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3 definitions found
 for Differential calculus
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  differential \dif`fer*en"tial\, a. [Cf. F. diff['e]rentiel.]
     1. Relating to or indicating a difference; creating a
        difference; discriminating; special; as, differential
        characteristics; differential duties; a differential rate.
        [1913 Webster]
  
              For whom he produced differential favors. --Motley.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. (Math.) Of or pertaining to a differential, or to
        differentials.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     3. (Mech.) Relating to differences of motion or leverage;
        producing effects by such differences; said of mechanism.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     Differential calculus. (Math.) See under Calculus.
  
     Differential coefficient, the limit of the ratio of the
        increment of a function of a variable to the increment of
        the variable itself, when these increments are made
        indefinitely small.
  
     Differential coupling, a form of slip coupling used in
        light machinery to regulate at pleasure the velocity of
        the connected shaft.
  
     Differential duties (Polit. Econ.), duties which are not
        imposed equally upon the same products imported from
        different countries.
  
     Differential galvanometer (Elec.), a galvanometer having
        two coils or circuits, usually equal, through which
        currents passing in opposite directions are measured by
        the difference of their effect upon the needle.
  
     Differential gearing, a train of toothed wheels, usually an
        epicyclic train, so arranged as to constitute a
        differential motion.
  
     Differential motion, a mechanism in which a simple
        differential combination produces such a change of motion
        or force as would, with ordinary compound arrangements,
        require a considerable train of parts. It is used for
        overcoming great resistance or producing very slow or very
        rapid motion.
  
     Differential pulley. (Mach.)
        (a) A portable hoisting apparatus, the same in principle
            as the differential windlass.
        (b) A hoisting pulley to which power is applied through a
            differential gearing.
  
     Differential screw, a compound screw by which a motion is
        produced equal to the difference of the motions of the
        component screws.
  
     Differential thermometer, a thermometer usually with a
        U-shaped tube terminating in two air bulbs, and containing
        a colored liquid, used for indicating the difference
        between the temperatures to which the two bulbs are
        exposed, by the change of position of the colored fluid,
        in consequence of the different expansions of the air in
        the bulbs. A graduated scale is attached to one leg of the
        tube.
  
     Differential windlass, or Chinese windlass, a windlass
        whose barrel has two parts of different diameters. The
        hoisting rope winds upon one part as it unwinds from the
        other, and a pulley sustaining the weight to be lifted
        hangs in the bight of the rope. It is an ancient example
        of a differential motion.
        [1913 Webster]

From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Calculus \Cal"cu*lus\, n.; pl. Calculi. [L, calculus. See
     Calculate, and Calcule.]
     1. (Med.) Any solid concretion, formed in any part of the
        body, but most frequent in the organs that act as
        reservoirs, and in the passages connected with them; as,
        biliary calculi; urinary calculi, etc.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     2. (Math.) A method of computation; any process of reasoning
        by the use of symbols; any branch of mathematics that may
        involve calculation.
        [1913 Webster]
  
     Barycentric calculus, a method of treating geometry by
        defining a point as the center of gravity of certain other
        points to which co["e]fficients or weights are ascribed.
        
  
     Calculus of functions, that branch of mathematics which
        treats of the forms of functions that shall satisfy given
        conditions.
  
     Calculus of operations, that branch of mathematical logic
        that treats of all operations that satisfy given
        conditions.
  
     Calculus of probabilities, the science that treats of the
        computation of the probabilities of events, or the
        application of numbers to chance.
  
     Calculus of variations, a branch of mathematics in which
        the laws of dependence which bind the variable quantities
        together are themselves subject to change.
  
     Differential calculus, a method of investigating
        mathematical questions by using the ratio of certain
        indefinitely small quantities called differentials. The
        problems are primarily of this form: to find how the
        change in some variable quantity alters at each instant
        the value of a quantity dependent upon it.
  
     Exponential calculus, that part of algebra which treats of
        exponents.
  
     Imaginary calculus, a method of investigating the relations
        of real or imaginary quantities by the use of the
        imaginary symbols and quantities of algebra.
  
     Integral calculus, a method which in the reverse of the
        differential, the primary object of which is to learn from
        the known ratio of the indefinitely small changes of two
        or more magnitudes, the relation of the magnitudes
        themselves, or, in other words, from having the
        differential of an algebraic expression to find the
        expression itself.
        [1913 Webster]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  differential calculus
      n 1: the part of calculus that deals with the variation of a
           function with respect to changes in the independent
           variable (or variables) by means of the concepts of
           derivative and differential [syn: differential calculus,
           method of fluxions]

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