule. 
  Omnis innovatio plus novitate perturbat quam utilitate prodest. Every 
     innovation disturbs more by its novelty than it benefits by its utility. 
  Omnis interpretatio si fieri potest ita fienda est in instrumentis, ut omnes 
     contrarietates amoveantur. The interpretation of instruments is to be 
     made, if they will admit of it, so that all contradictions may be 
     removed. Jenk. Cent. 96. 
  Omnis interpretatio vel declarat, vel extendit, vel restringit. Every 
     interpretation either declares, extends or restrains. 
  Omnis regula suas patitur exceptiones. All rules of law are liable to 
  Omnis privatio praesupponit habitum. Every privation presupposes former 
     enjoyment. Co. Litt. 339. 
  Omnis ratihabitio retro trahitur et mandato aequiparatur. Every consent 
     given to what has already been done, has a retrospective effect and 
     equals a command. Co. Litt. 207. 
  Once a fraud, always a fraud. 13 Vin. Ab. 539. 
  Once a mortgage always a mortgage. 
  Once a recompense always a recompense. 19 Vin. Ab. 277. 
  One should be just before he is generous. 
  One may not do an act to himself. 
  Oportet quod certa res deducatur in judicium. A thing, to be brought to 
     judgment, must be certain or definite. Jenk. Cent. 84. 
  Oportet quod certa sit res venditur. A thing, to be sold, must be certain or 
  Optima est lex, quae minimum relinquit arbitrio judicis. That is the best 
     system of law which confides as little as possible to the discretion of 
     the judge. Bac. De Aug. Sci. Aph. 46. 
  Optimam esse legem, quae minimum relinquit arbitrio judicis; id quod 
     certitudo ejus praestat. That law is the best which leaves the least 
     discretion to the judge; and this is an advantage which results from 
     certainty. Bacon, De Aug. Sc. Aph. 8. 
  Optimus judex, qui minimum sibi. He is the best judge who relies as little 
     as possible on his own discretion. Bac. De Aug. Sci. Aph. 46. 
  Optimus interpretandi modus est sic legis interpretare ut leges legibus 
     accordant. The best mode of interpreting laws is to make them accord. 8 
     Co. 169. 
  Optimus interpres rerum usus. Usage is the best interpreter of things. 2 
     Inst. 282. 
  Optimus legum interpres consuetudo. Custom is the best interpreter of laws. 
     4 Inst. 75. 
  Ordine placitandi servato, servatur et jus. The order of pleading being 
     preserved, the law is preserved. Co. Litt. 363. 
  Origo rei inspici debet. The origin of a thing ought to be inquired into. 1 
     Co. 99. 
  Paci sunt maxime contraria, vis et injuria. Force and wrong are greatly 
     contrary to peace. Co. Litt. 161. 
  Pacta privata juri publico derogare non possunt. Private contracts cannot 
     derogate from the public law. 7 Co. 23. 
  Pacto aliquod licitum est, quid sine pacto non admittitur. By a contract 
     something is permitted, which, without it, could not be admitted. Co. 
     Litt. 166. 
  Par in parem imperium non habet. An equal has no power over an equal. Jenk. 
     Cent. 174. Example: One of two judges of the same court cannot commit the 
     other for contempt. 
  Paria copulantur paribus. Things unite with similar things. paribus 
     sententiis reus absolvitur. When opinions are equal, a defendant is 
     acquitted. 4 Inst. 64. 
  Parte quacumque integranta sublata, tollitur totum. An integral part being 
     taken away, the whole is taken away. 3 Co. 41. 
  Partus ex legitimo thoro non certius noscit matrem quam genitorem suam. The 
     offspring of a legitimate bed knows not his mother more certainly than 
     his father. Fortes. c. 42. 
  Partus sequitur ventrem. The offspring follow the condition of the mother. 
     This is the law in the case of slaves and animals; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 167, 
     502; but with regard to freemen, children follow the condition of the 
  Parum differunt quae re concordant. Thing differ but little which agree in 
     substance. 2 Buls. 86. 
  Parum est latam esse sententiam, nisi mandetur executioni. It is not enough 
     that sentence should be given unless it is put in execution. Co. Litt. 
  Parum proficit scire quid fieri debet, si non cognoscas quomodo sit 
     facturum. It avails little to know what ought to be done, if you do not 
     know how it is to be done. 2 Co. Inst. 503. 
  Patria potestas in pietate debet, non in atrocitate consistere. Paternal 
     power should consist in affection, not in atrocity. 
  Pater is est quem nuptiae demonstrant. The father is he whom the marriage 
     points out. 1 Bl. Com. 446; 7 mart. N. S. 548, 553; Dig. 2, 4, 5; 1 Bouv. 
     Inst. n. 273, 304, 322. 
  Peccata contra naturam sunt gravissima. Offences against nature are the 
     heaviest. 3 Co. Inst. 20. 
  Peccatum peccato addit qui culpae quam facit patrocinium defensionis 
     adjungit. He adds one offence to another, who, when he commits a crime, 
     joins to it the protection of a defence. 5 Co. 49. 
  Per rerum naturam, factum negantis nulla probatio est. It is in the nature 
     of things that he who denies a fact is not bound to prove it. 
  Per varius actus, legem experientia facit. By various acts experience framed 
     the law. 4 Co. Inst. 50. 
  Perfectum est cui nihil deest secundum suae perfectionis vel naturae modum. 
     That is perfect which wants nothing in addition to the measure of its 
     perfection or nature. Hob. 151. 
  Periculosum est res novas et inusitatas inducere. It is dangerous to 
     introduce new and dangerous things. Co. Litt. 379. 
  Periculum rei venditae, nondum traditae, est emptoris. The purchaser runs 
     the risk of the loss of a thing sold, though not delivered. 1 Bouv. Inst. 
     n. 939; 4 B. & C. 941; 4 B. & C. 481. 
  Perpetua lex est, nullam legem humanum ac positivam perpetuam esse; et 
     clausula quae abrogationem excludit initio non valet. It is a perpetual 
     law that no human or positive law can be perpetual; and a clause in a law 
     which precludes the power of abrogation is void ab initio. Bacon's Max. 
     in Reg. 19. 
  Perpetuities are odious in law and equity. 
  Persona conjuncta aequiparatur interesse proprio. A person united equal 
     one's own interest. Bacon's Max. Reg. 18. This means that a personal 
     connexion, as nearness of blood or kindred, may in some cases, raise a 
  Perspicua vera non sunt probanda. Plain truths need not be proved. Co. Litt. 
  Pirata est hostis humani generis. A pirate is an enemy of the human race. 3 
     Co. Inst. 113. 
  Pluralis numerus est duobus contentus. The plural number is contained in 
     two. 1 Roll. R. 476. 
  Pluralities are odious in law. 
  Plures cohaeredes sunt quasi unum corpus, propter unitatem juris quod 
     habent. Several co-heirs are as one body, by reason of the unity of right 
     which they possess. Co. Litt. 163. 
  Plures participes sunt quasi unum corpus, in eo quod unum jus habent. 
     Several partners are as one body, by reason of the unity of their rights. 
     Co. Litt. 164. 
  Plus exempla quam peccata nocent. Examples hurt more than offences. 
  Plus peccat auctor quam actor. The instigator of a crime is worse than he 
     who perpetrates it. 5 Co. 99. 
  Plus valet unus oculatus testis, quam auriti de cem. One eye witness is 
     better than ten ear ones. 4 Inst. 279. 
  Paena ad paucos, metus ad omnes perveniat. A punishment inflicted on a few, 
     causes a dread to all. 22 Vin. Ab. 550. 
  Paena non potest, culpa perennis erit. Punishment may have an end, crime is 
     perpetual. 21 Vin. Ab. 271. 
  Paena ad paucos, metus ad omnes. Punishment to few, dread or fear to all. 
  Paenae potius molliendae quam exasperendae sunt. Punishments should rather 
     be softened than aggravated. 3 Co. Inst. 220. 
  Posito uno oppositorum negatur alterum. One of two opposite positions being 
     affirmed, the other is denied. 3 Rob. Lo. Rep. 422. 
  Possessio est quasi pedis positio. Possession is, as it were, the position 
     of the foot. 3 Co. 42. 
  Possession of the termer, possession of the reversioner. 
