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3 definitions found
 for mali
From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) :

      n 1: a landlocked republic in northwestern Africa; achieved
           independence from France in 1960; Mali was a center of West
           African civilization for more than 4,000 years [syn:
           Mali, Republic of Mali, French Sudan]

From The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018) :

     A hardware memory device for logic programming computers
     with real time garbage collection.

From CIA World Factbook 2002 :

     Introduction Mali
                              Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal
                                          became independent of France in 1960
                                          as the Mali Federation. When Senegal
                                          withdrew after only a few months,
                                          the Sudanese Republic was renamed
                                          Mali. Rule by dictatorship was
                                          brought to a close in 1991 with a
                                          transitional government, and in 1992
                                          when Mali's first democratic
                                          presidential election was held.
                                          Since his reelection in 1997,
                                          President KONARE continued to push
                                          through political and economic
                                          reforms and to fight corruption. In
                                          1999 he indicated he would not run
                                          for a third term, in keeping with
                                          the Malian constitution's two-term
     Geography Mali
                                Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
                  Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W
                          Map references: Africa
                                    Area: total: 1.24 million sq km
                                          water: 20,000 sq km
                                          land: 1.22 million sq km
                      Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of
                         Land boundaries: total: 7,243 km
                                          border countries: Algeria 1,376 km,
                                          Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858
                                          km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania
                                          2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419
                               Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
                         Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
                                 Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry
                                          February to June; rainy, humid, and
                                          mild June to November; cool and dry
                                          November to February
                                 Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern
                                          plains covered by sand; savanna in
                                          south, rugged hills in northeast
                      Elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
                                          highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
                       Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt,
                                          limestone, uranium, hydropower
                                          note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese,
                                          tin, and copper deposits are known
                                          but not exploited
                                Land use: arable land: 3.77%
                                          permanent crops: 0.04%
                                          other: 96.19% (1998 est.)
                          Irrigated land: 1,380 sq km (1998 est.)
                         Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze
                                          common during dry seasons; recurring
                                          droughts; occasional Niger River
            Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
                                          desertification; inadequate supplies
                                          of potable water; poaching
              Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
                              agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
                                          Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
                                          the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
                                          signed, but not ratified: Climate
                                          Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test
                        Geography - note: landlocked; divided into three
                                          natural zones: the southern,
                                          cultivated Sudanese; the central,
                                          semiarid Sahelian; and the northern,
                                          arid Saharan
     People Mali
                              Population: 11,340,480 (July 2002 est.)
                           Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.2% (male 2,687,998;
                                          female 2,658,605)
                                          15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,698,789;
                                          female 2,950,276)
                                          65 years and over: 3% (male 160,604;
                                          female 184,208) (2002 est.)
                  Population growth rate: 2.97% (2002 est.)
                              Birth rate: 48.37 births/1,000 population (2002
                              Death rate: 18.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002
                      Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population
                                          (2002 est.)
                               Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
                                          under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
                                          15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
                                          65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/
                                          total population: 0.96 male(s)/
                                          female (2002 est.)
                   Infant mortality rate: 119.63 deaths/1,000 live births
                                          (2002 est.)
                Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.39 years
                                          female: 48.64 years (2002 est.)
                                          male: 46.18 years
                    Total fertility rate: 6.73 children born/woman (2002 est.)
        HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.7% (2001 est.)
       HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 140,000 (2001 est.)
                       HIV/AIDS - deaths: 9,900 (1999 est.)
                             Nationality: noun: Malian(s)
                                          adjective: Malian
                           Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke,
                                          Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%,
                                          Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%,
                                          other 5%
                               Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%,
                                          Christian 1%
                               Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%,
                                          numerous African languages
                                Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
                                          and write
                                          total population: 38%
                                          male: 45%
                                          female: 31% (1998 est.)
     Government Mali
                            Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
                                          conventional short form: Mali
                                          local short form: Mali
                                          former: French Sudan and Sudanese
