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4 definitions found
 for AGRICULTURE
From The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48 :

  Agriculture \Ag"ri*cul`ture\ (?; 135), n. [L. agricultura; ager
     field + cultura cultivation: cf. F. agriculture. See Acre
     and Culture.]
     The art or science of cultivating the ground, including the
     harvesting of crops, and the rearing and management of live
     stock; tillage; husbandry; farming.
     [1913 Webster]

From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

  agriculture
      n 1: a large-scale farming enterprise [syn: agribusiness,
           agriculture, factory farm]
      2: the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock [syn:
         farming, agriculture, husbandry]
      3: the federal department that administers programs that provide
         services to farmers (including research and soil conservation
         and efforts to stabilize the farming economy); created in
         1862 [syn: Department of Agriculture, Agriculture
         Department, Agriculture, USDA]
      4: the class of people engaged in growing food

From Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 :

  23 Moby Thesaurus words for "agriculture":
     Ceres, Cora, Demeter, Dionysos, Dionysus, Flora, Frey, Gaea, Gaia,
     Kore, Persephassa, Persephone, Pomona, Proserpina, Proserpine,
     Triptolemos, Triptolemus, corn god, farming, fertility god,
     forest god, husbandry, vegetation spirit
  
  

From Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary :

  Agriculture
     Tilling the ground (Gen. 2:15; 4:2, 3, 12) and rearing cattle
     were the chief employments in ancient times. The Egyptians
     excelled in agriculture. And after the Israelites entered into
     the possession of the Promised Land, their circumstances
     favoured in the highest degree a remarkable development of this
     art. Agriculture became indeed the basis of the Mosaic
     commonwealth.
     
       The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural
     periods:-
     
       I. SOWING TIME.
     
       Tisri, latter half
     
       (beginning about the autumnal equinox.)
     
       Marchesvan.
     
       Kisleu, former half.
     
       Early rain due = first showers of autumn.
     
       II. UNRIPE TIME.
     
       Kisleu, latter half.
     
       Tebet.
     
       Sebat, former half.
     
       III. COLD SEASON.
     
       Sebat, latter half.
     
       Adar.
     
       [Veadar.]
     
       Nisan, former half.
     
       Latter rain due (Deut. 11:14; Jer. 5:24; Hos. 6:3; Zech. 10:1;
     
       James 5:7; Job 29:23).
     
       IV. HARVEST TIME.
     
       Nisan, latter half.
     
       (Beginning about vernal equinox. Barley green. Passover.)
     
       Ijar.
     
       Sivan, former half., Wheat ripe. Pentecost.
     
       V. SUMMER (total absence of rain)
     
       Sivan, latter half.
     
       Tammuz.
     
       Ab, former half.
     
       VI. SULTRY SEASON
     
       Ab, latter half.
     
       Elul.
     
       Tisri, former half., Ingathering of fruits.
     
       The six months from the middle of Tisri to the middle of Nisan
     were occupied with the work of cultivation, and the rest of the
     year mainly with the gathering in of the fruits. The extensive
     and easily-arranged system of irrigation from the rills and
     streams from the mountains made the soil in every part of
     Palestine richly productive (Ps. 1:3; 65:10; Prov. 21:1; Isa.
     30:25; 32:2, 20; Hos. 12:11), and the appliances of careful
     cultivation and of manure increased its fertility to such an
     extent that in the days of Solomon, when there was an abundant
     population, "20,000 measures of wheat year by year" were sent to
     Hiram in exchange for timber (1 Kings 5:11), and in large
     quantities also wheat was sent to the Tyrians for the
     merchandise in which they traded (Ezek. 27:17). The wheat
     sometimes produced an hundredfold (Gen. 26:12; Matt. 13:23).
     Figs and pomegranates were very plentiful (Num. 13:23), and the
     vine and the olive grew luxuriantly and produced abundant fruit
     (Deut. 33:24).
     
       Lest the productiveness of the soil should be exhausted, it
     was enjoined that the whole land should rest every seventh year,
     when all agricultural labour would entirely cease (Lev. 25:1-7;
     Deut. 15:1-10).
     
       It was forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds (Deut.
     22:9). A passer-by was at liberty to eat any quantity of corn or
     grapes, but he was not permitted to carry away any (Deut. 23:24,
     25; Matt. 12:1). The poor were permitted to claim the corners of
     the fields and the gleanings. A forgotten sheaf in the field was
     to be left also for the poor. (See Lev. 19:9, 10; Deut. 24:19.)
     Agricultural implements and operations.
     
       The sculptured monuments and painted tombs of Egypt and
     Assyria throw much light on this subject, and on the general
     operations of agriculture. Ploughs of a simple construction were
     known in the time of Moses (Deut. 22:10; comp. Job 1:14). They
     were very light, and required great attention to keep them in
     the ground (Luke 9:62). They were drawn by oxen (Job 1:14), cows
     (1 Sam. 6:7), and asses (Isa. 30:24); but an ox and an ass must
     not be yoked together in the same plough (Deut. 22:10). Men
     sometimes followed the plough with a hoe to break the clods
     (Isa. 28:24). The oxen were urged on by a "goad," or long staff
     pointed at the end, so that if occasion arose it could be used
     as a spear also (Judg. 3:31; 1 Sam. 13:21).
     
       When the soil was prepared, the seed was sown broadcast over
     the field (Matt. 13:3-8). The "harrow" mentioned in Job 39:10
     was not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being
     little more than a thick block of wood. In highly irrigated
     spots the seed was trampled in by cattle (Isa. 32:20); but
     doubtless there was some kind of harrow also for covering in the
     seed scattered in the furrows of the field.
     
       The reaping of the corn was performed either by pulling it up
     by the roots, or cutting it with a species of sickle, according
     to circumstances. The corn when cut was generally put up in
     sheaves (Gen. 37:7; Lev. 23:10-15; Ruth 2:7, 15; Job 24:10; Jer.
     9:22; Micah 4:12), which were afterwards gathered to the
     threshing-floor or stored in barns (Matt. 6:26).
     
       The process of threshing was performed generally by spreading
     the sheaves on the threshing-floor and causing oxen and cattle
     to tread repeatedly over them (Deut. 25:4; Isa. 28:28). On
     occasions flails or sticks were used for this purpose (Ruth
     2:17; Isa. 28:27). There was also a "threshing instrument" (Isa.
     41:15; Amos 1:3) which was drawn over the corn. It was called by
     the Hebrews a moreg, a threshing roller or sledge (2 Sam. 24:22;
     1 Chr. 21:23; Isa. 3:15). It was somewhat like the Roman
     tribulum, or threshing instrument.
     
       When the grain was threshed, it was winnowed by being thrown
     up against the wind (Jer. 4:11), and afterwards tossed with
     wooden scoops (Isa. 30:24). The shovel and the fan for winnowing
     are mentioned in Ps. 35:5, Job 21:18, Isa. 17:13. The refuse of
     straw and chaff was burned (Isa. 5:24). Freed from impurities,
     the grain was then laid up in granaries till used (Deut. 28:8;
     Prov. 3:10; Matt. 6:26; 13:30; Luke 12:18).
     

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