  Possession is a good title, where no better title appears. 20 Vin. Ab. 278. 
  Possessor has right against all men but him who has the very right. 
  Possibility cannot be on a possibility. 
  Posteriora derogant prioribus. Posterior laws derogate former ones. 1 Bouv. 
     Inst. n. 90. 
  Potentia non est nisi ad bonum. Power is not conferred, but for the public 
  Potentia debet sequi justiciam, non antecedere. Power ought to follow, not 
     to precede justice. 3 Buls. 199. 
  Potentia inutilis frustra est. Useless power is vain. 
  Potest quis renunciare pro se, et suis, juri quod pro se introductum est. A 
     man may relinquish, for himself and his heirs, a right which was 
     introduced for his own benefit. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 83. 
  Potestas stricte interpretatur. Power should be strictly interpreted. 
  Postestas suprema seipsum dissolvare potest, ligare non potest. Supreme 
     power can dissolve, but cannot bind itself. 
  Potior est conditio defendentis. Better is the condition of the defendant, 
     than that of the plaintiff. 
  Potior est conditio possidentis. Better is the condition of the possessor. 
  Praepropera consilia, raro sunt prospera. Hasty counsels are seldom 
     prosperous. 4 Inst. 57. 
  Praestat cautela quam medela. Prevention is better than cure. Co. Litt. 304. 
  Praesumptio violenta, plena probatio. Strong presumption is full proof. 
  Praesumptio violenta valet in lege. Strong presumption avails in law. 
  Praetextu liciti non debet admitti illicitum. Under pretext of legality, 
     what is illegal ought not to be admitted. 10 Co. 88. 
  Praxis judicim est interpres legum. The practice of the judges is the 
     interpreter of the laws. Hob. 96. 
  Precedents that pass sub silentio are of little or no authority. 16 Vin. 
  Precedents has as much law as justice. 
  Praesentia corporis tollit errorem nominis, et veritas nominis tollit 
     errorem demonstrationis. The presence of the body cures the error in the 
     name; the truth of the name cures an error in the description. Bacon's 
     Max. Reg. 25. 
  Pretium succedit in locum rei. The price stands in the place of the thing 
     sold. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 939. 
  Prima pars aequitatis aequalitas. The radical element of justice is 
  Principia data sequuntur concomitantia. Given principles follow their 
  Principia probant, non probantur. Principles prove, they are not proved. 3 
     Co. 40. See Principles. 
  Principiorum non est ratio. There is no reasoning of principles. 2 Buls. 
     239. See Principles. 
  Principium est potissima pars cujusque rei. The principle of a thing is its 
     most powerful part. 10 Co. 49. 
  Prior tempore, potior jure. He who is before in time, is preferred in right. 
  Privatorum conventio juri publico non derogat. Private agreements cannot 
     derogate from public law. Dig. 50, 17, 45, 1. 
  Privatum incommodum publico bono peusatur. Private inconvenience is made up 
     for by public benefit. 
  Privilegium est beneficium personale et extinguitur cum persona. A privilege 
     is a personal benefit and dies with the person. 3 Buls. 8. 
  Privilegium est quasi privata lex. A privilege is, as it were, a private 
     law. 2 Buls. 8. 
  Probandi necessitas incumbit illi ui agit. The necessity of proving lies 
     with him who makes the charge. 
  Probationes debent esse evidentes, id est, perspicuae et faciles intelligi. 
     Proofs ought to be made evident, that is, clear and easy to be 
     understood. Co. Litt. 283. 
  Probatis extremis, praesumitur media. The extremes being proved, the 
     intermediate proceedings are presumed. 1 Greenl. Ev. Sec. 20. 
  Processus legis est gravis vexatio, executio legis coronat opus. The process 
     of the law is a grievous vexation; the execution of the law crowns the 
     work. Co. Litt. 289. 
  Prohibetur ne quis faciat in suo quod nocere possit alieno. It is prohibited 
     to do on one's own property that which may injure another's. 9 co. 59. 
  Propinquior excludit propinquum; propinquus remotum; et remotus remotiorem. 
     He who is nearer excludes him who is near; he who is near, him who is 
     remote; he who is remote, him who is more remote. co. Litt. 10. 
  Proprietas verborum est salus proprietatum. The propriety of words is the 
     safety of property. 
  Protectio trahit subjectionem, subjectio projectionem. Protection draws to 
     it subjection, subjection, protection. Co. Litt. 65. 
  Proviso est providere praesentia et futura, non praeterita. A proviso is to 
     provide for the present and the future, not the past. 2 Co. 72. 
  Proximus est cui nemo antecedit; supremus est quem nemo sequitur. He is next 
     whom no one precedes; he is last whom no one follows. 
  Prudentur agit qui praecepto legis obtemperat. He acts prudently who obeys 
     the commands of the law. 5 Co. 49. 
  Pueri sunt de sanguine parentum, sed pater et mater non sunt de sanguine 
     puerorum. Children are of the blood of their parents, but the father and 
     mother are not the blood of their children. 3 Co. 40. 
  Purchaser without notice not obliged to discover to his own hurt. See 4 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 4336. 
  Quae ab hostibus capiuntur, statim capientium fiunt. Things taken from 
     public enemies immediately become the property of the captors. See Infra 
  Quae ad unum finem loquuta sunt; non debent ad alium detorqueri. Words 
     spoken to one end, ought not to be perverted to another. 4 Co. 14. 
  Quae cohaerent personae a persona separari nequeunt. Things which belong to 
     the person ought not to be separated from the person. Jenk. Cent. 28. 
  Quae communi legi derogant stricte interpretantur. Laws which derogate from 
     the common law ought to be strictly construed. Jenk. Cent. 231. 
  Quae contra rationem juris introducta sunt, non debent trahi in 
     consequentiam. Things introduced contrary to the reason of the law, ought 
     not to be drawn into precedents. 12 Co. 75. 
  Quae dubitationis causa tollendae inseruntur communem legem non laedunt. 
     Whatever is inserted for the purpose of removing doubt, does not hurt or 
     affect the common law. Co. Litt. 205. 
  Quae incontinenti vel certo fiunt inesse videntur. Whatever is done directly 
     and certainly, appears already in existence. Co. Litt. 236. 
  Quae in auria acta sunt rite agi praesummuntur. Whatever is done in court is 
     presumed to be rightly done. 3 Buls. 43. 
  Quae in partes dividi nequeunt solida, a singulis praestantur. Things which 
     cannot be divided into parts are rendered entire severally. 6 Co. 1. 
  Quae inter alios acta sunt nemini nocere debent, sed prodesse possunt. 
     Transactions between strangers may benefit, but cannot injure, persons 
     who are parties to them. 6 Co. 1. 
  Quae malasunt inchoata in principio vex bono peragantur exitu. Things bad in 
     the commencement seldom end well. 4 Co. 2. 
  Quae non valeant singula, juncta juvant. Things which do not avail singly, 
     when united have an effect. 3 Buls. 132. 
  Quae praeter consuetudinem et morem majorum fiunt, neque placent, necque 
     recta videntur. What is done contrary to the custom of our ancestors, 
     neither pleases nor appears right. 4 Co. 78. 
  Quae rerum natura prohibentur, nulla lege confirmata sunt. What is prohibited
     in the nature of things, cannot be confirmed by law. Finch's Law, 74. 
  Quaecumque intra rationem legis inveniuntur, intra legem ipsam esse 
     judicantur. Whatever appears within the reason of the law, ought to be 
     considered within the law itself. 2 Co. Inst. 689. 
  Quaelibet concessio fortissime contra donatorem interpretanda est. Every 
     grant is to be taken most strongly against the grantor. Co. Litt. 183. 
  Quaelibet jurisdictio cancellos suos habet. Every jurisdiction has its 
  Qualibet paena corporalis, quam vis minima, major est qualibet paena 
     pecuniaria. Every corporal punishment, although the very least, is 
     greater than pecuniary punishment. 3 Inst. 220. 
  Quaeras de dubiis, legem bene discere si vis. Inquire into them, is the way 
     to know what things are really true. Litt. Sec. 443. 
  Qualitas quae inesse debet, facile praesumitur. A quality which ought to 
     form a part, is easily presumed. 
  Quam longum debet esse rationabile tempus, non definitur in lege, sed pendet 
     ex discretione justiciariorum. What is reasonable time, the law does not 
     define; it is left to the discretion of the judges. Co. Litt. 56. See 11 
     Co. 44. 