                                          local long form: Republique de Mali
                         Government type: republic
                                 Capital: Bamako
                Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular -
                                          region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal,
                                          Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso,
                            Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)
                        National holiday: Independence Day, 22 September
                            Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992
                            Legal system: based on French civil law system and
                                          customary law; judicial review of
                                          legislative acts in Constitutional
                                          Court (which was formally
                                          established on 9 March 1994); has
                                          not accepted compulsory ICJ
                                Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
                        Executive branch: chief of state: President Amadou
                                          Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
                                          head of government: Prime Minister
                                          Modibo KEITA (since 18 March 2002)
                                          cabinet: Council of Ministers
                                          appointed by the prime minister
                                          elections: president elected by
                                          popular vote for a five-year term
                                          (two-term limit); election last held
                                          12 May 2002 (next to be held NA May
                                          2007); prime minister appointed by
                                          the president
                                          election results: Amadou Toumani
                                          TOURE elected president; percent of
                                          vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%,
                                          Soumaila CISSE 35.6%
                      Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
                                          Assemblee Nationale (147 seats;
                                          members are elected by popular vote
                                          to serve five-year terms)
                                          elections: last held 20 July and 3
                                          August 1997 (next to be held NA July
                                          2002); note - much of the opposition
                                          boycotted the election
                                          election results: percent of vote by
                                          party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA
                                          95, RPM 35, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3,
                                          PDP 2
                         Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
           Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA
                                          [Diounconda Traore KEITA, party
                                          chairman]; Block of Alternative for
                                          the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro
                                          DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social
                                          Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary
                                          SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the
                                          Independence, Renaissance and
                                          Integration of Africa or MIRIA
                                          [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou
                                          DICKO]; National Congress for
                                          Democratic Initiative or CNID
                                          [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for
                                          Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me
                                          Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National
                                          Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE,
                                          chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary
                                          general]; Rally for Democracy and
                                          Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally
                                          for Democracy and Progress or RDP
                                          [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for
                                          Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Bonbasor KEITA,
                                          chairman]; Sudanese Union/African
                                          Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou
                                          Bamou TOURE, secretary general];
                                          Union of Democratic Forces for
                                          Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE,
                                          secretary general]; Union for
                                          Democracy and Development or UDD
                                          [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]
            Political pressure groups and Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda
                                 leaders: Koye or MPGK; United Movement and
                                          Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
               International organization ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS,
                           participation: FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
                                          ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
                                          IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
                                          ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, NAM,
                                          OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,
                                          UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional),
                                          WAEMU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
     Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick
                                          Oumar DIARRAH
                                          FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
                                          telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-
                                          chancery: 2130 R Street NW,
                                          Washington, DC 20008
       Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Michael
                                      US: E. RANNEBERGER
                                          embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue
                                          Mohamed V, Bamako
                                          mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
                                          telephone: [223] 22 54 70
                                          FAX: [223] 22 37 12
                        Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green
                                          (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses
                                          the popular pan-African colors of
     Economy Mali
                      Economy - overview: Mali is among the poorest countries
                                          in the world, with 65% of its land
                                          area desert or semidesert. Economic
                                          activity is largely confined to the
                                          riverine area irrigated by the
                                          Niger. About 10% of the population
                                          is nomadic and some 70% of the labor
                                          force is engaged in farming and
                                          fishing. Industrial activity is
                                          concentrated on processing farm
                                          commodities. Mali is heavily
                                          dependent on foreign aid and
