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 for Liskov Substitution Principle
From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018) :

  Liskov substitution principle
      (LSP) The principle that
     object-oriented functions that use pointers or
     references to a base class must be able to use objects of
     a derived class without knowing it.
     Barbara Liskov first wrote it as follows: If for each object
     o1 of type S there is an object o2 of type T such that for all
     programs P defined in terms of T, the behaviour of P is
     unchanged when o1 is substituted for o2 then S is a subtype
     of T.
     A function that violates the LSP uses a reference to a base
     class and must know about all the derivatives of that base
     class.  Such a function violates the open/closed principle
     because it must be modified whenever a new derivative of the
     base class is created.
     [Liskov, B. Data Abstraction and Hierarchy, SIGPLAN
     Notices. 23(5), May 1988].

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