  Quamvis aliquid per se non sit malum, tamen si sit mali exemple, non est 
     faciendum. Although, in itself, a thing may not be had, yet, if it holds 
     out a bad example, it is not to be done. 2 Co. Inst. 564. 
  Quamvis lex generaliter loquitur, restringenda tamen est, ut cessante 
     ratione et ipsa cessat. Although the law speaks generally, it is to be 
     restrained when the reason on which it is founded fails. 4 Co. Inst. 330. 
  Quando abest provisio partis, adest provisio legis. A defect in the 
     provision of the party is supplied by a provision of the law. 6 Vin. Ab. 
  Quando aliquid prohibetur ex directo, prohibetur et per obliquum. When 
     anything is prohibited directly, it is prohibited indirectly. Co. Litt. 
  Quando charta continet generalem clausulam, posteaque descendit ad verba 
     specialia quae clausulae generali sunt constnanea interpretanda est 
     charta secundum verba specialia. When a deed contains a general clause, 
     and afterwards descends to special words, consistent with the general 
     clause, the deed is to be construed according to the special words. 8 Co. 
  Quando do una et eadem re, duo onerabiles existunt, unus, pro insufficientia 
     alterius, de integro onerabitur. When two persons are liable on a joint 
     obligation, if one makes default the other must bear the whole. 2 Co. 
     Inst. 277. 
  Quando dispositio referri potest ad duas res, ita quod secundum relationem 
     unam vitiatur et secundum alteram utilis sit, tum facienda est relatio ad 
     illam ut valeat dispositio. When a disposition may be made to refer to 
     two things, so that according to one reference, it would be vitiated, and 
     by the other it would be made effectual, such a reference must be made to 
     the disposition which is to have effect. 6 co. 76. 
  Quando diversi considerantur actus ad aliquem statum perficiendum, plus 
     respicit lex acium originalem. When two different acts are required to 
     the formation of an estate, the law chiefly regards the original act. 10 
     Co. 49. 
  Quando duo juro concurrunt in und persona, aequum est ac si essent in 
     diversis. When two rights concur in one person, it is the same as if they 
     were in two separate persons. 4 Co. 118. 
  Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, concedere videtur id sine quo res ipsa 
     esse non potest. When the law gives anything, it gives the means of 
     obtaining it. 5 Co. 47. 
  Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, omnia incidentia tacite conceduntur. 
     When the law gives anything, it gives tacitly what is incident to it. 2 
     Co. Inst. 326; Hob. 234. 
  Quando lex est specialis, ratio autem generalis, generaliter lex est 
     intelligenda. When the law is special, but its reason is general, the law 
     is to be understood generally. 2 co. Inst. 83; 10 Co. 101. 
  Quando licet id quod majus, videtur licere id quod minus. When the great is 
     allowed, the less seems to be allowed also. 
  Quando plus fit quam fieri debet, videtur etiam illud fieri quod faciendum 
     est. When more is done than ought to be done, that shall be considered 
     as performed, which should have been performed; as, if a man having a 
     power to make a lease for ten years, make one for twenty years, it shall 
     be void for the surplus. Broom's Max. 76; 8 Co. 85. 
  Quando verba et mens congruunt, non est interpretationi locus. When the 
     words and the mind agree, there is no place for interpretation. 
  Quem admodum ad quaestionem facti non respondent judices, ita ad quaestionem 
     juris non respondent juratores. In the same manner that judges do not 
     answer to questions of fact, so jurors do not answer to questions of law. 
     Co. Litt. 295. 
  Qui accusat integrae famae sit et non criminosus. Let him who accuses be of 
     a clear fame, and not criminal. 3 Co. Inst. 26. 
  Qui adimit medium, dirimit finem. He who takes away the means, destroys the 
     end. Co. Litt. 161. 
  Qui aliquid staruerit parte inaudita altera, aequum licet dixerit, haud 
     aequum facerit. He who decides anything, a party being unheard, though he 
     should decide right, does wrong. 6 Co. 52. 
  Qui bene interrogat, bene docet. He who questions well, learns well. 3 Buls. 
  Qui bene distinguit, bene docet. He who distinguishes well, learns well. 2 
     Co. Inst. 470. 
  Qui concedit aliquid, concedere videtur et id sine quo concessio est irrita, 
     sine quo res ipsa esse non potuit. He who grants anything, is considered 
     as granting that, without which his grant would be idle, without which 
     the thing itself could not exist. 11 Co. 52. 
  Qui confirmat nihil dat. He who confirms does not give. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Qui contemnit praeceptum, contemnit praecipientem. He who condemns the 
     precept, condemns the party giving it. 12 Co. 96. 
  Qui cum alio contrahit, vel est, vel debet esse non ignarus conditio ejus. 
     He who contracts, knows, or ought to know, the quality of the person with 
     whom he contracts, otherwise he is not excusable. Dig. 50, 17, 19; 2 
     Hagg. Consist. Rep. 61. 
  Qui destruit medium, destruit finem. He who destroys the means, destroys the 
     end. 11 Co. 51; Shep. To. 342. 
  Qui doit inheritoer al pere, doit inheriter al fitz. He who ought to inherit 
     from the father, ought to inherit from the son. 
  Qui ex damnato coitu nascuntur, inter liberos non computantur. He who is 
     born of an illicit union, is not counted among the children. Co. Litt. 8. 
     See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 289. 
  Qui evertit causam, evertit causatum futurum. He who overthrows the cause, 
     overthrows its future effects. 10 Co. 51. 
  Qui facit per alium facit per se. He who acts by or through another, acts 
     for himself. 1 Bl. Com. 429; Story, Ag. Sec. 440; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1273, 
     1335, 1336; 7 Man. & Gr. 32, 33. 
  Qui habet jurisdictionem absolvendi, habet jurisdictionem ligandi. He who 
     has jurisdiction to loosen, has jurisdiction to bind. 12 Co. 59. 
  Qui haeret in litera, haeret in cortice. He who adheres to the letter, 
     adheres to the bark. Co. Litt. 289. 
  Qui ignorat quantum solvere debeat, non potest improbus videre. He who does 
     not know what he ought to pay, does not want probity in not paying. Dig. 
     50, 17, 99. 
  Qui in utero est, pro jam nato habetur quoties de ejus commodo quaeritur. He 
     who is in the womb, is considered as born, whenever it is for his 
  Qui jure suo utitur, nemini facit injuriam. He who uses his legal rights, 
     harms no one. 
  Qui jussu judicis aliquod fuerit non videtur dolo malo fecisse, quia parere 
     necesse est. He who does anything by command of a judge, will not be 
     supposed to have acted from an improper motive, because it was necessary 
     to obey. 10 Co. 76. 
  Qui male agit, odit lucem. He who acts badly, hates the light. 7 Co. 66. 
  Qui melius probat, melius habet. He who proves most, recovers most. 9 Vin. 
     Ab. 235. 
  Qui molitur insidias in patriam, id facit quod insanusnauta perforans navem 
     in qua vehitur. He who betrays his country, is like the insane sailor who 
     bores a hole in the ship which carries him. 3 Co. Inst. 36.  
  Qui nascitur sine legitimo matrimonio, matrem sequitur. He who is born out 
     of lawful matrimony, follows the condition of the mother. 
  Qui non cadunt in constantem virem, vani timores sunt astinandi. Those are 
     vain fears which do not affect a man of a firm mind. 7 Co. 27. 
  Qui non libere veritatem pronunciat, proditor est verilatis. He who does not 
     willingly speak the truth, is a betrayer of the truth. 
  Qui non obstat quod obstare potest facere videtur. He who does not prevent 
     what he can, seems to commit the thing. 2 Co. Inst. 146. 
  Qui non prohibit quod prohibere potest assentire videtur. He who does not 
     forbid what he can forbid, seems to assent. 2 Inst. 305. 
  Qui non propulsat injuriam quando potest, infert.  He who does not repel a 
     wrong when he can, induces it. Jenk. Cent. 271. 
  Que obstruit aditum, destruit commodum. He who obstructs an entrance, 
     destroys a convenience. Co. Litt. 161. 
  Qui omne dicit, nihil excludit. He who says all, excludes nothing. 4 Inst. 