                                          vulnerable to fluctuations in world
                                          prices for cotton, its main export.
                                          In 1997, the government continued
                                          its successful implementation of an
                                          IMF-recommended structural
                                          adjustment program that is helping
                                          the economy grow, diversify, and
                                          attract foreign investment. Mali's
                                          adherence to economic reform and the
                                          50% devaluation of the African franc
                                          in January 1994 have pushed up
                                          economic growth to a sturdy 5%
                                          average in 1996-2000. In 2001, GDP
                                          decreased by 1.2% mainly due to a
                                          50% drop in cotton production in
                                     GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.2
                                          billion (2001 est.)
                  GDP - real growth rate: -1.2% (2001 est.)
                        GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $840 (2001
             GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 45%
                                          industry: 17%
                                          services: 38% (2001 est.)
           Population below poverty line: 64% average; 30% of the total
                                          population living in urban areas;
                                          76% of the total population living
                                          in rural areas) (2001 est.)
       Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1.8%
                        percentage share: highest 10%: 40.4% (1994)
     Distribution of family income - Gini 50.5 (1994)
        Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2001 est.)
                             Labor force: 3.93 million (2001 est.)
             Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and fishing 80% (2001
                       Unemployment rate: 14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas
                                          (2001 est.)
                                  Budget: revenues: $764 million
                                          expenditures: $828 million,
                                          including capital expenditures of
                                          $NA (2002 est.)
                              Industries: food processing; construction;
                                          phosphate and gold mining
       Industrial production growth rate: NA
                Electricity - production: 462 million kWh (2000)
      Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 43.29%
                                          hydro: 56.71%
                                          other: 0% (2000)
                                          nuclear: 0%
               Electricity - consumption: 429.66 million kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
                   Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
                  Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn,
                                          vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep,
                                 Exports: $575 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Exports - commodities: cotton 43%, gold 40%, livestock
                                          (2001 est.)
                      Exports - partners: Brazil 10.6%, South Korea 9.9%,
                                          Italy 7.3%, Canada 7% (2000)
                                 Imports: $600 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
                   Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment,
                                          construction materials, petroleum,
                                          foodstuffs, textiles
                      Imports - partners: Cote d'Ivoire 21%, France 12.4%,
                                          Senegal 4%, Germany 4%, Benelux
                         Debt - external: $3.3 billion (2000)
                Economic aid - recipient: $596.4 million (2001)
                                Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          franc (XOF); note - responsible
                                          authority is the Central Bank of the
                                          West African States
                           Currency code: XOF
                          Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine
                                          francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79
                                          (January 2002), 733.04 (2001),
                                          711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95
                                          (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1
                                          January 1999, the XOF is pegged to
                                          the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF
                                          per euro
                             Fiscal year: calendar year
     Communications Mali
          Telephones - main lines in use: 45,000 (2000)
            Telephones - mobile cellular: 40,000 (2001)
                        Telephone system: general assessment: domestic system
                                          unreliable but improving; provides
                                          only minimal service
                                          domestic: network consists of
                                          microwave radio relay, open wire,
                                          and radiotelephone communications
                                          stations; expansion of microwave
                                          radio relay in progress
                                          international: satellite earth
                                          stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
                                          Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
                Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1
                                          note: the shortwave station in
                                          Bamako has seven frequencies and
                                          five transmitters and relays
                                          broadcasts for China Radio
                                          International (2001)
                                  Radios: 570,000 (1997)
           Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus repeaters) (2001)
                             Televisions: 45,000 (1997)
                   Internet country code: .ml
       Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (2001)
                          Internet users: 10,000 (2000)
     Transportation Mali
                                Railways: total: 729 km
                                          narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge
                                          note: linked to Senegal's rail
                                          system through Kayes (2001)
                                Highways: total: 15,100 km
                                          paved: 1,827 km
                                          unpaved: 13,273 km (1996)
                               Waterways: 1,815 km
                       Ports and harbors: Koulikoro
                                Airports: 27 (2001)
           Airports - with paved runways: total: 7
                                          2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)
         Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 20
                                          1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
                                          914 to 1,523 m: 7
                                          under 914 m: 9 (2001)
     Military Mali
                        Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie,
                                           Republican Guard, National Guard,
                                           National Police (Surete Nationale)
         Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,369,578 (2002
      Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,358,646 (2002
                                  service: est.)
            Military expenditures - dollar $50 million (FY01)
        Military expenditures - percent of 2% (FY01)
     Transnational Issues Mali
                                                Disputes - international: none

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