  Qui parcit nocentibus, innocentibus punit. He who spares the guilty, 
     punishes the innocent. 
  Qui peccat ebuius, luat sobrius. He who offends drunk, must be punished when 
     sober. Car. R. 133. 
  Qui per alium facit per seipsum facere videtur. He who does anything through 
     another, is considered as doing it himself. Co. Litt. 258. 
  Qui per fraudem agit, frustra agit. He who acts fraudulently acts in vain. 2 
     Roll. R. 17. 
  Qui potest et debet vetare, jubet. He who can and ought to forbid, and does 
     not, commands. 
  Qui primum peccat ille facit rixam. He who first offends, causes the strife. 
  Qui prior est tempore, potior est jure. He who is first or before in time, 
     is stronger in right. Co. Litt. 14 a; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. Sec. 64 d; Story 
     Bailm. Sec. 312; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 952; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3728. 
  Qui providet sibi, providet haredibus. He who provides for himself, provides 
     for his heirs. 
  Qui rationem in omnibus quarunt, rationem subvertunt. He who seeks a reason 
     for everything, subverts reason. 2 Co. 75. 
  Qui semel actionem renunciaverit, amplius repetere non potest. He who 
     renounces his action once, cannot any more repeat it. 8 Co. 59. See 
  Qui semel malus, semper prasumitur esse malus in eodem genere. He who is 
     once bad, is presumed to be always so in the same degree. Cro. Car. 317. 
  Que sentit commodum, sentire debet et onus. He who derives a benefit from a 
     thing, ought to feel the disadvantages attending it. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Qui tacet consentire videtur. He who is silent appears to consent. Jenk. 
     Cent. 32. 
  Qui tardius solvit, minus solvit. He who pays tardily, pays less than he 
     ought. Jenk.Cent. 38. 
  Qui timent, cavent et vitant. They who fear, take care and avoid. Off. Ex. 
  Qui vult decipi, decipiatur. Set him who wishes to be deceived, be deceived. 
  Quicpuid acquiritur servo, acquiritur domino. Whatever is acquired by the 
     servant, is acquired for the master. 15 Bin. Ab. 327. 
  Quicquid plantatur solo, solo cedit. Whatever is affixed to the soil belongs 
     to it. Went. Off. Ex. 145. 
  Quicquid plantatur solo, solo cedit. Whatever is affixed to the soil or the 
     realty, thereby becomes a parcel. See Amb: 113; 3 East, 51; and article 
  Quicquid est contra normam recti est injuria. Whatever is against the rule 
     of right, is a wrong. 3 Buls. 313. 
  Quicquid in excessu actum est, lege prohibitur. Whatever is done in excess 
     is prohibited by law. 2 Co. Inst. 107. 
  Quicquid judicis auctoritati subjictur, novitati nonsubjictur. Whatever is 
     subject to the authority of a judge, is not subject to novelty. 4 Co. 
     Inst 66. 
  Quicquid solvitur, solvitur secundum modum solventis. Whatever is paid, is 
     paid according to the manner of the payor. 2 Vern. 606. See 
  Quilibet potest renunciare juri pro se inducto. Any one may renounce a law 
     introduced for his own benefit. To this rule there are some exceptions. 
     See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 83. 
  Qusquis est qui velit juris consultus haberi, continuet studium, velit a 
     quocunque doceri. Whoever wishes to be a lawyer, let him continually 
     study, and desire to be taught everything. 
  Quod ab initio non valet, in tractu temporis non convalescere. What is not 
     good in the beginning cannot be rendered good by time. Merl. Rep. verbo 
     Regle de Droit. This, though true in general, is not universally so. 
  Quod ad jus naturale attinet, omnes homenes aequales sunt. All men are equal 
     before the natural law. Dig. 50, 17, 32. 
  Quod alias bonum et justum est, si per vim vel fraudem petatur, malum et 
     injustum efficitur. What is otherwise good and just, if sought by force 
     or fraud, becomes bad and unjust. 3 Co. 78. 
  Quod constat clare, non debet verificari. What is clearly apparent need not 
     be proved. 
  Quod constat curiae opere testium non indiget. What appears to the court 
     needs not the help of witnesses. 2 Inst. 662. 
  Quod contra legem fit, pro infecto habetur. What is done contrary to the 
     law, is considered as not done. 4 Co. 31. No one can derive any advantage 
     from such an act. 
  Quod contra juris rationem receptum est, non est producendum ad 
     consequentias. What has been admitted against the spirit of the law, 
     ought not to be heard. Dig. 50, 17, 141. 
  Quod demonstrandi causa additur rei satis demonstratae, frusta fit. What is 
     added to a thing sufficiently palpable, for the purpose of demonstration, 
     is vain. 10 Co. 113. 
  Quod dubitas, ne feceris. When you doubt, do not act. 
  Quod est ex necessitate nunquam introducitor, nisi quando necessarium. What 
     is introduced of necessity, is never introduced except when necessary. 2 
     Roll. R. 512. 
  Quod est inconveniens, aut contra rationem non permissum est in lege. What 
     is inconvenient or contrary to reason, is not allowed in law. Co. Litt. 
  Quod est necessarium est licitum. What is necessary is lawful. 
  Quod factum est, cum in obscuro sit, ex affectione cujusque capit 
     interpretationem. Doubtful and ambiguous clauses ought to be construed 
     according to the intentions of the parties. Dig. 50, 17, 168, 1. 
  Quod fieri non debet, factum valet. What ought not to be done, when done, is 
     valid. 5 Co. 38. 
  Quod inconsulto fecimus, consultius revocemus. What is done without 
     consideration or reflection, upon better consideration we should revoke 
     or undo. 
  Quod in minori valet, valebit in majori; et quod in majori non valet, nec 
     valebit in minori. What avails in the less, will avail in the greater; 
     and what will not avail in the greater, will not avail in the less. Co. 
     Litt. 260. 
  Quod in uno similium valet, valebit in altere. What avails in one of two 
     similar things, will avail in the other. co. Litt. 191. 
  Quod initio vitiosum est, non potest tractu temporis convalescere. Time 
     cannot render valid an act void in its origin. Dig. 50, 17, 29. 
  Quod meum est sine me auferri non potest. What is mine cannot be taken away 
     without my consent. Jenk. Cent. 251. Sed vide Eminent Domain. 
  Quod necessarie intelligitur id non deest. What is necessarily understood is 
     not wanting. 1 Buls. 71. 
  Quod necessitas cogit, defendit. What necessity forces, it justifies. Hal. 
     Pl. Cr. 54. 
  Quod non apparet non est, et non apparet judicialiter ante judicium. What 
     appears not does not exist, and nothing appears judicially before 
     judgment. 2 Co. Inst. 479. 
  Quod non habet principium non habet finum. What has no beginning has no end. 
     Co. Litt. 345. 
  Quod non legitur, non creditor. What is not read, is not believed. 4 Co. 
  Quod non valet in principalia, in accessoria seu consequentia non valebit; 
     et quod non valet in magis propinquo, non valebit in magis remoto. What 
     is not good in its principle, will not be good as to accessories or 
     consequences; and what is not of force as regards things near, will not 
     be of force as to things remote. 8 co. 78. 
  Quod nullius est id ratione naturali occupanti conceditur. What belongs to 
     no one, naturally belong to the first occupant. Inst. 2, 1, 12; 1 Bouv. 
     Inst. n. 491. 
  Quod nullius esse potest, id ut alicujus fieret nulla obligatio valet 
     efficere. Those things which cannot be acquired as property, cannot be 
     the object of an agreement. Dig. 50, 17, 182. 
  Quod pendet, non est pro eo, quasi sit. What is in suspense is considered as 
     not existing. Dig. 50, 17, 169, 1. 
  Quod per me non possum, nec per alium. What I cannot do in person, I cannot 
     do by proxy. 4 Co. 24. 
  Quod per recordum probatum, non debet esse negatum. What is proved by the 
     record, ought not to be denied. 
  Quod populus postremum jussit, id just ratum esto. What the people have last 
     enacted, let that be the established law. 
  Quod prius est verius est; et quod prius est tempore potius est jure. What 
     is first is truest; and what comes first in time, is best in law. Co. 
     Litt. 347. 
  Quod pro minore licitum est, et pro majore licitum est. What is lawful in 
     the less, is lawful in the greater. 8 Co. 43. 
  Quod quis ex culpa sua damnum sentit, non intelligitur damnum sentire. He 
     who suffers a damage by his own fault, has no right to complain. Dig. 50, 
     17, 203. 
  Quod quisquis norat in hoc se exerceat. Let every one employ himself in what 
     he knows. 11 Co. 10. 
  Quod remedio destituitur ipsa re valet si culpa absit. What is without a 
     remedy is valid by the thing itself. Bacon's Max. Reg. 9. 
  Quod semel meum est amplius meum esse non potest. Co. Litt. 49; Shep To. 
  Quod sub certa forma concessum vel reservatum est, non trahitur advalorem 
     vel compensationem. That which is granted or reserved under a certain 
     form, is not to be drawn into a valuation. Bacon's Max. Reg. 4. 
  Quod solo inaedificatur solo cedit. Whatever is built on the soil is an 
     accessory of the soil. Inst. 2, 1, 29; 16 Mass. 449; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Quod taciti intelligitur deessee non videtur. What is tacitly understood 
     does not appear to be wanting. 4 Co. 22. 
  Quod vanum et inutile est, lex non requirit. The law does not require what 
     is vain and useless. Co. Litt. 319. 
  Quotiens dubia interpretatio libertatis est, secundum libertatem 
     respondendum erit. Whenever there is a doubt between liberty and slavery, 
     the decision must be in favor of liberty. Dig. 50, 17, 20. 
  Quoties in verbis nulla est ambiguitas ibi nulla expositio contra verba 
     fienda est. When there is no ambiguity in the words, then no exposition 
     contrary to the words is to be made. Co. Litt. 147. 
  Ratihabitiio mandato aequiparatur. Ratification is equal to a command. Dig. 
     46, 3, 12, 4. 
  Ratio est formalis causa consueetudinis. Reason is the formal cause of 
  Ratio est legis anima, mutata legis ratione mutatur et lex. Reason is the 
     soul of the law; the reason of the law being changed, the law is also 
  Ratio est radius divini luminis. Reason is a ray of divine light. Co. Litt. 
  Ratio et auctoritas duo clarisima mundi limina. Reason and authority are the 
     two brightest lights in the world. 4 Co. Inst. 320. 
  Ratio in jure aequitas integra. Reason in law is perfect equity. 
  Ratio legis est anima legis. The reason of the law is the soul of the law. 
  Ratio non clauditur loco. Reason is not confined to any place. 
  Ratio potest allegari deficiente lege, sed vera et legalis et non apparens. 
     Reason may be alleged when the law is defective, but it must be true and 
     legal reason, and not merely apparent. 6 Co. Litt. 191. 
  Re, verbis, scripto, consensu, traditione, junctura vestes, sumere pacta 
     solent. Compacts are accustomed to be clothed by thing itself, by words, 
     by writing, by consent, by delivery. Plow. 161. 
  Receditur a placitis juris, potius quam injuriae et delicta maneant 
     impunita. Positive rules of law will be receded from, rather than crimes 
     and wrongs should remain unpunished. Bacon's Max. Reg. 12. This applies 
     only to such maxims as are called placita juris; these will be dispensed 
     with rather than crimes should go unpunished, quia salus populi suprema 
     lex, because the public safety is the supreme law. 
  Recorda sunt vestigia vetustatis et veritatis. Records are vestiges of 
     antiquity and truth. 2 Roll. R. 296. 
  Recurrendum est ad extraordinarium quando non valet ordinarium. We must have 
     recourse to what is extraordinary, when what is ordinary fails. 
  Regula pro lege, si deficit lex. In default of the law, the maxim rules. 
  Regulariter non valet pactum dare mea non alienanda. Regularly a contract 
     not to alienate my property is not binding. Co. Litt. 223. 
  Rei turpis nullum mandatum est. A mandate of an illegal thing is void. Dig. 
     17, 1, 6, 3. 
  Reipublicae interest voluntates defunctorum effectum sortiri. It concerns 
     the state that the wills of the dead should have their effect. 
  Relatio est fictio juris et intenta ad unum. Reference is a fiction of law, 
     and intent to one thing. 3 Co. 28. 
  Relatio semper fiat ut valeat dispositio. Reference should always be had in 
     such a manner that a disposition in a will should avail. 6 Co. 76. 
  Relation never defeats collateral acts. 18 Vin. Ab. 292. 
  Relation shall never make good a void grant or devise of the party. 18 Vin. 
     Ab. 292. 
  Relatiorum cognito uno, cognoscitur et alterum. Of things relating to each 
     other, one being known, the other is known. Cro. Jac. 539. 
  Remainder can depend upon no estate but what beginneth at the same time the 
     remainder doth. 
  Remainder must vest at the same instant that the particular estate 
  Remainder to a person not of a capacity to take at the time of appointing it,
     is void. Plowd. 27. 
  Remedies ought to be reciprocal. 
  Remedies for rights are ever favorably extended. 18 Vin. Ab. 521. 
  Remisus imperanti melius paretur. A man commanding not too strictly is best 
     obeyed. 3 Co. Inst. 233. 
  Remoto impedimento, emergit actio. The impediment being removed the action 
     arises. 5 Co. 76. 
  Rent must be reserved to him from whom the state of the land moveth. Co. 
     Litt. 143. 
  Repellitur a sacramento infamis. An infamous person is repelled or prevented 
     from taking an oath. Co. Litt. 158. 
  Reprobata pecunia liberat solventum. Money refused liberates the debtor. 9 
     Co. 79. But this must be understood with a qualification. See Tender. 
  Reputatio est vulgaris opinio ubi non est veritas. Reputation is a vulgar 
     opinion where there is no truth. 4 Co. 107. But see, Character. 
  Rerum ordo confunditur, si unicuique jurisdictio non servetur. The order of 
     things is confounded if every one preserves not his jurisdiction. 4 Co. 
     Inst. Proem. 
  Rerum progressus ostendunt multa, quae in initio praecaveri seu praevideri 
     non possunt. The progress of time shows many things, which at the 
     beginning could not be guarded against, or foreseen. 6 Co. 40. 
  Rerum suarum quilibet est moderator et arbiter. Every one is the manager and 
     disposer of his own. Co. Litt. 233. 
  Res denominator a principaliori parte. A thing is named from its principal 
     part. 5 Co. 47. 
  Res est misera ubi jus est vagam et invertum. It is a miserable state of 
     things where the law is vague and uncertain. 2 Salk. 512. 
  Res, generalem habet significationem, quia tam corporea, quam incorporea, 
     cujuscunque sunt generis, naturae sive speciei, comprehendit. The word 
     things has a general signification, which comprehends corporeal and 
     incorporeal objects, of whatever nature, sort or specie. 3 Co. Inst. 482; 
     1 Bouv. Inst. n. 415. 
  Res inter alios acta alteri nocere non debet. Things done between strangers 
     ought not to injure those who are not parties to them. Co. Litt. 152. 
  Res judicata pro veritate accipitur. A thing adjudged must be taken for 
     truth. Co. Litt. 103; Dig. 50, 17, 207. See Res judicata. 
  Res judicata facit ex albo nigrum, ex nigro album, ex curvo rectum, ex recto 
     curvum. A thing adjudged makes what was white, black; what was black, 
     white; what was crooked straight; what was straight, crooked. 1 Bouv. 
     Inst. n. 840. 
  Res per pecuniam aestimatur, et non pecunia per res. The value of a thing is 
     estimated by its worth in money, and the value of money is not estimated 
     by reference to one thing. 9 Co. 76; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 922. 
  Res perit domino suo. The destruction of the thing is the loss of its owner. 
     2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1456, 1466. 
  Reservatio non debet esse de proficuis ipsis quia ea conceduntur, sed de 
     redditu nova extra proficua. A reservation ought not to be of the profits 
     themselves, because they are granted, but from the new rent out of the 
     profits. Co. Litt. 142. 
  Resignatio est juris proprii spontanea refutatio. Resignation is the 
     spontaneous relinquishment of one's own right. Godb. 284. 
  Respondeat superior. Let the principal answer. 4 Co. Inst. 114; 2 Bouv. 
     Inst. n. 1337; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3586. 
  Responsio unius non omnino auditur. The answer of one witness shall not be 
     heard at all. 1 Greenl. Ev. Sec. 260. This is a maxim of the civil law, 
     where everything must be proved by two witnesses. 
  Rights never die. 
  Reus laesae majestatis punitur, ut pereat unus ne pereant omnes. A traitor 
     is punished, that by the death of one, all may not perish. 4 Co. 124. 
  Sacramentum habet in se tres comites, varitatem, justitiam et judicium; 
     veritas habenda est in jurato; justitia et justicium in judice. An oath 
     has in it three component parts -- truth, justice and judgment; truth in 
     the party swearing; justice and judgment in the judge administering the 
     oath. 3 Co. Inst. 160. 
  Sacramentum si fatuum fuerit, licet falsum, tamen non committit perjurium. A 
     foolish oath, though false, makes not perjury. 2 Co. Inst. 167. 
  Saepe viatorim nova non vetus orbita fallit. Often it is the new road, not 
     the old one, which deceives the traveller. 4 Co. Inst. 34. 
  Saepenumero uvb proprietas verboem attenditur, sensus veritatis amittitur. 
     Frequently where the propriety of words is attended to, the meaning of 
     truth is lost. 7 Co. 27. 
  Salus populi est suprema lex. The safety of the people is the supreme law. 
     Bacon's Max. in Reg. 12; Broom's Max. 1. 
  Salus ube multi consiliarii. In many counsellors there is safety. 4 Co. 
     Inst. 1. 
  Sapiens incipit a fine, et quod primum est in intentione, ultimum est in 
     executione. A wise man begins with the last, and what is first in 
     intention is last in execution. 10 Co. 25. 
  Sapiens omnia agit cum consilio. A wise man does everything advisedly. 4 Co. 
     Inst. 4. 
  Sapientia legis nummario pretio non est aestemanda. The wisdom of law cannot 
     be valued by money. 
  Sapientis judicis est cogitare tantum sibi esse permissum, quantum commissum 
     et creditum. A wise man should consdier as much what he premises as what 
     he commits and believes. 4 Co. Inst. 193. 
  Satisfaction should be made to that fund which has sustained the loss. 4 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 3731. 
  Satius est petere fontes quam sectari rivulos. It is better to search the 
     fountain than to cut rivulets. 10 Co. 118. It is better to drink at the 
     fountain than to sip in the streams. 
  Scientia sciolorum est mixta ignorantia. The knowledge of smatterers is 
     mixed ignorance. 8 Co. 159. 
  Scientia et volunti non fit injuria. A wrong is not done to one who knows 
     and wills it. 
  Scientia utrimque per pares contrahentes facit. Equal knowledge on both 
     sides makes the contracting parties equal. 
  Scire leges, non hoc est verba eorum tenere, sed vim et potestatem. To know 
     the laws, is not to observe their mere words, but their force and power. 
     Dig. 1, 3, 17. 
  Scire proprie est, rem ratione et per causam cognoscere. To know properly is 
     to know the reason and cause of a thing. Co. Litt. 183. 
  Scire debes cum quo contrahis. You ought to know with whom you deal. 
  Scribere est agere. To write is to act. 2 Roll. R. 89. 
  Scriptae obligationes scriptis tolluntur, et nude consensus obligatio, 
     contrario consensu dissolvitur. Written obligations are dissolved by 
     writing, and obligations of naked assent by similar naked assent. 
  Secundum naturam est, commoda cujusque rei eum sequi, quem sequentur 
     incommoda. It is natural that he who bears the charge of a thing, should 
     receive the profits. Dig. 50, 17, 10. 
  Securius expediuntur negotia commissa pluribus, et plus vident oculi quam 
     oculus. Business entrusted to several speeds best, and several eyes see 
     more than one eye. 4 Co. 46. 
  Semel malus semper praesumitur esse malus in eodem genere. Whatever is once 
     bad, is presumed to be so always in the same degree. Cro. Car. 317. 
  Semper ita fiat relatio ut valeat dispositio. Let the reference always be so 
     made that the disposition may avail. 6 Co. 76. 
  Semper necessitas probandi incumbit qui agit. The claimant is always bound 
     to prove: the burden of proof lies on him. 
  Semper praesumitur pro legitimatione puerorem, et filiatio non potest 
     probari. Children are always presumed to be legitimate, for filiation 
     cannot be proved. Co. Litt. 126. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 303. 
  Semper praesumitur pro sententia. Presumption is always in favor of the 
     sentence. 3 Buls. 43. 
  Semper specialia generalibus insunt. Special clauses are always comprised in 
     general ones. Dig. 50, 17, 147. 
  Sensus verborum est anima legis. The meaning of words is the spirit of the 
     law. 5 Co. 2. 
  Sensus verborum ex causa dicendi accipiendus est, et sermones semper 
     accipiendi sunt secundum subjectam materiam. The sense of words is to be 
     taken from the occasion of speaking them, and discourses are always to be 
     interpreted according to the subject-matter. 4 Co. 14. 
  Sententia facit jus, et legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. The sentence 
     gives the right, and the interpretation has the force of law. 
  Sententia interlocutoria revocari potest, difinitiva non potest. An 
     interlocutory sentence or order may be revoked, but not a final. 
  Sententia non fertur de rebus non liquidis. Sentence is not given upon a 
     thing which is not clear. 
  Sequi debet potentia justitiam, non praecedere. Power should follow justice, 
     not precede it. 2 Co. Inst. 454. 
  Sermo index animi. Speech is an index of the mind. 5 Co. 118. 
  Sermo relatus ad personam, intelligi debet de conditione personae. A speech 
     relating to the person is to be understood as relating to his condition. 
     4 Co. 16. 
  Si a jure discedas vagus eris, et erunt omnia omnibus incerta. If you depart 
     from the law, you will wander without a guide, and everything will be in 
     a state of uncertainty to every one. Co. Litt. 227. 
  Si assuetis mederi possis nova non sunt tentanda. If you can be relieved by 
     accustomed remedies, new ones should not be tried. 10 Co. 142. 
  Si judicas, cognasce. If you judge, understand. 
  Si meliores sunt quos ducit amor, plures sunt quos corrigit timer. If many 
     are better led by love, more are corrected by fear. Co. Litt. 392. 
  Si nulla sit conjectura quae ducat alio, verba intelligenda sunt ex 
     proprietate, non grammatica sed populari ex usu. if there be no 
     conjecture which leads to a different result, words are to be understood, 
     according to the proper meaning, not in a grammatical, but in a popular 
     and ordinary sense. 2 Kent, Com. 555. 
  Si quis custos fraudem pupillo fecerit, a tutela removendus est. If a 
     guardian behave fraudulently to his ward, he shall be removed from the 
     guardianship. Jenk. Cent. 39. 
  Si quis praegnantum uxorem reliquit, non videtur sine liberis decessisse. If 
     a man dies, leaving his wife pregnant, he shall not be considered as 
     having died childless. 
  Si suggestio non sit vera, literae patentes vacuae sunt. If the suggestion 
     of a patent is false, the patent itself is void. 10 Co. 113. 
  Si quid universitate debetur singulis non debetur, nec quod debet, 
     universitas singuli debent. If anything is due to a corporation, it is 
     not due to the individual members of it, nor do the members individually 
     owe what the corporation owes. Dig. 3, 4, 7. 
  Sic interpretandum est ut verba accipiantur cum effectu. Such an 
     interpretation is to be made, that the words may have an effect. 
  Sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas. So use your own as not to injure 
     another's property. 1 Bl. Com. 306; Broom's max. 160; 4 McCord, 472; 2 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 2379. 
  Sicut natura nil facit per saltum, ita nec lex. AS nature does nothing by a 
     bound or leap, so neither does the law. Co. Litt. 238. 
  Silent leges inter arma. laws are silent amidst arms. 4 Co. Inst. 70. 
  Simplicitas est legibus amica. Simplicity is favorable to the law. 4 Co. 8. 
  Sine possessione usucapio procedere non potest. There can be no prescription 
     without possession. 
  Solemnitas juris sunt observandae. The solemnities of law are to be 
     observed. Jenk. Cent. 13. 
  Solo cedit quod solo implantatur. What is planted in the soil belongs to the 
     soil. inst. 2, 1, 29. See 1 Mackeld. civ. Law, Sec. 268; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Solo cedit quodquod solo implantatur. What is planted in the soil belongs o 
     the soil. Inst. 2, 1, 32; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1572. 
  Solus Deus haeredem facit. God alone makes the heir. 
  Solutio pretii, emptiones loco habetur. The payment of the price stands in 
     the place of a sale. 
  Spes est vigilantis somnium. Hope is the dream of the vigilant. 4 Co. Inst. 
  Spes impunitatis continuum affectum tribuit delinquendi. The hope of 
     impunity holds out a continual temptation to crime. 3 Co. Inst. 236. 
  Spoliatus debet ante omnia restitui. Spoil ought to be restored before 
     anything else. 2 Co. Inst. 714. 
  Spondet peritiam artis. He promises to use the skill of his art. Poth. 
     Louage, n. 425; Jones, Bailm. 22, 53, 62, 97, 120; Domat, liv. 1, t. 4, 
     s. 8, n. 1; 1 Story Bailm. Sec. 431; 1 Bell's Com. 459, 5th ed.; 1 Bouv. 
     Inst. n. 1004. 
  Stabit praesumptio donec probetur in contrarium. A presumption will stand 
     good until the contrary is proved. Hob. 297. 
  Statuta pro publico commodo late interpretantur. Statutes made for the 
     public good ought to be liberally construed. Jenk. Cent. 21. 
  Statutum affirmativum non derogat communi legi. An affirmative stature does 
     not take from the common law. Jenk. Cent. 24. 
  Statutum generaliter est intelligendum quando verva statuti sunt specialia, 
     ratio autem generalis. When the words of a statute are special, but the 
     reason of it general, it is to be understood generally. 10 Co. 101. 
  Statutum speciale statuto speciali non derogat. One special statute does not 
     take away from another special statute. Jenk. Cent. 199. 
  Sublata causa tollitur effectus. Remove the cause and the effect will cease. 
     2 Bl. Com. 203. 
  Sublata veneratione magistraiuum, respublica ruit. The commonwealth 
     perishes, if respect for magistrates be taken away. 
  Sublato fundamento cadit opus. Remove the foundation, the structure or work 
  Sublato principali tollitur adjunctum. If the principal be taken away, the 
     adjunct is also taken away. Co. Litt. 389. 
  Summum jus, summa injuria. The rigor or height of law, is the height of 
     wrong. Hob. 125; 1 Chan. Rep. 4. 
  Superflua non nocent. Superfluities do no injury. 
  Surplusagium non nocet. Surplusage does no harm. 3Bouv. Inst. n. 2949. 
  Tacita quaedam habentur pro expressis. Things silent are sometimes 
     considered as expressed. 8 Co. 40. 
  Talis interpretatio semper fienda est, ut evitetur absurdum, et 
     inconveniens, et ne judicium sit illusorium. Interpretation is always to 
     be made in such a manner, that what is absurd and inconvenient is to be 
     avoided, so that the judgment be not nugatory. 1 Co. 52. 
  Talis non est eadem, nam nullum simile est idem. What is like is not the 
     same, for nothing similar is the same. 4 Co. 18. 
  Tantum bona valent, quantum vendi possunt. Things are worth what they will 
     sell for. 3 Co. Inst. 305. 
  Terminus annorum certus debet esse et determinatus. A term of years ought to 
     be certain and determinate. Co. Litt. 45. 
  Terra transit cum onere. Land passes with the incumbrances. Co. Litt. 45. 
  Testamenta latissimam interpretationem habere debent. Wills ought to have the
     broadest interpretation. 
  Testamentum omne morte consumatum. Every will is completed by death. Co. 
     Litt. 232. 
  Testatoris ultima voluntas est perimplenda secundum veram intentionem suam. 
     The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled according to his real 
     intention. Co. Litt. 232. 
  Testibus deponentibus in pari numero dignioribus est credendum. When the 
     number of witnesses is equal on both sides, the more worthy are to be 
     believed. 4 Co. Inst. 279. 
  Testis de visu praeponderat aliis. An eye witness outweighs others. 4 Co. 
     Inst. 470. 
  Testis nemo in sua causa esse potest. No one can be a witness in his own 
  Testis oculatus unus plus valet quam auriti decem. One eye witness is worth 
     ten ear witnesses. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3154. 
  Timores vani sunt aestimandi qui non cadunt in constantem virum. Fears, 
     which have no fixed persons for their object, are vain. 7 Co. 17. 
  That which I may defeat by my entry, I make good by my confirmation. Co. 
     Litt. 300. 
  The fund which has received the benefit should make the satisfaction. 4 
     Bouv. Inst. n. 3730. 
  Things shall not be void which may possibly be good. 
  Trusts survive. 
  Totum prefertur uni cuique parte. The whole is preferable to any single 
     part. 3 Co. 41. 
  Tout ce que la loi ne defend pas est permis. Everything is permitted, which 
     is not forbidden by law. 
  Tonte exception non surveillee tend a prendre la place du principe. Every 
     exception not watched tends to assume the place of the principle. 
  Tractent fabrilia fabri. Let smiths perform the work of smiths. 3 Co. Epist. 
  Traditio loqui facit chartam. Delivery makes the deed speak. 5 Co. 1. 
  Transgressione multiplicata, crescat paena inflictio. When transgression is 
     multiplied, let the infliction of punishment be increased. 2 Co. Inst. 
  Triatio ibi semper debet fieri, ubi juratores meliorem possunt habere 
     notitiam. Trial ought always to be had where the jury have the best 
     knowledge. 7 Co. 1. 
  Trupis est pars quae non convenit cum suo toto. That part is bad which 
     accords not with the whole. Plow. 161. 
  Tuta est custodia quae sibimet creditur. That guardianship is secure which 
     trusts to itself alone. 
  Tutius erratur ex parte mittioro. It is safer to err on the side of mercy. 3 
     inst. 220. 
  Ubi aliquid impeditur propter unum, eo remoto, tollitur impedimentum. When 
     anything is impeded by one single cause, if that be removed the 
     impediment is removed. 7 Co. 77. 
  Ubi cessat remedium ordinarium ibi decurritur ad extraordinarium. When a 
     common remedy ceases to be of service, recourse must be had to an 
     extraordinary one. 4 Co. 93. 
  Ubi culpa est ibi paena subesse debet. Where there is culpability, there 
     punishment ought to be. 
  Ubi eadem ratio, ibi idem lex. Where there is the same reason, there is the 
     same law. 7 co. 18. 
  Ubi damna dantur, victus victori in expensis condemnari debet. Where damages 
     are given, the losing party should pay the costs of the victor. 2 Inst. 
  Ubi factum nullum ibi sortia nulla. Where there is no deed committed, there 
     can be no consequence. 4 Co. 43. 
  Ubi jus, ibi remedium. Where there is a right, there is a remedy. 1 T. R. 
     512; Co. Litt. 197, b; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2411; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3726. 
  Ubi jus incertum, ibi jus nullum. Where the law is uncertain, there is no 
  Ubi lex aliquem cogit ostendere causam, necesse est quod causa sit justa et 
     letitima. Where the law compels a man to show cause, the cause ought to 
     be just and legal.  2 Co. Inst. 269. 
  Ubi lex est specialis, et ratio ejus generalis, generaliter accipienda est. 
     Where the law is special and the reason of it is general, it ought to be 
     taken as being general. 2 Co. Inst. 43. 
  Ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos distinguere debemus. Where the law does not 
     distinguish, we ought not to distinguish. 7 Co. 5. 
  Ubi major pars est, ibi totum. Where is the greater part, there is the 
     whole. Moor, 578. 
  Ubi non adest norma legis, omnia quasi pro suspectis habenda sunt. When the 
     law fails to serve as a rule, almost everything ought to be suspected. 
     Bacon, De Aug. Sci. Aph. 25. 
  Ubi non est condendi auctoritas, ibi non est parendi necessitas. Where there 
     is no authority to enforce, there is no authority to obey. Dav. 69. 
  Ubi non est directa lex, standum est arbitrio judicis, vel procedendum ad 
     similia. Where there is no direct law, the opinion of the judges ought to 
     be taken, or reference made to similar cases. 
  Ubi non est lex, non est transgressio quoad mundum. Where there is no law 
     there is no transgression, as it regards the world. 
  ubi non est principalis non potest esse accessorius. Where there is no 
     principal there is no accessory. 4 co. 43. 
  ubi nullum matrimonium ibi nullum dos. Where there is no marriage there is 
     no dower. Co. Litt. 32. 
  Ubi periculum, ibi et lucrum collocatur. He at whose risk a thing is, should 
     receive the profits arising from it. 
  Ubi quid generaliter conceditur, in est haec exceptio, si non aliquid sit 
     contra jus fasque. Where a thing is concealed generally, this exception 
     arises, that there shall be nothing contrary to law and right. 10 Co. 78. 
  ubi quis delinquit ibi punietur. Let a man be punished when he commits the 
     offence. 6 Co. 47. 
  Ubicunque est injuria, ibi damnum sequitur. Wherever there is a wrong, 
     there damages follow. 10 Co. 116. 
  Ultima voluntas testatoris est perimplenda secundum veram intentionem suam. 
     The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled according to his true 
     intention. Co. Litt. 322. 
  Ultra posse non est esse, et vice versa. What is beyond possibility cannot 
     exist, and the reverse, what cannot exist is not possible. 
  Una persona vix potest supplere vices duorum. One person can scarcely supply 
     the place of two. 4 co. 118. 
  Universalia sunt notoria singularibus. Things universal are better known 
     than things particular. 2 Roll. R. 294. 
  Universitas vel corporatio non dicitur aliquid facere nisi id sit 
     collegialiter deliberatum, etiamsi major pars id faciat. An university or 
     corporation is not said to do anything unless it be deliberated upon 
     collegiately, although the majority should do it. Dav. 48. 
  Uno absurdo dato, infinita sequuntur. One absurdity being allowed, an 
     infinity follow. 1 co. 102. 
  Unumquodque eodem modo quo colligatum est dissolvitur. In the same manner in 
     which a thing is bound, it is loosened. 2 Roll. Rep. 39. 
  Unumquodque est id quod est principalius in ipso. That which is the 
     principal part of a thing is the thing itself. Hob. 123. 
  Unumquodque dissolvatur eo modo quo colligatur. Everything is dissolved by 
     the same mode in which it is bound together. 
  Usury is odious in law. 
  Ut paena ad paucos, metus ad omnes perveniat. That by the punishment of a 
     few, the fear of it may affect all. 4 Inst. 63. 
  Ut res magis valeat quam pereat. That the thing may rather have effect than 
     be destroyed. 
  Utile per inutile non vitiatur. What is useful is not vitiated by the 
     useless. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2949, 3293; 2 Wheat. 221; 2 S. & R. 298; 17 S. 
     & R. 297; 6 Mass. 303. 
  Valeat quantum valere potest. It shall have effect as far as it can have 
  Vana est illa potentia quae numquam venit in actum. Vain is that power which 
     is never brought into action. 2 Co. 51. 
  Vani timores sunt aestimandi, qui non cadunt in constantem virum. Vain are 
     those fears which affect not a valiant man. 7 Co. 27. 
  Vendens eandem rem doubus falsarius est. It is fraudulent to sell the same 
     thing twice. Jenk. Cent. 107. See Stalionat. 
  Veniae facilitas incentivum est delinquendi. Facility of pardon is an 
     incentive to crime. 3 inst. 236. 
  Verba aliquid operari debent, verba cum effectu sunt accipienda. Words are 
     to be taken so as to have effect. Bacon's Max. Reg. 3, p. 47. See 1 Duer. 
     on ins. 210, 211, 216. 
  Verba aequivoca ac in dubio sensu posita, intelliguntur dignori et 
     potentiori sensu. Equivocal words and those in a doubtful sense are to be 
     taken in their best and most effective sense. 6 Co. 20. 
  Verba currentis monetae, tempus solutionis designat. The words current 
     money, refer to the time of payment. Dav. 20. 
  Verba dicta de persona, intelligi debent de conditione personae. Words 
     spoken of the person are to be understood of the condition of the person. 
     2 Roll. R. 72. 
  Verba fortius accipientur contra proferentum. Words are to be taken most 
     strongly against him who uses them. Bacon's Max. REg. 3; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 
  Verba generalia generaliter sunt intelligenda. General words are to be 
     generally understood. 3 Co. Inst. 76. 
  Verba ganeralia restringuntur ad habilitatem rei vel personae. General words 
     must be confined or restrained to the nature of the subject or the 
     aptitude of the person. Bacon's max. Reg. 10. 
  Verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservire. Words ought to be made 
     subservient to the intent, not contrary to it. 8 Co. 94. 
  Verba ita sunt intelligenda, ut res magis valeat quam pereat. Words are to 
     be so understood that the subject-matter may be preserved rather than 
     destroyed. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 3. 
  Verba nihil operandi melius est quam absurde. It is better that words should 
     have no operation, than to operate absurdly. 
  Verba posteriora propter certitudinem addita, ad priora quae certitudine 
     indigent, sunt referenda. Words added for the purpose of certainty are to 
     be referred to preceding words, in which certainty is wanting. 
  Verga relata hac maximi operantur per referentiam ut in eis in esse 
     videntur. Words referred to other words operate chiefly by the reference 
     which appears to be implied towards them. Co. Litt. 359. 
  Veredictum, quasi dictum veritas; ut judicium quasi juris dictum. A verdict 
     is, as it were, the saying of the truth, in the same manner that a 
     judgment is the saying of the law. Co. Litt. 226. 
  Veritas demonstrationis tollit errorem nominis. The truth of the 
     demonstration removes the error of the name. Ld. Raym. 303. See Legatee. 
  Veritas nihil veretur nisi abscondi. Truth fears nothing but concealment. 9 
     co. 20. 
  Veritas nimium altercando amittitur. By too much altercation truth is lost. 
     Hob. 344. 
  Veritatem qui non libere pronunciat, proditor est veritatis. He who does not 
     speak the truth, is a traitor to the truth. 
  Vicarius non habet vicaruim. A deputy cannot appoint a deputy. Branch's max. 
     38; Broom's max. 384; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1300. 
  Vigilantibus et non dormientibus serviunt leges. The laws serve the 
     vigilant, not those who sleep upon their rights. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2327. 
     See Laches. 
  Viperina est expositio quae corrodit viscera textus. That is a viperous 
     exposition which gnaws or eats out the bowels of the text. 11 Co. 34. 
  Vir et uxor consentur in lege una persona. Husband and wife are considered 
     one person in law. Co. Litt. 112. 
  Vis legibus est inimica. Force is inimical to the laws. 3 Co. inst. 176. 
  Vitium clerici nocere non debet. Clerical errors ought not to hurt. 
  Voluit sed non dixit. he willed but did not say. 
  Voluntas testatoris ambulatoria est usque ad mortem. The will of a testator 
     is ambulatory until his death; that is, he may change it at any time. See 
     1 Bouv. inst. n. 83. 
  Voluntas in delictis non exitus spectatur. In offences, the will and not the 
     consequences are to be looked to. 2 Co. inst. 27. 
  Voluntas reputabatur pro facto. The will is to be taken for the deed. 3 Co. 
     Inst. 69. 
  Volunti non fit injuria. He who consents cannot receive an injury. 2 Bouv. 
     Inst. n. 2279, 2327; 4 T. R. 657; Shelf. on mar. & Div. 449. 
  What a man cannot transfer, he cannot bind by articles. 
  When the common law and statute law concur, the common law is to be 
     preferred. 4 Co. 71. 
  When many join in one act, the law says it is the act of him who could best 
     do it; and things should be done by him who has the best skill. Noy's 
     Max. h.t. 
  When the law presumes the affirmative, the negative is to be proved. 1 Roll. 
     R. 83; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3063, 3090. 
  When no time is limited, the law appoints the most convenient. 
  When the law gives anything, it gives a remedy for the same. 
  When the foundation fails, all fails. 
  Where two rights concur, the more ancient shall be preferred. 
  Where there is equal equity, the law must prevail. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3727. 
       Vide, generally, Dig. 50, 17; 1 Ayl. Pand. b. 1, t. 6; Merl. Repert. 
  Regles de Droit; Pow. Mint. Index, h.t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h.t.; Woodes. 
  Lect. lxxi. note; and collections of Bacon, Noy, Francis, Branch and Heath; 
  Duval, Le Droit dans ses Maximes. 

Contact=webmaster@dict.org Specification=RFC 2229